Hinduism

Yajnavalkya Compiler Shukla Yajur Veda Satapatha Brahmanas


Of the Four Vedas, Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva,Yajur veda has two aspects.

Krishna Yajur and

Shukla Yajur.

Sage Yajnavalkya.jpg Sage Yajnavalkya.

The Shukla Yajur Mantras are longer and more detailed.

The reason attributed is that though these Mantras have been revealed by Lord Surya, The Sun God directly to Sage Yajnyavalkya, as these Mantras were not initiated by a Guru, as recommended by the Vedas, more Mantras are provided to compensate the issue of not being initiated bya Guru.

Yajnyavalkya was a Disciple of Vaisampayana.

The Sages used to meet often to exchange views on the Vedas, much like the Academics of today.

On one such occasion, Vaisampayana asked one of his disciples(Not Yajnyavalkya) to represent him.

Yajnavalkya informed the Guru that he would represent him and he argued with Vaisampayana on this issue.

Annoyed Vaisampayana admonished Yajnavalkya for questioning the Guru, being argumentative and advised Yajnyavalkya to leave  after returning the Vedas he had learnt.

Yajnavalkya is the first recorded Sage in History.

As per the demands of his Guru, Yājñavalkya vomited all the knowledge that he acquired from his teacher in form of digested food. Other disciples of Vaisampayana took the form ofpartridge birds and consumed the digested knowledge (a metaphor for knowledge in its simplified form without the complexities of the whole but the simplicity of parts) because it was knowledge and they were very eager to receive the same.

The Saṃskṛt name for partridge is “Tittiri”. As the Tittiri (partridge) birds ate this Veda, it is thenceforth called the Taittirīya Yajurveda. It is also known as Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda or Black-Yajurveda on account of it being a vomited substance. The Taittirīya Saṃhitā thus belongs to this Yajurveda.

Then Yājñavalkya determined not to have any human guru thereafter. Thus he began to propitiate the Sun God, Surya. Yājñavalkya worshipped and extolled the Sun, the master of the Vedas, for the purpose of acquiring the fresh Vedic portions not known to his preceptor, Vaiśampāyana.

The Sun God, pleased with Yājñavalkya penance, assumed the form of a horse and graced the sage with such fresh portions of the Yajurveda as were not known to any other. This portion of the Yajurveda goes by the name of Śukla Yajurveda or White-Yajurveda on account of it being revealed by Sun. It is also known as Vajasaneya Yajurveda, because it was evolved in great rapidity by Sun who was in the form of a horse through his manes.The rhythm of recital of these vedas is therefore to the rhythm of the horse canter and distinguishes itself from the other forms of veda recitals. In Sanskrit, term “Vaji” means horse. Yājñavalkya divided this Vajasaneya Yajurveda again into fifteen branches, each branch comprising hundreds of Yajus Mantras. Sages like Kanva, Madhyandina and others learnt those and Śukla Yajurveda branched into popular recensions named after them.

It is important to note that within the hierarchy of Brāhmaṇas, certain sects believe in the Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda while others practice from the Śukla Yajurveda.

Yājñavalkya married two wives. One was Maitreyi and the other Katyaayanee. Of the two, Maitreyi was a Brahmavadini (one who is interested in the knowledge of Brahman).The descendant sects of Brahmans are the progeny of the first wife Katyaayanee. When Yājñavalkya wished to divide his property between the two wives, Maitreyi asked whether she could become immortal through wealth. Yājñavalkya replied that there was no hope of immortality through wealth and that she would only become one among the many who were well-to-do on. When she heard this, Maitreyi asked Yājñavalkya to teach her what he considered as the best. Then Yājñavalkya described to her the greatness of the Absolute Self, the nature of its existence, the way of attaining infinite knowledge and immortality, etc. This immortal conversation between Yājñavalkya and Maitreyi is recorded in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.

Wisdom of Yājñavalkya is shown in Brhadaranyaka Upanishad where he gives his teachings to his wife Maitreyi and King Janaka.[6] He also participates in a competition arranged by King Janaka about the selecting great Brhama Jnani (knower of Brahman). His intellectual dialogues with Gargi (a learned scholar of the times) form a beautiful chapter filled with lot of philosophical and mystical question-answers in Brhadaranyaka Upanishad. He was then praised as the greatest Brahmajnyani by all the sages at the function organised by king Janaka. In the end, Yājñavalkya took Vidvat Sanyasa (renunciation after the attainment of the knowledge of Brahman) and retired to the forest..

Satahapatha Brahmanas.

This deals more with the Karma Kanda, performance of Rituals.

The Shatapatha Brahmana (शतपथ ब्राह्मण śatapatha brāhmaṇa, “Brahmana of one hundred paths”, abbreviated ŚB) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual, associated with the Shukla Yajurveda.[1] It survives in two recensions, Madhyandina (ŚBM, of the vājasaneyi madhyandina śākhā) and Kanva (ŚBK, of the kāṇva śākhā), with the former having the eponymous 100 chapters (adhyayas), 7,624 kandikas (parts) in 14 books, and the latter 104 chapters, 6,806 kandikas in 17 books.

Linguistically, the Shatapatha Brahmana belongs to the later part of the Brahmana period of Vedic Sanskrit (i.e. roughly the 8th to 6th centuries BCE, Iron Age India).[2]

Jan N. Bremmer dates it to around 700 BCE.[3] According to Julius Eggeling, the final version of the text was committed in 300 BCE, although some of its portions are “far older, transmitted orally from unknown antiquity”.

Among the points of interest in the text are its mythological sections, including the myths of creation and the Deluge of Manu.The creation myth has several similarities to other creation myths, including the use of primordial water (similar to the Bible), the explanation of light and darkness, the separation of good and evil, and the explanation of time. The text describes in great detail the preparation of altars, ceremonial objects, ritual recitations, and the Soma libation, along with the symbolic attributes of every aspect of the rituals.

The 14 books of the Madhyandina recension can be divided into two major parts. The first 9 books have close textual commentaries, often line by line, of the first 18 books of the corresponding samhita of the Yajurveda. The following 5 books cover supplementary and ritualistically newer material, besides including the celebrated Brhadaranyaka Upanishad as most of the 14th and last book.

The Shatapatha Brahmana of Madhyandina School was translated into English by Julius Eggeling, in the late 19th century, in 5 volumes published as part of the Sacred Books of the East series. The English translation of Kanva School was done by W.E. Caland in 3 parts.

Citations.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shatapatha_Brahmana

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yajnavalkya

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Hinduism

Vimana Aircraft Types From Rig Veda Purana Kalidasa


I have written on the types of Vimanas referred to in ancient Texts.

Aircarft Drawing done in 1923 Based on Ancient Vimana Texts of India.jpg Aircraft Drawing done in 1923 Based on Ancient Vimana Texts of India.

Rig Veda

I have also written on the Aircraft designed and flown by Talpade in India, based on these ancient texts of Bharadwaja.

Rotating Vimanas,

Skyscrapers,

Private Aircrafts

Robots and space technology

I have posted articles on these as well.

here I present some texts and more references from the Rig Veda,Agastya Samhita.Artha Sastra and Kalidasa’s Vikramorvasiyaa.

 The Rig-Veda, the oldest document of the human race includes references to the following modes of transportation: Jalayan a vehicle designed to operate in air and water (Rig Veda 6.58.3).

Kaara- Kaara- Kaara- a vehicle that operates on ground and in water.

(Rig Veda 9.14.1)

Tritala- Tritala- Tritala- a vehicle consisting of three stories.

(Rig Veda 3.14.1);

Trichakra Ratha, Trichakra Ratha, Trichakra Ratha,
a three-wheeled vehicle designed to operate in the air.

(Rig Veda 4.36.1)

Vaayu Ratha, a gas or wind-powered chariot. 

(Rig Veda 5.41.6)

Vidyut Ratha a vehicle that operates on electromagnetic power.

(Rig Veda 3.14.1).

              The “Agastya Samhita” gives us Agastya’s descriptions of two types of aeroplanes. The first is a “chchatra” (umbrella or balloon) to be filled with hydrogen. The process of extracting hydrogen from water is described in elaborate detail and the use of electricity in achieving this is clearly stated. This was stated to be a primitive type of plane, useful only for escaping from a fort when the enemy had set fire to the jungle all around. Hence the name “Agniyana”. The second type of aircraft mentioned is somewhat on the lines of the parachute. It could be opened and shut by operating chords. This aircraft has been described as “vimanadvigunam” i.e. of a lower order than the regular aeroplane. Bhardwaja’s “Vaimanika Shastra” not only gives information on his methods of aeroplane construction but also provides a bibliography. He had consulted six treatises by six different authors previous to him. After him too there have been four commentaries on his work. Planes which will not break (abhedya), or catch fire (adaahya) and which cannot be cut (achchedya) have also been described. Along with the treatise there are diagrams of three types of aeroplanes , “Sundara”, “Shukana” and “Rukma”. It appears that aerial warfare was also not unknown, for the treatise gives the technique of “shatru vimana kampana kriya” and “shatru vimana nashana kriya” i.e. shaking and destroying enemy aircraft, as well as photographing enemy planes, rendering their occupants unconscious and making one’s own plane invisible.
 
         The Arthasastra of Kautilya (c. 3rd century B.C.) mentions amongst various tradesmen and technocrats the Saubhikas as ‘pilots conducting vehicles in the sky’. Saubha was the name of the aerial flying city of King Harishchandra and the form ‘Saubika’ means ‘one who flies or knows the art of flying an aerial city’. Kautilya uses another significant word ‘Akasa Yodhinah’, which has been translated as ‘persons who are trained to fight from the sky.’ The existence of aerial chariots, in whatever form it might be, was so well-known that it found a place among the royal edicts of the Emperor Asoka which were executed during his reign from 256 B.C. – 237 B. C. Only a few years ago, the Chinese discovered some Sanskrit documents in Lhasa, Tibet and sent them to the University of Chandrigarh to be translated. Dr. Ruth Reyna of the university said that the documents contain directions for building interstellar spaceships! The Chinese announced that they were including certain parts of the documents for study in their space program(* I had written on the ancient Sanskrit Texts found in Lhasa, Tibet)..’

The Rig Veda, the oldest document of the human race includes references to the following modes of transportation:

  • Jalayan – a vehicle designed to operate in air and water. (Rig Veda 6.58.3)
  • Kaara- Kaara- Kaara- a vehicle that operates on ground and in water. (Rig Veda 9.14.1)
  • Tritala- Tritala- Tritala- a vehicle consisting of three stories. (Rig Veda 3.14.1)
  • Trichakra Ratha – Trichakra Ratha – Trichakra Ratha – a three-wheeled vehicle designed to operate in the air. (Rig Veda 4.36.1)
  • Vaayu Ratha- Vaayu Ratha- Vaayu Ratha- a gas or wind-powered chariot. (Rig Veda 5.41.6)
  • Vidyut Ratha- Vidyut Ratha- Vidyut Ratha- a vehicle that operates on power. (Rig Veda 3.14.1).

Kathasaritsagara refers to highly talented woodworkers called Rajyadhara and Pranadhara. The former was so skilled in mechanical contrivances that he could make ocean crossing chariots. And the latter manufactured a flying chariot to carry a thousand passengers in the air. These chariots were stated to be as fast as thought itself. (source: India Through The Ages: History, Art Culture and Religion – By G. Kuppuram p. 532-533).


According to Dr. Vyacheslav Zaitsev:

“the holy Indian Sages, the Ramayana for one, tell of “Two storied celestial chariots with many windows” “They roar like off into the sky until they appear like comets.” The Mahabharata and various Sanskrit books describe at length these chariots, “powered by winged lighting…it was a ship that soared into the air, flying to both the solar and stellar regions.”
(source: Temples and Spaceships – By V. Zaitsev – Sputnik, Jan. 1967 and Hinduism in the Space Age – By E. Vedavyas p. 31-32

The mention of airplanes is found many times throughout Vedic literature, including the following verse from the Yajur-Veda describing the movement of such machines:

“O royal skilled engineer, construct sea-boats, propelled on water by our experts, and airplanes, moving and flying upward, after the clouds that reside in the mid-region, that fly as the boats move on the sea, that fly high over and below the watery clouds. Be thou, thereby, prosperous in this world created by the Omnipresent God, and flier in both air and lightening. (Yajur Veda, 10.19)

The Rig Veda, the oldest document of the human race includes references to the following modes of transportation:

  • Jalayan – a vehicle designed to operate in air and water. (Rig Veda 6.58.3)
  • Kaara- Kaara- Kaara- a vehicle that operates on ground and in water. (Rig Veda 9.14.1)
  • Tritala- Tritala- Tritala- a vehicle consisting of three stories. (Rig Veda 3.14.1)
  • Trichakra Ratha – Trichakra Ratha – Trichakra Ratha – a three-wheeled vehicle designed to operate in the air. (Rig Veda 4.36.1)
  • Vaayu Ratha- Vaayu Ratha- Vaayu Ratha- a gas or wind-powered chariot. (Rig Veda 5.41.6)
  • Vidyut Ratha- Vidyut Ratha- Vidyut Ratha- a vehicle that operates on power. (Rig Veda 3.14.1).

Kathasaritsagara refers to highly talented woodworkers called Rajyadhara and Pranadhara. The former was so skilled in mechanical contrivances that he could make ocean crossing chariots. And the latter manufactured a flying chariot to carry a thousand passengers in the air. These chariots were stated to be as fast as thought itself. (source: India Through The Ages: History, Art Culture and Religion – By G. Kuppuram p. 532-533).


According to Dr. Vyacheslav Zaitsev:

“the holy Indian Sages, the Ramayana for one, tell of “Two storied celestial chariots with many windows” “They roar like off into the sky until they appear like comets.” The Mahabharata and various Sanskrit books describe at length these chariots, “powered by winged lighting…it was a ship that soared into the air, flying to both the solar and stellar regions.”
(source: Temples and Spaceships – By V. Zaitsev – Sputnik, Jan. 1967 and Hinduism in the Space Age – By E. Vedavyas p. 31-32

Vimanas  in Ramayana.

It was capable of accommodating all the vanaras besides Rama, Sita and Lakshman.

             Again in the Vikramaurvaisya, we are told that king Puraravas rode in an aerial car to rescue Urvasi in pursuit of the Danava who was carrying her away. Similarly in the Uttararamacarita in the flight between Lava and Candraketu (Act VI) a number of aerial cars are mentioned as bearing celestial spectators. There is a statement in the Harsacarita of Yavanas being acquainted with aerial machines. The Tamil work Jivakacintamani refers to Jivaka flying through the air. Kathasaritsagara refers to highly talented woodworkers called Rajyadhara and Pranadhara. The former was so skilled in mechanical contrivances that he could make ocean crossing chariots. And the latter manufactured a flying chariot to carry a thousand passengers in the air. These chariots were stated to be as fast as thought itself.

The Arthasastra of Kautilya (c. 3rd century B.C.) mentions amongst various tradesmen and technocrats the Saubhikas as ‘ pilots conducting vehicles in the sky’. Saubha was the name of the aerial flying city of King Harishchandra and the form ‘Saubika’ means ‘one who flies or knows the art of flying an aerial city.’ Kautilya uses another significant word ‘Akasa Yodhinah’, which has been translated as ‘persons who are trained to fight from the sky.’ The existence of aerial chariots, in whatever form it might be, was so well-known that it found a place among the royal edicts of the Emperor Asoka which were executed during his reign from 256 B.C. – 237 B. C. The Vaimanika Shastra (Hindi edn) refers to about 97 works and authorities of yore of which at least 20 works deal with the mechanism of aerial Flying Machine, but none of these works is now traceable. The Yuktikalpataru of Bhoja includes a reference to aerial cars in verses 48-50 and a manuscript of the work belonging to the Calcutta Sanskrit College dated at 1870 A.D.

We are thus in possession of some manuscript material and from the above it appears that there were Vimanas or aircrafts in ancient India and they followed the route over the western sea i.e. Arabian Sea – Africa – Atlantic ocean – Latin America/Mexico, this being the shortest route.

Some ships also might have followed this route, but most of the cargo ships, however, had to follow the longer route over the Pacific ocean via Indonesia – Polynesia – Latin America/Mexico because of the favorable trade winds and the equatorial currents which made the navigation easier.

And if the ancient Indians could perhaps boast of some form of air travel the Nazca lines of Peru acquire an added significance. Not only the scriptural references of aircrafts and the routes of navigation, even some base landing sites might have possibly been found in the tangled outlines and figures in the Pampas of Nazca. Maria Reiche, a German scientist, through her life-long dedication studied these seriously, preserved them from destruction and publicized them before the world. The huge figures which are visible from the sky might have helped the ancient pilots (Sauvikas) of India to land in Peru.

(For more information please refer to Chapters on Pacific, Suvarnabhumi, War in Ancient India, Hindu Scriptures and Seafaring in Ancient India).


The Nazca lines of Peru seem to be landing signal for the air chariots of pre-Colombian times. There are several references in Sanskrit texts about the Indian Vimanas carrying kings and dignitaries to pataldesa.Ramayana describes Ravana’s flight from Varunalaya (Borneo) to Rasatala (Peru).


Prof. D. K. Kanjilal analyses the legend of the Matsya Purana (chapters 129) in his Vimana in Ancient India in the following words:

“Behind the veil of legend and scientific truth comes out that three flying-cities were made for and were used by the demons. Of these three, one was in a stationary orbit in the sky, another moving in the sky and one was permanently stationed in the ground. These were docked like modern spaceships in the sky at particular time and at fixed latitude/longitudes. Siva’s arrow obviously referred to ablazing missile fired from a flying satellite specially built for the purpose and the brunt spaceship fell in the Indian ocean. Vestiges of onetime prosperous civilization destroyed in battles only flicker through these legends.


These references sharply point to the use of some kind of aerial flying vehicles known as Vimana apart from mechanical contrivances, armored cars, various types of missiles etc. These references sounding queer and unscientific even in recent past have been approximated to the present-day technology through the innovation of highly sophisticated weapons and of the space-satellites likeMariner, Vostok, Soyuz, Aryabhatta etc. These facts require more than a passing notice.


The flying vehicles were firstly designated Ratha (vehicle or carriage) in the Rig Veda. Vimanas possessed a very high speed. This aerial vehicle was triangular, large, 3-tier uneven and was piloted by at least three persons (tribandhura). It has three wheels which were probably withdrawn during aerial flight. In one verse the chariot is said to have three columns. It was generally made of anyone of the three kinds of metals, gold, silver or iron but the metal which usually went into its make up according to the Vedic text was gold. It looked beautiful. Long nails or rivets were attached to it. The chariot had three types of fuel. Possessing very fast speed, it moved like a bird in the sky soaring towards the Sun and the Moon and used to come down to the earth with great sound”.

(source: The Indians And The Amerindians

By Dr. S. Chakravarti p.141-146).

In addition to the Vaimanika Shashtra, the Samarangana Sutradhara and the Yuktikalpataru of Bhoja, there are about 150 verses of the Rig Veda, Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda, a lot of literary passages belonging to the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Puranas, the Bhagavata and the Raghuvamsa and some references of the darma Abhijnanasakuntalam of Kalidasa, the Abimaraka of Bhasa, the Jatalas.

The Avadhana Literature and of the Kathasaritsagara and a number of literary works contained either references to graphic aerial flight or to the mechanism of the aerial vehicles used in old ages in India. In the Ramayana both the words “Vimana” and “Ratha” have been used:

  • Kamagam ratham asthaya…nadanadipatim (3. 35. 6-7). He boarded the aerial vehicle with Khara which was decorated with jewels and the faces of demons and it moved with noise resembling the sonorous clouds.
  • You may go to your desired place after enticing Sita and I shall bring her to Lanka by air.. So Ravana and Maricha boarded the aerial vehicle resembling a palace (Vimana) from that hermitage.
  • Then the demons brought the Puspaka aerial vehicle and placed Sita on it by bringing her from the Ashoka forest and she was made to see the battle field with Trijata.
  • This aerial vehicle marked with Swan soared into the sky with loud noise.

Reference to Flying vehicles as Vimana occur in the Mahabharata in about 41 places of which the air attack of Salva on Krisna‘s capital Dwaraka deserve special notice. The Asura king Salva had an aerial flying machine known as Saubha-pura in which he came to attack Dwaraka.


He began to shower hails, and missiles from the sky. As Krishna chased him he went near the sea and landed in the high seas. Then he came back again with his flying machine and gave a tough fight to Krishna staying about one Krosa (about 4,000 ft) above the ground level. Krishna at last threw a powerful ground-to-air weapon which hit the plane in the middle and broke it into pieces. The damaged flying machine fell into the seas. This vivid description of the air attack occurs in the Bhagavata also. We also come across the following references to missiles, armaments, sophisticated war-machines and mechanical contrivances as well as to Vimanas in Mahabharata.

The inscriptions of emperor Asoka are by far the most authentic records in support of the existence of aerial flying vehicles which are mentioned as Vimana. The existence of aerial chariots in whatever form it might be was so well-known that it found a place among the royal edicts of the Emperor Asoka which were executed during his reign from 256 B.C.- 237 B.C. Vatsyana in his Kama Sutra referred to mechanical contrivances in their origin among 64 ancillary Sciences.

The Arthasastra of Kautilya (3rd century B.C), a treatise mainly dealing with political economy but containing information on kindred scientific topics refers to a class of mechanic known as Saubhika…

8. Sundara Vimana: Vertical Section

A discussion regarding the existence of and the use of flying vehicles in ancient India naturally waits for an advanced state of knowledge in cosmogony. A close and careful study of the Vedic literature shows that it was not just a collection of primeval poetry but a varied literature of a powerful and dynamic society where the people had the knowledge of cloud and vapor, of the season and of the monsoon, of the different types of wind, of the expanse of the sky, of the strength of the wind blowing at high speed and so on.

Three types of cloud have been referred to in the Rig Veda (1.101.4). which also states that smoke and vapor surcharged with water turn into cloud. Formation of vapor through heat and the subsequent formation of cloud has been referred to in the Vedas. Indian meteorological concepts thus date back to the age of the Rig Veda.

Citations.

http://trusciencetrutechnolgy.blogspot.in/2013_07_01_archive.html

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vimanas/esp_vimanas_2a.htm

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Hinduism

Moon Dial Konark Calculate To A Minute Sun Dial


Many of us are aware of Sun Dials.

Sun Dial, Konark,India.png Sun Dial, Konark,India.

Many would have visited the one at New Delhi.

But how does one calculate Time with the help of a Sun Dial?

Take the famous Sun Dial at Konark, Odisha, India.

There are eight spokes in the Wheel.

‘The sundial has 8 major spokes that divide 24 hours into 8 equal parts, which means that the time between two major spokes is 3 hours. There are 8 minor spokes as well. Each minor spoke runs exactly in the middle of 2 major spokes. This means that the minor spoke divides the 3 hours in half, so the time between a major spoke and a minor spoke is an hour and half or 90 minutes.

Now, at the edge of the wheel, you can see a lot of beads. If you observe carefully, you can see that there are 30 beads between a minor and a major spoke. So, the 90 minutes are further divided by 30 beads. This means that each bead carries a value of 3 minutes. The beads are large enough, so you can also see if the shadow falls in the center of the bead or on one of the ends of the bead. This way we can further calculate time accurately to the minute.

The sundial shows time in an anti-clockwise fashion. At the top, the major spoke stands for midnight and this spoke stands for 3 A.M and this one for 6 A.M and so on. When I place a finger or a pen at the tail of the animal in the axle, the shadow will fall on the edge of the wheel. Now, I simply note the bead where the shadow falls. Using the math we did before, I can easily tell the current time precisely down to the minute. Imagine how much time and coordination would have happened between the astronomers, engineers and sculptors to create something like this 750 years ago.

Now if you are observing closely, you would have 2 questions in your mind right now. The first question would be, what happens when the sun moves from east to west. Since the wheel is carved on a wall, the sun would not shine on this wheel at all. How can we tell time in the afternoons? Now, the Konark temple has another wheel or sundial, located on the west side of the temple as well. You can just use the other sundial that will work perfectly from afternoon, until sunset.

This is the second and the most interesting question. How do you tell time after sunset? There would be no sun, and hence no shadows from sunset till the next morning’s sunrise. After all, we have 2 sundials in the temple which work only when the sun shines. To this question, I want to point out that the Konark temple does not have just 2 wheels like this. The temple has a total of 24 wheels, all accurately carved just like the sundials. Have you heard of the Moondial? Do you know that the moondials can work just like sun dials during night time? What if the other wheels in the temple could be used as moondials?

Many people think that the other 22 wheels were carved for decorative or religious purposes and do not have an actual use. This is what people thought about the 2 sundials as well. Believe it or not, people thought that all the 24 wheels were just carved for beauty and as Hindu symbols. About 100 years ago, it became known that this was a sundial when an old yogi was seen calculating time secretly. Apparently selected people were using these wheels for generations and for 650 years no one else knew about it. They say that when they asked him about the purpose of the other 22 wheels, the yogi refused to talk and simply walked away.

And our knowledge of just these 2 sundials themselves is actually very limited. You can see how there are multiple circles of beads. You can see carvings and markings all over these sundials, and we don’t the meaning of most of them. For example, this carving on a major spoke has exactly 60 beads. Notice how in some carving you can see leaves and flowers which may mean Spring or Summer. Notice how in some carvings you can see lemurs mating, which only happens during winter. So, these sundials could have even been used as an almanac for a variety of different things. Now you can understand how limited our knowledge is about the rest of the 22 wheels.

Notice that there are clues on these wheels that people have overlooked for centuries. Notice how a woman wakes up and looks at a mirror in the morning. Notice how she is stretching, being tired and ready to go to sleep. And you can also see that she is engaging in sexual activity during night. For centuries, people have ignored these hints and thought that these were carvings of Hindu Goddesses.
This is also a perfect example of how people think ancient unexplainable carvings are just for beauty or religious purposes. If ancient people spent a lot of time creating something, there is a very good chance that it was done for a valuable, scientific purpose.

Moondials are time pieces similar to a sundial. The most basic moondial, which is identical to a sundial, is only accurate on the night of the full moon. Every night after it becomes an additional (on average)[note 1] 48 minutes slow, while every night preceding the full moon it is (again on average) 49 minutes fast, assuming there is even enough light to take a reading by. Thus, one week to either side of the full moon the moondial will read 5 hours and 36 minutes before or after the proper time.

More advanced moondials can include charts showing the exact calculations to get the correct time, as well as dials designed with latitude and longitude in mind.

Citations.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moondial

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9RF9lLBIMs

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Language

Three Hundred Twenty Five Recognised Languages India


India, we all know, is a land of diversity.

Look at the number of languages.

It is curiousthat we have taken English and French into our fold!

 

Agaria,

Ahirani,

Aimol,

Aiton,

Anal,

Andamanese,

Some Languages of India, Scripts.jpg Some Languages of India, Scripts.

Angani,

Angika,

Ao,

Apatani,

Arabic,

Armenian,

Ashing,

Assamese,

Asuri,

Awadhi,

Badaga,

Baghelkhandi,

Bagri,

Baigani,

Bajania,

Balti,

Bangni,

Banjari,

Basturia,

Bauria,

Bawm,

Boli,

Bengali,

Bhanja- bhumia,

Bantu,

Bharmauri,

Bhairi,

Bhili,

Bhojpuri,

Bhotia,

Bhuiya,

Bhumij,

Bhunjia,

Biate,

Bilaspuri,

Birhor,

Birjia,

Bishnupriya,

Bodo,

Bokar,

Bondo,

bori,

Braj Bhasha,

Brijlal,

Bugun,

Bundelkhandi,

Burmese,

Bushari,

Chakhesang,

Chakma,

Chambilai,

Chameali,

Chang,

Changpa,

Chattisgarhi,

Chikari,

Chinali,

Chiru,

Chote,

Churasi,

Dalu,

Deori,

Dhanki,

Dhimal,

Dhodia,

Dhundhari,

Didayi,

Dimasa,

Dingal,

Dogri,

Dommari,

Droskhat/Dokpa,

Duhlian-Twang,

English, French, Gadaba, Gadiali, Gallong, Gameti, Gamit, Gangte, Garasia, Garhwali, Garo, Giarahi, Gondi, Gujarati, Gujjari, Gurung, Gutob, Hajong, Halam, Halbi, Harauti, Haryanavi, Hebrew, Himachali, Hindi, Hinduri, Hindusthani, Hmar, Ho, Hrusso, Hualngo,Irula, Jabalpuri, Jangali, Jarawa, Jaunsari, Juang, Kabui, Kachanga, Kachari, Kachchi, Kadar, Kagati, Kakbarak, Kanashi, Kangri, Kannada, Karbi, Karen, Karko, Kashmiri, Kathiawari, Khadiboli, Khaka, Khamba, Khampa, Khampti, Khampti-shan, Kharia, Khasi, Khaskura, Khatri, Kherwari, Khiangan, Khorusti, Khotta, Kinnauri, Kiradi, Kisan, Koch, Kodagu, Koi, Koireng, Kokni, Kolami, Kom, Komkar, Konda, Konicha, Konkani, Konyak, Koracha, Koraga, Korava, Korku, Korwa, Kota, Kotwalia, Kudmali, Kui, Kuki, Kulvi, Kumaoni, Kunbi, Kurukh, Kuvi, Ladakhi, Lahauli, Laihawlh, Lakher (Mara), Lalung,Lambani, Lamgang, Laotian, Laria, Lepcha, Limbu, Lisu, Lodha, Lotha, Lushai, Mag, Magahi, Magarkura, Mahal, Maithili, Majhi, Makrani, Malankudi, Malayalam, Malhar, Malto, Malvi, Manchat, Mandiali, Mangari, Mao, Maram, Marathi, Maria, Maring, Marwari, Mavchi, Meitei, Memba, Mewari, Mewati, Milang, Minyong, Miri, Mishing, Mishmi, Mizo, Monpa, Monsang, Moyon, Muduga, Multani, Mundari, Na, Nagari, Nagpuri, Naikadi, Naiki, Nati, Nepali, Nicobarese, Nimari, Nishi, Nocte, Odki, Onge, Oriya, Padam, Pahari, Paharia, Palilibo, Paite, Panchpargania, Pang, Pangi, Pangwali, Parimu, Parji, Paschima, Pasi, Pashto, Pawri, Pengo, Persian, Phom, Pochury, Punchi, Punjabi, Rai (Raikhura), Rajasthani, Ralte, Ramo, Rathi, Rengma, Riang, Sadri, Sajalong, Sambalpuri, Sangtam, Sansi, Santali, Sadra, Saraji, Sarhodi, Saurashtri, Sema, Sentinelese, Shekhawati, Sherdukpen, Sherpa, Shimong, Shina, Shompen, Sikligar, Sindhi, Singpo, Siraji, Sirmauri, Soliga, Sulung, Surajpuri,Tagin, Tai, Tamang, Tamil,Tangam, Tangkhul, Tangsa, Tataotrong, Telugu, Thado, Thar, Tharu, Tibetan, Toda, Toto, Tulu, Urdu, Vaiphei, Varli, Wagri, Wancho, Yereva, Yerukula, Yimchungre, Zakring (Meyer), Zeliang, Zemi, Zou.

The following information is derived from DM Silveira‘s INDIA BOOK 1994-95, page 61, ISBN 81-900218-2-6 published by Classic Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Goa, India.

The original author of this was Mr. Gurnek Singh

http://www.sanyal.com/india/indlang.html

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Hinduism

Bengal Bangladesh Vali’s Son’s Kingdom, Ancestors Tamils ?


In my search  for detailed information on Sanatana Dharma, I notice some curious points and  I follow the thread.

And I get startling information.

Some of my thoughts are childish, some idiotic , and at times even stupid.

But the results are worth the doubts.

I wondered about the Colour of Rama and Krishna, who are describes as Black.

Rama is from Central India, Ayodhya and Krishna from Dwaraka, West of India.

People of these Geographical areas are fair-skinned while the Dravidians from the South of Vindhyas are dark-skinned.

I found that the ancestor of Rama, Satyavrata Manu migrated from South India.( Please read my post-Rama’s ancestor, Dravida?)

On Krishna I am still searching, though I found He married a Pandyan Princess from Madurai, which is in Tamil Nadu and had his daughter married to a Pandyan Prince!

Area where people speak Bengali. Indian West Bengal and Bangladesh.jpg Area where people speak Bengali. Indian West Bengal and Bangladesh.

Now I wonder about the Bengalis,  (of Indian State of Bengal and Bangladesh) and Tamils.

I have noticed some similarities.

Both are, in general,dark skinned, dusky.

Both consume Rice.

Rice is consumed in South India, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka in large quantities when compared to other states of India, especially North India.

As a matter of fact, These Southern states along with Odisha and Bengal consume more of Rice.

These states form an arc on the eastern seaboard of India.

And like the Tamils, Bengalis are attached to their Language Bengali and like Tamils are highly emotional.

This set me to search for the origin of Bengalis and Bengal.

I found that like the Tamils, they were called as Dasyus, those who were different from the Vedic people in worship.

‘Some references indicate that the primitive people in Bengal were different in ethnicity and culture from the Vedic people beyond the boundary of Aryandom and who were classed as “Dasyus”. The Bhagavata Purana classes them as sinful people while Dharmasutra of Baudhayana prescribes expiatory rites after a journey among the Pundras and Vangas. Mahabharata speaks of Paundraka Vasudeva who was lord of the Pundras and who allied himself with Jarasandha against Krishna. The Mahabharata also speaks of Bengali kings called Chitrasena and Sanudrasena who were defeated by Bhima and Kalidasa mentions Raghu defeating a coalition of Vanga kings’.

Tamils were called Dasyus because they did not worship fire, though they were following the other tenets of the Vedas and had a parallel system of Shiva worship.

Please check my posts on Pre Sanatana Dharma in Dravida.

I appears that Bengal was the Kingdom of Vali’s adopted son.

Their ancestors?

Dravidians.

Tamils?

The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang/Bangathat settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE.

Other accounts speculate that the name is derived from Vanga (Bôngo), which came from the Austric word “Bonga” meaning the Sun-god.

According to the Mahabharata, a number of Puranas and theHarivamsha Vanga was one of the adopted sons of King Vali who founded the Vanga Kingdom.

The Muslim accounts refer that “Bong”, a son of Hind (son of Hām who was a son of Prophet Noah/Nooh) colonised the area for the first time.

The earliest reference to “Vangala” (Bôngal) has been traced in the Nesari plates (805 AD) of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak ofDharmapala as the king of Vangala. The records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, speak of Govindachandra as the ruler of Vangaladesa.[5][6][7] Shams-ud-din Ilyas Shah took the title “Shah-e-Bangla” and united the whole region under one government.

An interesting theory of the origin of the name is provided by Abu’l-Fazl in his Ain-i-Akbari. According to him, “[T]he original name of Bengal was Bung, and the suffix “al” came to be added to it from the fact that the ancient rajahs of this land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called “al”. From this suffix added to the Bung, the name Bengal arose and gained currency

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bengal#Etymology

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanga_Kingdom#Rulers_of_Vanga

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