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Posts Tagged ‘India’

Naval Depatment Of Tamils Ancient India

In Hinduism on February 28, 2015 at 22:07

As I write on the spread of Hinduism, Sanatana Dharma, I wondered about two points.

There is no doubt that the Sanatana dharma of Hindus spread far and wide throughout the world is indisputable considering the archeological finds found throughout the world indicating the presence of Sanatana Dharma.

Two questions remain.

How did people travel so far?

Secondly how did they fight the wars with the foreign invaders when it happened?

Though Puranas and Ithihasa speak of what appears to be beyond Human capacity of crossing the ocean by flying, there ae references that the ancient knew about Ships and warfare.

While one may question as to how Hanuman could fly over  the Ocean to Lanka, Valmiki in the same breath talks of ships!

When Hanuman was crossing the ocean to Lanka, he is compared to a ship tossed by winds on the high seas. Sugriva speaks of Sumatra, Java and even the Red Sea, when sending forth his monkey hosts in quest of Sita.

This only means that though the people during Ramayana knew of ships, yet Hanuman chose to fly.

Indian Ship landing 543 BC

Ships Landing of Prince Vijaya in Sri Lanka – 543 BC from Ajanta Frescos.
Ajanta painting of a later date depict horses and elephants aboard the ship which carried Prince Vijaya to Sri Lanka.
(source: India Through the ages – By K. M. Panikkar).

The Rig Veda mentions “merchants who crowd the great waters with ships”.

The Ramayana speaks of merchants who crossed the sea and bought gifts for the king of Ayodhya.

Manu legislates for safe carriage and freight by river and sea.

In some of the earliest Buddhist literature we read of voyages ‘out of sight’ of land, some lasting six months or so.

“There was also extensive intercourse of India with foreign countries, including the Mediterranean lands and the African continent, naturally led to piracy on the waters. There then arose the need for the protection of sea-borne trade, and we are told that “at the outset the merchant vessels of India carried a small body of trained archers armed with bows and arrows to repulse the attacks of the pirates, but later they employed guns, cannon and other more deadly weapons of warfare with a few wonderful and delusive contrivances.”

-William Vincent pp. 457). These are probably the beginnings of the ancient Indian navy. in The Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients In the Indian Ocean.

The navy is one of the angas (part) of the complete army. Examples of ships being used for military purposes are not lacking. When Vidura scented danger to Kunti’s five sons, he made them escape to the forest with their mother, crossing the Ganges in a boat equipped with weapons having the power of withstanding wind and wave.(Mahabharata Shanti Parva 59,41)

 

Darius launched a maritime expedition under Skylax of Caryanda to the Indus Delta, and during Alexander’s time, again, we read of the people of the Punjab fitting out a fleet. We have the testimony of Arrian to show that the Xathroi (Kshatri), one of the Punjab tribes, supplied Alexander during his return voyage with thirty oared galleys and transport vessels which were built by them.

-Herodotus 517 BC, India and Its Invasion by Alexander p. 156.

 

By regular practice one becomes an adept in fighting from chariot, horses, elephants and boats, and a past-master in archery.”

-Kamandaka (XVI, 50)

 

“Boats should be employed for military purposes when the theatre of hostilities abounded in water.

(Manu Samhita Vii 192)

 

‘The Admiralty as a department of the State may have been a creation of Chandragupta but there is evidence to show that the use of ships and boats was known to the people of the Rg Veda. ”

Early History of India, Vincent Smith P.133.

This exploit you achieved, Asvins in the ocean, where there is nothing to give support, nothing to rest upon, nothing to cling to, that you brought Bhujya, sailing in a hundred oared ship, to his father’s house.

Further on in the Veda, this same vessel is described as a plava which was storm-proof and which presented a pleasing appearance and had wings on its sides. Another reference informs us that Tugra dispatched a fleet of four vessels (Catasro navah) among which was the one referred to above. We may infer from these passages that the Asvins were a great commercial people having their home in a far-off island, and that their ruler Tugra maintained a fleet in the interests of his State. There are also other references in the Rg Veda to show that the ancient Indians were acquainted with the art of navigation. For instance, Varuna is credited with a knowledge of the ocean routes along which vessels sailed.

The Baudhayana Dharmasastra speaks of Samudrasamyanam and interprets it as nava dvipantaragamanam, i.e. sailing to other lands by ships. This very term occurs in the navadhyaksa section of the Kautaliya Arthasastra.

The Puranas have several references to the use of ships and boats. The Markandeya Purana speaks of vessels tossing about on the sea. The Varahapurana refers to the people who sailed far into the ocean in search of pearls and oysters. The ships floated daily on the shoreless, deep and fearful waters of the ocean. We are on firmer ground when we see in the Andhra period their coins marked with ships. The ship building activities were great on the east coast, and the Coromandel coast in particular. From this period to about 15th century A.D. there was a regular intercourse with the islands of the Archipelago most of which were colonized and also with ancient America right across the Pacific as testified to us by the archaeological finds and inscriptions in those parts.

The Pali books of Sri Lanka like the Mahavamsa refers to ocean going vessels carrying 700 passengers. Such frequent intercourse and colonization through the ages could not have been effected without a powerful fleet.

 

 

“Turning to the history of South India, we have evidence to show that the country had trade and culture contacts with foreign countries like Rome in the west and Malay Archipelago and South east Asia in the east. Yavana ships laden with articles of merchandise visited the west coast frequently. There was active foreign trade between Tamil Indian and the outer world at least from the time of Soloman, i.e. about 1000 B.C. Roman historians refer to the commercial intercourse that existed between Rome and South India. In the first century before Christ we hear of a Pandyan embassy to Augustus Caesar. (refer to Periplus translated by Schoff p. 46).

The Sangam classics point to the profession of pearl-diving and sea-fisheries on a large scale. We hear of shipwrecks of the early Tamils saved now and then by Manimekhalai, the goddess of the sea.

(Note: ancient Tamil tradition traces its origins to a submerged island or continent, Kumari Kandam, situated to the south of India. The Tamil epics Shilappadikaram and Manimekhalai provide glorious descriptions of the legendary city and port of Puhar, which the second text says was swallowed by the sea.

 

As in the case of Dwaraka, (please refer to chapter on Dwaraka and Aryan Invasion Theory), initial findings at and off Poompuhar, at the mouth of the Cauvery, show that there may well be a historical basis to this legend: apart from several structures excavated near the shore, such as brick walls, water reservoirs, even a wharf (all dated 200-300 B.C.), a few years ago a structure tantalizingly described as a “U-shaped stone structure” was found five kilometers offshore, at a depth of twenty-three meters; it is about forty meters long and twenty wide, and fishermen traditionally believed that a submerged temple existed at that exact spot. If the structure is confirmed to be man-made (and not a natural formation), its great depth would certainly push back the antiquity of Puhar.

 

Only more systematic explorations along Tamil Nadu’s coast, especially at Poompuhar, Mahabalipuram, and around Kanyakumari (where fishermen have long reported submerged structures too) can throw more light on the lost cities, and on the traditions of Kumari Kandam, which some have sought to identify with the mythical Lemuria…

We have the account of a Cera King conquering the Kadamba in the midst of sea waters. The Cera King Senguttuvan had a fleet with which he defeated the Yavanas who were punished with their hands being tied behind their backs and the pouring of oil on their heads. The Cholas also maintained a strong fleet with which they not only invaded and subjugated Lanka but also undertook overseas expeditions. Among the conquests of Rajaraja, Lanka was one, and his invasion of that island finds expression in the Tiruvalangadu plates, where it is described as follows:

“Rama built, with the aid of the monkeys, a causeway over the sea and then slew with great difficulty the king of Lanka by means of sharp-edged arrows. But Rama was excelled by this (king) whose powerful army crossed the ocean in ships and burnt the king of Lanka.”

 

Citation.

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vimanas/esp_vimanas_11b.htm

You may find interesting material  in the above mentioned site

 

Kohinoor Diamond British Royal Crown Is Bhadrakali’s Eye

In Hinduism on February 24, 2015 at 19:02

The Kohinor Diamond is a cursed one , bringing misfortune to the owner.

 

The Kohinoor Diamond, meaning Mountain of Light in Persian, is now with the British, and is embedded in the Royal Crown.

Kohinoor,

Kohinoor Diamond.jpg

The Kohinoor Diamond.

Was mined in Kolluru Mines, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh,India.

 

It was 793  when it was uncut.

 

It is now a 105.6 metric carats diamond, weighing 21.6 grammes .

 

Exact value of the stone is not known, but in the 1500s it was considered that the diamond’s value corresponds to about half of the world’s total production costs in one day. Of course, with a diamond so unique, it is hard to put a monetary value attached to it.

The fact that it never changed hands through a documented sale doesn’t help our evaluation. The Kohinoor was always stolen, bartered or gifted and never sold.

As comparison the most expensive documented sale of a diamond occurred around 60 years ago, when the Graff pink was sold in Hong Kong for $46 million.

The Graff pink weighs “only” 24,78 carats compared to the 106 carats that the Koh-i-noor weighs though.

Even if the value of the Kohinoor diamond is not known, it is part of the Crown Jewels, and the whole value of the Crown Jewels is between $10 and $12 billion.

 Kohinoor was the Eye of  Bhadrakali in Warangal,Andhra Pradesh.

 

It was donated by the Kakatiya Kings.

 

In 1323,Ghiyath al-dhin Thughlak  defeatedthe Kakatiyas and true to Islamic style vandalised the Temple and took away the Kohinoor.

 

Bhadrakali, Warangal.jpg

Bhadrakali, Warangal,where Kohinoor adorned Here

 

He was late killed by his son.

The Kohinoor changed many hands before it landed with the Maharaja Of Punjab, Maharaja Ranjith Singh.

He donated the Kohinoor to Puri Jagannath Temple and died.

The British refused to hand over the diamond to the Temple.

In 1850, the Kohinoor was stolen and was delivered to the British.

Konhnoor and Queen Elizabeth. Image.jpg

Fearing the Curse, the present Queen Elizabeth avoids wearing the Kohinoor and wears the Imperial State Crown.

The diamond remained with Khilji dynasty, and later passed on to the succeeding dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate, until it came into the possession of Babur, a Turco-Mongol war lord, who invaded India and established the Mughal Empire in 1526. He called the stone ‘the Diamond of Bābur’ at the time, although it had been called by other names before it came into his possession. Both Babur and his son and successor, Humayun mention in their memoirs the origins of ‘the Diamond of Bābur’.

A 1757 miniature of Ahmad Shāh Durrānī, the Emir of Afghanistan, in which the Koh-i-Noor diamond is seen hanging on the front of hiscrown, above his forehead.

The diamond remained locked in the Mughal treasury until it was taken out by Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal emperor. Shah Jahan, famous for building the Taj Mahal in Agra, had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne. His son, Aurangazeb, imprisoned his ailing father at nearby Agra Fort. While in the possession of Aurangazeb, it was cut by Hortenso Borgia, a Venetian lapidary, who was so clumsy that he reduced the weight of the stone to 186 carats.[12] Legend has it that he had the Koh-i-Noor positioned near a window so that Shāh Jahān could see the Tāj Mahal only by looking at its reflection in the stone. Following the invasion of Nadir Shah, the ruler of Afsharid Persia in 1739 and the sacking of Agra and Delhi. Along with the Peacock Throne, he also carried off the Koh-i-Noor to Persia in 1739. It was allegedly Nādir Shāh who exclaimed Koh-i-Noor! when he finally managed to obtain the famous stone,[4] and this is how the stone gained its present name. There is no reference to this name before 1739.

The valuation of the Koh-i-Noor is given in the legend that one of Nader Shah’s consorts supposedly said, “If a strong man should take five stones, and throw one north, one south, one east, and one west, and the last straight up into the air, and the space between filled with gold and gems, that would equal the value of the Koh-i-Noor.”

After the assassination of Nādir Shāh in 1747, the stone came into the hands of his general, Ahmad Shāh Durrānī, who later became the Emir of Afghanistan. In 1830, Shujāh Shāh Durrānī, the deposed Emir of Afghanistan and a descendant of Ahmad Shah Durrani, managed to flee with the diamond. He went to Lahore where the Sikh Maharaja Ranjit Singh forced him to surrender the stone and took its possession.’

Britain is still hand over the Kohinoor Diamond to india, despite repeated demands.

Read the sordid story as to how the British acquired the Kohinoor at,

Citation.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koh-i-Noor

 

http://www.indiadivine.org/news/articles-on-hinduism/the-kohinoor-diamond-in-the-british-crown-jewel-r751

Computer Friendly Sanskrit How NASA Mission Sanskrit

In Hinduism on February 13, 2015 at 10:19

I had made  passing remarks on how Sanskrit sits at the top of world languages and it is Computer Programing Friendly.

How?

Sanskrit for NASA for Mission.jpg

Sanskrit for NASA for Mission.

 

‘Very soon the traditional Indian language Sanskrit will be a part of the space, with the United States of America (USA) mulling to use it as computer language at NASA. After the refusal of the Indian Sanskrit scholars to help them acquire command over the language, US has urged its young generation to learn Sanskrit.( source. http://www.ibtl.in/news/international/1815/nasa-to-echo-sanskrit-in-space-website-confirms-its-mission-sanskrit/)

# संस्कृत बनेगी नासा की भाषा, पढ़ने से गणित और विज्ञान की शिक्षा में आसानी
On visit to Agra, Aurobindo Foundation (Indian Culture) Puducherry Director Sampadananda Mishra told Dainik Jagran about the prospects of Sanskrit. Mishra said, “In 1985, NASA scientist Rick Briggs had invited 1,000 Sanskrit scholars from India for working at NASA. But scholars refused to allow the language to be put to foreign use.”

The NASA website also confirms its Mission Sanskrit and describes it as the best language for computers. The website clearly mentions that NASA has spent a large sum of time and money on the project during the last two decades.”

How Friendly is Sanskrit to Computer Programming.

Given below is our sample sentence.  It appears in the text राजनीतिसमुच्चय authored by आचार्य चाणक्य |

मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः । which means..

A stupid person must be avoided. He is like a two-legged animal in-front of the eyes.

Now, let’s get back to our good old Q & A format.

Q) Are you sure, the English translation you have provided is correct ? Else, why are there only 5 words in the Sanskrit version but so many words in the English version ?
A) Of course, the translation I provided is absolutely correct. But your doubt is also genuine. To know why the Sanskrit version is so economic in the usage of words, we need to first understand it’s structure.

Q) Umm hmm, go on..
A) As mentioned in the first article of the series, the words in Sanskrit represent properties.  So the 5 words used in this sentence also represent properties.
मूर्ख = (the property of being) stupid
परिहर्तव्य = (the property that makes one) avoidable (by others)
प्रत्यक्ष = (the property of being) in front of the eyes
द्विपद = (the property of) having two legs
पशु = (the property of usually being) tethered

But, in spoken language, we always refer to objects and not properties. (The object being referred to need not exist in the real world. It is sufficient if it exists in the speaker’s imagination.)  So we need a way to force the above words to represent objects rather than properties. That way of forcing a word(which represents a property) to represent an object is called vibhakti.

So, मूर्ख represents the property of being stupid, but मूर्खः (which is a vibhakti of the word मूर्ख) represents an object/person who is stupid. Here, मूर्खः is called the first vibhakti of the word मूर्ख | Similarly, परिहर्तव्यः is the first vibhakti of the word परिहर्तव्य | So, we have
परिहर्तव्यः = an object/person who must be avoided
प्रत्यक्षःan object/person located in front of the eyes
द्विपदः = a object/creature having two legs
पशुः = an object/creature who is tethered = a beast or cattle (because usually beast or cattle is tethered)

Q) Hmm, cool. So this sentence has five words which represent 5 properties. But we converted the 5 words into their first vibhaktis. So the 5 new converted words represent 5 objects having those 5 properties. Am I right ?
A) Yes, absolutely.

Q) So far we have 5 different (vibhaktified) words representing 5 different objects having 5 different properties. How does this help in making a meaningful sentence. ?
A) Here comes the climax. There is a rule of Sanskrit Grammar which states that words having the same vibhakti represent the same object and not different objects! So the 5 different (vibhaktified) words actually do not represent 5 different objects, rather they are like pointers that point to the same object because they all have the same vibhakti viz. first vibhakti!”

 

The same mechanism is explained below graphically.

Demo of Sanskrit as Computer freindly.jpg

Demo of Sanskrit as Computer freindly.

Q) Wow! So a typical word in Sanskrit is like class in Java(without methods) and the vibhaktified form of that word is like a pointer to an object of that class. Right ?
A) Yes! You got it.  And not just that. There are actually 8 kinds of vibhaktis in all. In this article, we have considered only the first of those 8 kinds of vibhaktis.

 

Artificial Intelligence.

‘There is at least one language, Sanskrit, which for the duration of almost 1,000 years was a living spoken language with a considerable literature of its own. Besides works of literary value, there was a long philosophical and grammatical tradition that has continued to exist with undiminished vigor until the present century. Among the accomplishments of the grammarians can be reckoned a method for paraphrasing Sanskrit in a manner that is identical not only in essence but in form with current work in Artificial Intelligence. This article demonstrates that a natural language can serve as an artificial language also, and that much work in AI has been reinventing a wheel millenia old.

Computer Programming with Sanskrit.jpg

Computer Programming with Sanskrit.

First, a typical Knowledge Representation Scheme (using Semantic Nets) will be laid out, followed by an outline of the method used by the ancient Indian Grammarians to analyze.

Citation.

Artificial Intelligence

Sanskrit for Computer

Indra’s Amravathi Baikal Ilavarsha In Russia

In Hinduism on February 13, 2015 at 09:11

I have written on Baikal being of Indian origin and Arkaim being the land of Sanatana Dhrma, not to speak of the fact that the Rig Veda was composed in the Arctic.

Sudharshana Dweepa of Bharatavarsha.png

Sudharshana Dweepa of Bharatavarsha.

The Puranas describe, while talking about the Earth, say that there was Ilavarsha and they talk, along with the Ithihasas Ramayana and Mahabharata bout Amaravathi, the capital of Deva Loka of Indra.

The huge circle in the above diagram shows the extent of“Sudharshana Dweepa” where the rule of Sanatan Dharma was in place.

It had Bharath in the South (rectangle area in the bottom of this picture) with

Hemakuta or Himalayas in its northern limits,

an intermediary Ilavarsha to the north of Himalayas (noted in dark red square in the middle) and

a vast Airavatha varsha in extreme north of the Sudharshana dweepa..

Most of  Russia come Airavatha Varsha  and Airavatha is the name of Indra’s Elephant.

The Deva territory is close to the North pole where there was sunlight continuously for 6 months and darkness continuously for 6 months. The elephant, Airavatha  in all probability was the Woolly mammoth ,which became extinct about 10,000 years ago. ..

Part of Uttarakuru Region.

Uttar kuru means the land of Kuru (a clan) settled in the North. They were the early settlers much before Mahabharatha times (which was about 5000 years ago.) The men and women of that territory were said to have led a free life and mingled with each other as they wished. The probable reason could have been procreation which was minimal owing to climatic conditions that existed there.

There is an opinion that the name Russia was derived from Rishi varsha.  There is a mention of Rishi varsha in scriptures which goes well with this region. The presence of Devas  in this part of the globe in a distant past had attracted  sages to this place. We have a number of references in Puranas of sages going to the Deva territory. Perhaps their overwhelming presence gave the name Rishi varsha which later became Russia.

There is yet another root to the name Russia as being derived from the olden name of Volga river. Volga was called as  ‘rasa’ or ‘rosa’. People think that it is derived from the Persian word ‘rana’ or ‘ra’. But this word ‘rasa’ is a straight Sanskrit word meaning essence, juice, nectar, elixir, soup, love, the finest part of anything and so on. This name perfectly fits with the river of fine water quality From the river’s name Rasa, the name Russia was derived.  

Citation.

Russia a part of Sanatana Dharma

Krishna Balarama Lakhmi Greek Coins 200 BC

In Hinduism on February 11, 2015 at 07:43

There are records that show that the Northwest of India was once ruled by Greeks.

However the relations between the Greeks and India,especially the Tamils date back to centuries earlier.

These Greek Kings later ,some of them, converted to Buddhism.

They held both Hinduism and Buddhism that they minted Coins in honor of the Deities of these religions.though Buddhism does not endorse the view of God.

These coins date back to 185 BC.

 Agathocles Coinage.jpg.‎(727 × 446 pixels, file size: 728 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg

Indian coinage of Agathocles, with Buddhist lion and Lakshmi. “AgathoklesCoinage”. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AgathoklesCoinage.jpg#mediaviewer/File:AgathoklesCoinage.jpg

  • Arunad Yavanah Sāketam” (“The Yavanas (Greeks) were besieging Saketa”)
  • Arunad Yavano Madhyamikām” (“The Yavanas were besieging Madhyamika” (the “Middle country”)).-Patanjali in Mahabhasya.
Coin of Agathocles.jpg.(500 × 232 pixels, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

Coin of Agathocles,Krishna and Balarama. “Agathokles” by Classical Numismatic Group;[1] – Classical Numismatic Group. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agathokles.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Agathokles.jpg

“Sudras will also be utterers of bho (a form of address used towards an equal or inferior), and Brahmins will be utterers of arya (a form of address used towards a superior), and the elders, most fearful of dharma, will fearlessly exploit the people. And in the city the Yavanas, the princes, will make this people acquainted with them: but the Yavanas, infatuated by war, will not remain in Madhyadesa.”

Yuga Purana, Paragraph 55–56, 2002 edition.
There is also significant archaeological evidence, including some epigraphic evidence, for the Indo-Greek kings, such as the mention of the “Yavana” embassy of king Antialcidason the Heliodorus pillar in Vidisha.
Agathocles Dikaios (Greek: Ἀγαθοκλῆς ὁ Δίκαιος; epithet meaning: “the Just”) was a Buddhist Indo-Greek king, who reigned between around 190 and 180 BC. He might have been a son of Demetrius and one of his sub-kings in charge of the Paropamisadebetween Bactria and India. In that case, he was a grandson of Euthydemus whom he qualified on his coins as Βασιλεὺς Θεός,Basileus Theos (Greek for “God-King”).
At the same time, Agathocles issued an intriguing range of bilingual coinage, displaying what seems to be Buddhist as well as Hinduist symbolism. The coins, manufactured according to the Indian standard, using either Brahmi, Greek orKharoshthi (a first in the Greek world), and displaying symbols of the various faiths in India, tend to indicate a considerable willingness to accommodate local languages and beliefs, to an extent unseen in subsequent Indo-Greek kings. They may be indicative of the considerable efforts of the first Indo-Greek kings to secure support from Indian populations and avoid being perceived as invaders, efforts which may have subsided once the Indo-Greek kingdoms were more securely in place.’
Citation.
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