92 Varieties Tamil Nadu Bulls Reason For Cattle Conspiracy.

Many of us think of native, indigenous cattle as one that loiters the road, skinny, sick, eating posters.

We are not aware of our cattle.

Hybrid, Indian cow.

Hybrid and Indian cow

Am providing a list and Link towards the close of this article.

Broadly speaking India has pure breeds numbering 37.

These are classified regionwise.

There are sub classification as well.

For example there are 92 varieties  in Tamil Nadu.

Imagine for the whole of India.

Statistics regionwise is hard to come by.

People from regions may contribute.

Why my sudden interest in Bovines?

It is because of the attempt to eliminate them gradually so that foreign companies can market their Dairy products as a substitute for natural milk.

Instead of finding a solution to improve their yield( though it is higher, but deliberate fudging of statistics showed them as yielding low),steps were taken to crossbreed.

This is not good either for economy or for the nation.

List of 92 Tamil Nadu Cattle.

These are Bulls. Now one can understand the effort to make them extinct.

2. அழுக்குமறையன்
4. ஆளைவெறிச்சான்
5. ஆனைச்சொறியன்
6. கட்டைக்காளை
7. கருமறையான்
8. கட்டைக்காரி
9. கட்டுக்கொம்பன்
10. கட்டைவால் கூளை.

11. கருமறைக்காளை
12. கண்ணன் மயிலை
13. கத்திக்கொம்பன்
14. கள்ளக்காடன்
15. கள்ளக்காளை
16. கட்டைக்கொம்பன்
17. கருங்கூழை
18. கழற்வாய்வெறியன்
19. கழற்சிக்கண்ணன்
20. கருப்பன்

21. காரிக்காளை
22. காற்சிலம்பன்
23. காராம்பசு
24. குட்டைசெவியன்
25. குண்டுக்கண்ணன்
26. குட்டைநரம்பன்
27. குத்துக்குளம்பன்
28. குட்டை செவியன்
29. குள்ளச்சிவப்பன்
30. கூழைவாலன்

31. கூடுகொம்பன்
32. கூழைசிவலை
33. கொட்டைப்பாக்கன்
34. கொண்டைத்தலையன்
35. ஏரிச்சுழியன்
36. ஏறுவாலன்
37. நாரைக்கழுத்தன்
38. நெட்டைக்கொம்பன்
39. நெட்டைக்காலன்
40. படப்பு பிடுங்கி

41. படலைக் கொம்பன்
42. பட்டிக்காளை
43. பனங்காய் மயிலை
44. பசுங்கழுத்தான்
45. பால்வெள்ளை
46. பொட்டைக்கண்ணன்
47. பொங்குவாயன்
48. போருக்காளை
49. மட்டைக் கொலம்பன்
50. மஞ்சள் வாலன்

51. மறைச்சிவலை
52. மஞ்சலி வாலன்
53. மஞ்ச மயிலை
54. மயிலை
55. மேகவண்ணன்
56. முறிகொம்பன்
57. முட்டிக்காலன்
58. முரிகாளை
59. சங்குவண்ணன்
60. செம்மறைக்காளை

61. செவலை எருது
62. செம்ம(ப)றையன்
63. செந்தாழைவயிரன்
64. சொறியன்
65. தளப்பன்
66. தல்லயன் காளை
67. தறிகொம்பன்
68. துடைசேர்கூழை
69. தூங்கச்செழியன்
70. வட்டப்புல்லை

71. வட்டச்செவியன்
72. வளைக்கொம்பன்
73. வள்ளிக் கொம்பன்
74. வர்ணக்காளை
75. வட்டக்கரியன்
76. வெள்ளைக்காளை
77. வெள்ளைக்குடும்பன்
78. வெள்ளைக்கண்ணன்
79. வெள்ளைப்போரான்
80. மயிலைக்காளை

81. வெள்ளை
82. கழுத்திகாபிள்ளை
83. கருக்காமயிலை
84. பணங்காரி
85. சந்தனப்பிள்ளை
86. சர்ச்சி
87. சிந்துமாடு
88. செம்பூத்துக்காரி
89. செவலமாடு
90. நாட்டுமாடு

91. எருமைமாடு
92. காரிமாடு

The names are based on their color, limbs,behaviour.

( list, source.  Copyright rests with the site below. Being published here in public interest with no commercial interest.In case of objections, despite link being provided here to the site, the quoted list will be removed if objection is received)  http://tamil.eenaduindia.com/TravelTime/DiscoverIndia/2017/01/16190830/list-of-native-bull-variety.vpf  )

Native cow varities. Source. http://www.nddb.org/information/stats/pop

Last updated: April 05, 2016
Livestock Population in India by Species
(In Million Numbers)
Species 1951 1956 1961 1966 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2003 2007$ 2012
Cattle 155.3 158.7 175.6 176.2 178.3 180.0 192.5 199.7 204.6 198.9 185.2 199.1 199.9
Adult Female Cattle 54.4 47.3 51.0 51.8 53.4 54.6 59.2 62.1 64.4 64.4 64.5 73.0 76.7
Buffalo 43.4 44.9 51.2 53.0 57.4 62.0 69.8 76.0 84.2 89.9 97.9 105.3 108.7
Adult Female Buffalo 21.0 21.7 24.3 25.4 28.6 31.3 32.5 39.1 43.8 46.8 51.0 54.5 56.6
Total Bovines 198.7 203.6 226.8 229.2 235.7 242.0 262.2 275.7 288.8 288.8 283.1 304.4 299.6

Bharatavarsha Meaning

India is called Bharatavarsha.

Hindus , when performing a religious rite recite  about the location from where they are are praying, their ancestry and Time.

It is called Sankalpa, right determination.

Genealogof Bharata.jpg

Family Tree of Bharata. Click to enlarge the Image.

For more on Sankalpa , read my article in the hyperlink.

The Full Sankalpa Text.

Aadhya Brahmanah,

Dwdheeya Paraarthe,

Swetha Varaha Kalpe,

Vaivaswatha Manvantare,

Astavikum Sathi tha me.

Kali Yuge,

Pradhame padhe.

Jambooth Dweepe,

Bharata Varshe,

Bharata Kande,


Dakshine parsve for those south of India) Sahapthe,





Shasti Savastharaanam,

Madhye …….(name of the year) nama samvathsare

Dakshinaayane /Uttarayane(movement of the SUN to Cancer to Capricorn),

…….(Name of the season among the six seasons), Ritau,

…..(Name of The Month),

…….pakshe(indicate the Waxing and Waning of the Moon)

Punya Thithou,

…..(mention the Day) ”Vaasara  Yukthaayaam

…mention the Nakshatra/Star Yukthaayaam.

Asmaakam Saha Kudumbaanaam,

Kshema, Dhairya,, Veerya, Vijaya, Ayur, Arogya, Aiswarya Naam,Dharma ,Artha, Kama, Moksha,

Chatur vitah pala purushaartyartham,

..mention Gotra(your lineage ( there will be three in number-this is called ‘Pravaram- the details are posted separaetely)

..mention you christened Name”…

Here the term Bharatavarsha is mentioned.

It denotes a geographical location.

It is presumed to mean the present Indian Landmass.

It is not.

Bharatavarsha is not India

The term Bharatavarsha is taken to mean the Country of Bharata, Indian Emperor,son of  Emperor Dushyanta.


What is the meaning of Bharata?

Bharata means cherish.

Varsha has many meanings.

The meaning used in this context is,

division of the earth as separated off by certain mountain

Dushyanta was the father of emperor Bharata; a verse explanatory of his name is chaunted by the gods; “The mother is only the receptacle; it is the father by whom a son is begotten. Cherish thy son, Dushyanta; treat not Śakuntalá with disrespect. Sons, who are born from the paternal loins, rescue their progenitors from the infernal regions. Thou art the parent of this boy; Śakuntalá has spoken truth.” From the expression ‘cherish,’ Bharaswa, the prince was called Bharata .( Vishnu Purana  Chapter XIX)

So the meaning of Bharatavasha is Cherished Land of Bharata.

References and citations.



Tantra Tamils Sanatana Dharma Judaism

When I research into the relationship or influence one over another Sanatana Dharma and

Tamils, Shiva and Tamils,Shiva and Sanatana Dharma, I recall the description of Russia by Winston Churchill,

Churchill describes Russia.

Churchill on Russia

Russia is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.’
One may replace the term Russia with Tamil and Sanatana Dharma.
Consider the following facts.
SAT Chakra Nirupana. Description

SAT Chakra Nirupana

  1. Thiruvannamalai ,Tamil Nadu is 3.94 Million Years old.
  2. .Thirupati 2100 Millon years old.
  3. Jwalapuram, Cudaapah 74,000 old.
  4. Poompuhar,Tamil Nadu is 20,00 years old, at least!
  5. Million year old Kannada Brahmi script is found in Karnataka.
  6. A million year old advanced Tamil civilization site is found in Chennai.

The riddle is all these quote the Vedas, the scripture of the Hindus!

The Vedas refer to Tamils and others in the south as Dravidas!!

Which precedes the other is a mystery!.

Bathing Shiva Linga with Milk.jpg.

Bathing of Shiiva Linga,Thanjavur

And consider that though the worship of Shiva is prominent is North now, Vedas make only a passing reference to Shiva in the Sri Rudram .

However Tamil Literature abounds in Shiva history.

Shiva is believed be the founder of Tamil, an ancient language of India.

It is  a rich language with totally a different linguistic structure from the other languages of India which have their roots in Sanskrit!

Surbrahmanya, son of Shiva is not mentioned in the Vedas as such but by the name Skanda.

The history of Shiva stops with His marriage to Devi in North Indian Traditions.

Nothing more is heard of Him there.

In the south His activities are detailed and they are listed only in the Linga Purana and shiva Purana though not as detailed as in Tamil

Sage Agastya seems to have been the bridge between the North and South.

Lord Ram’s ancestor Vaivastha Manu meditated in the South near Madagascar.

Shiva seems to  migrated westwards from the south because of a Tsunami recorded in world literature and  with more graphic description in Classical Tamil Sangam Literature.

The finding of artifacts in the west, from Saudi Arabia onward to Arctic through Africa, Europe, Russia and again in the Urals( which date  later to the findings of those found in the west)along with Ganesha confirm that Shiva traveled from the middle east towards the Arctic only to come back to India.

And this has been misinterpreted as Aryan Invasion!

Add to this,

1.Lord Rama waged a war with Atlantean people in support of Lemurians to which area he belonged to.

2.Manu tribe and later Yadava tribe migrated to middle east.

3.Sumerian kings list mentions Rama, Dasaratha and Bharatha as Kings.

4.Tamil practices like Makara Sankaranthis is celebrated in Central Ameirca.

5.Hanuman temple is found in Hinduras

6.Manu is Noah.

‘Twenty two tribes left India after the Mahabharata War.

Of the 22 tribes that left the region in quick succession, the tem that preceded North met with disaster and perished.

Out of the remaining 12 a few families dropped off and settled down in regions currently known as Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt Greece and Russia.
That great exodus took place 5,743 years ago. The Passover year which the Jews commemorate provides a tally of the period elapsed from the time they left India. … One of their monarchs was Solomon’

Judaism has its roots in Sanatana Dharma.

There is a research paper, probably with no access to to Bharat Varsha’s Sanatna Dharma history has made an interesting observation on the Dravidas, tantras, and Sanatana dharma, though presenting the case in reverse.

That is Abraham sent his children to India and they met with Dravidians!

Archeological finds of Sanatana dharma predate Judaism History.

Hebrew Qabalah and the North Indian Tantra

Some Qabalists believe that the Semitic mystical tradition reached well beyond the geographical boundaries of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Archeological evidence has shown that the trade routes between the Tigris-Euphrates and the Indus Valleys were actively traversed as early as 10,000 BCE.35 When the Indian Buddhists went to China, they were made privy by its rulers to old Chinese texts that described voyages of large junks from the South China Seas to India (at a time when the Saraswati River still ran all the way to the sea), to the Sinai Peninsula, down the western African coast, and beyond. In ancient times, traders were largely the principal conduits for transmitting a variety of information among diverse cultures, including mystical information. It is highly likely that such information traveled to and from the Indus Valley and the Sinai Peninsula along such ancient merchant routes. The arm of historical certainty as yet does not reach very far back in human history, but more and more information is coming to light that confirms worldwide sea travel by ancient Chinese, Mediterranean, and Indonesian cultures long before the relatively recent “discoveries” made by Western Europeans.

In the Lech Lecha section of Torah B’reshith (the Book of Genesis, named “B’reshith” after its first word), several generations of Abraham’s children by Keturah and a number of his concubines are listed. Abraham divided up the branches of his family, “giving them gifts” and sending those children by his concubines “east to the east country.”36 One interpretation of this passage holds that “east country” refers to an area in Syria or Jordan. Another theory postulates that these children of Abraham emigrated east to India over long established sea or overland trade routes, where they established the monotheistic religion of Shiva/Shakti long before the invasion of the Aryans down from the Persian steppes. The sea route could have gone through the Gulf of Aqaba, down the Red Sea, through the Gulf of Aden along the coast of Yemen and Oman, across the Arabian Sea to the mouth of the Indus River, and up into the Indus Valley. In India, this religion is called Tantra, and is often referred to in the West as “the Tantras.” When the Aryans invaded Northern India in the fourteenth century BCE, they encountered a dark-skinned people inhabiting the Sandya Hills above the Indus Valley, for whom the Tantric traditions and rituals of Shiva/Shakti were centuries old.

The Tantric tradition is one of the most poorly understood and misrepresented of the world’s mystical traditions. The written books of the Tantras (called Tantra Shastra), such as the Mahanirvana Tantra and the Satchakracidrupini, are distinct from the Vedic/Upanishadic literature of the Sanatana Dharma. Many of the primary names of the Divine in the Tantras, such as Shiva and Kali, are also found in the Hebrew Torah. The map of the Sefiroth (lit. Spheres) in the Tree of Life (etz ha-chayyim) and the map of the Chakras (lit. Wheels) of the Tantras have much in common. The Kundalini spoken of in the Tantras and the Shekhinah of the Qabalah appear to have the same function. The Kundalini is described as a coiled snake asleep at the base of the Chakric Tree. On page 12 of the Introduction to Tantra Shastra, Sir John Woodroffe says:

Kundalini means ‘coiled.’ Hence, Kundalini, whose form is that of a coiled serpent, means ‘that which is coiled.’ She is the luminous vital energy (Jivashakti) which manifests as prana [ed. same as qi in Chinese, and ruach in Hebrew]. She sleeps in the Muladhara Chakra (Sefirah Kingdom on the Hebrew Tree of Life), and has three and a half coils corresponding in number with the three and half bindus (knots). When, after closing the ears, the sound of Her hissing is not heard, then death approaches.”

Both the Chakric Tree Chakric Tree and the qabalistic Tree of Life have three structural channels. The central channel on the Chakric Tree is called the “Shushumna.” The central channel on the qabalistic Tree is denoted as the “Central Column.” The side channels on the Chakric Tree are called the “Ida” and the “Pingala;” and on the qabalistic Tree, the “Columns of the Right and the Left.” The side channels play a much more prominent role in the Qabalah than they do in the Tantras.

The Kundalini, as Chitshakti (the energy of consciousness), awakens and ascends the Chakric Tree, opening the Chakric lotuses along the Shushumna on Her way to unite with Her Husband Shiva in the Ajna Chakra at the forehead. The ascent by the Kundalini is also called the Satchakrabheda, the “Piercing of the Six Centers.” In the Chintamanistava, attributed to the incarnate sage Sri Shankaracharya, it says:

“This family woman (Kundalini), entering the royal road (Shushumna, Central Column of the Tree), taking rest at intervals in the secret places (Chakras, Sefiroth), embraces the Supreme Spouse (in the Ajna Chakra, forehead center) and makes the nectar to flow (in the Sahasrara Chakra, Sefirah Crown/Above).”

The ascent of the Tree of Life by the Shekhinah is called Shabat (tbs, Sabbath). The Shekhinah is said to be in exile in the Lower Worlds. On the Sabbath, She ascends via the Sefiroth (Spheres) of the Central Column of the Tree of Life and unites with Her Husband Lord YHVH in the Upper Worlds. This is echoed in the song of Rabbi Yitza’aq Luria, commonly found in Hebrew prayer books:

Lekah Dodee Likraht Calah Penay Shabat neQabalah.”
(“Come my Beloved to meet the Bride, Face of Sabbath to receive.”)

The meditation practices employed by both Mystical Qabalists and Tantrikas involve a coordinated use of mantra and yantra.’

Let me add that the Tantra and yogic practices of South India are slightly different from the one practiced in the north as the system of Siddhar’s Yoga is different from Patankali’s Yoga.

The Vaasi Yoga is close to the techniques in Judaism

*Please read my articles on each of the points I have made in this article.

Reference and citation in Block quote



Dwaraka Madurai 12000 Years Old Archeology

Hindu texts speak of Time in really huge numbers.

The Hindu Calendar is Cyclic and not linear.


That is Time does not flow in one direction as in a straight line.

It is curved and cyclical.

Time recoils on itself.

Please check my article on Time Cyclic, Non Linear.

The present Age we live in is called Kaliyuga.

The earlierr Age was called Dwapara Yuga.

During the closing Years of Dwapara Yuga the Mahabharata Battle was fought.

Lord Krishna died towards the close of this period and the present Kali Yuga stated shortly thereafter.

The Dvapara Yuga is the third out of four yugas, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism. This yuga comes between Treta Yuga and Kali Yuga.

According to thePuranas, this yuga ended at the moment when Krishnareturned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha. According to theBhagavata Purana, the Dvapara Yuga lasts 864,000 years.

Kali Yuga,

According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhattathe Kali Yuga started in 3102 BC. He finished his book “Aryabhattiya” in 499 AD in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the “year 3600 of the Kali Age” at the age of 23. As it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, and given that Aryabhatta was born in 476 AD, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to (3600 – (476 + 23) + 1 (As only one year elapses between 1 B.C and 1 C.E) = ) 3102 BC.’

This means The Demise of Krishna was around 3100 BC, that is 5000 years ago.

However published works date even The RIG veda which ,according to Hindu Texts was composed much before,that is before Satya Yuga.

Satya Yuga ,

The duration of the Satya millennium equals 4,800 years of the demigods; the duration of the Dvāpara millennium equals 2,400 years; and that of the Kali millennium is 1,200 years of the demigods […] As aforementioned, one year of the demigods is equal to 360 years of the human beings. The duration of the Satya-yuga is therefore 4,800 x 360, or 1,728,000 years. The duration of the Tretā-yuga is 3,600 x 360, or 1,296,000 years. The duration of the Dvāpara-yuga is 2,400 x 360, or 864,000 years. And the last, the Kali-yuga, is 1,200 x 360, or 432,000 years in total.’

Mind boggling numbers!

Archeology seems to be catching up with huge numbers.

The sunken monumens are found in Lebanon, Syria, India and other places.

Submarine megalithic structures off the coasts of Malta, Egypt, Lebanon, India, China, and Japan in waters up to 70 meters deep, were evidently submerged when the Ice Age ended and sea-level rose about 100 meters because of runoff from the melting of the Ice Age ice-packs.’

The Megalithic structure found in India was the sunken city of Dwaraka.

Now these Megalithic structures are dated to be around 10000 years ago when Ice Age Melting took place.


This resulted in the rising of sea levels which,in the form of Tsunami submerged the landmass.

This is referred to in Sanskrit texts and Tamil Classics belonging to Sangam Era.

This dating implies that people living around 3000 BC were using 12000 year old Building technics!

The ancient Tamil city  Madurai also speaks of the  Tsunami referred here.


Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple.

Therefore it is logical to state that Dwaraka of Krishna and Madurai were at least 12000 years old.

In my opinion even this date is too late.

These cities can be dated back much earlier.

I await further findings.

Thiruvannamalai, India Dated around 3.94 Billion years,

Thirupathi , 2100 million Years,

Jwalapuram, Telengana , 74000  years,

Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, 25000 years,

Archelogical site in Chennai belonging to advanced Tamil Civilization,one million years,

Evidence is piling up that The Classics of India and Puranas are not figments of imagination.

*I am aware I have ascribed different dates, mostly pre dating the dates mentioned here for these cities.

Reason is I publish  as I come across credible evidence.

Once when I publish a Book I shall corela them and provide the best date/s.

One thing is sure,

Indian History and Puranas are definitely much much older than what possible dates are being assigned to them now by the ‘Scholars’

Many of these megaliths wereastronomical measuring devices, which indicates that their Ice Age constructors had map-making capabilities and sailed the seas, as demonstrated by a commonality of the architectural motifs of the megaliths worldwide, and as demonstrated by Turkish navigational maps which were sourced from ancient Phoenician maps and show coastlines of the Ice Age world with accuracies of latitude and longitude to not be matched until modern times.

Mainstream earth-chronologists insist that the Ice Age ended around 10000 B.C., at which point the sea-level rose to submerge these megaliths. However, thesubmerged megaliths are of designs and uses characteristic of around 2000 B.C. Are we therefore to believe that advanced civilizations actually began before 10000 B.C., and not around 3000 B.C. (as is commonly published)?

Mainstream archaeologists have said that the advanced civilizations of the Old and New Worlds appeared suddenly around 3000 B.C. without evidence of cultural and technological evolution to that pyramid-building level of mathematical and engineering sophistication. Therefore, how can it be that the megaliths were submerged 12,000 years ago?


Are we to believe that Krishna died around 10,000 B.C, and therefore that Hinduism is over 12,000 years old?

The megaliths of ancient Dwarka are in fact found submerged just offshore frommodern Dwarka, and the huge stone walls built of megalithic blocks which had been interlocked with chiseled L-shaped dovetails are characteristic of the Indus Civilization that popularly is advertised to have had flourished near 2,000 B.C., not 10,000 B.C


The Gulfs of Cambay and Kutch, just south of Dwarka, also hold submerged megalithic Indus Civilization structures that were covered by the ocean at the melting of the Ice Age. Computer-generated maps of the world as it was during the Ice Age reveal that ancient Dwarka was about 100 km inland during the Ice Age.


Also inland were the now submerged Indus Civilization megaliths on the floor of the Gulfs of Kutch and Cambay, as were the megaliths of Tamil pyramidal construction off the coast of southern India at Cape Cormorin and Madurai.’

Sources and Citations.




2700 Year Old Yogi Remains In Padmasana Gyan Mudra Harappa

While Yoga is being sold by Corporate Gurus today, it is necessary to remember that Yoga as a system of Spiritual development   was in vogue probably by or before the Rig Veda which is dated around 5000 BC.

However I have provided information that the Vedas date back much earlier, going back to at least 75000 years.

Yogi remains found in Harappa.

Yogi Remains in Baithal, Padmasana and with Gyan Mudra

While there is no specific reference to Yoga is found in the Vedas, Yoga seems to have been in vogue during that period or earlier.

The Tamils speak of Lord Shiva as the Chief/First Yogin and `and Sage Agastya and Bhogar being His disciples.


Lord Shiva.

They were called Siddhas .

Please read my posts on Siddhas

And while Shiva is not mentioned in detail in the Vedas the Tamil literature speaks of Him.

Evidence about Thiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu being 3.94 Billion years and Jwalapuram in Telengana, India being 74000 yeras old has come to light.


The 2,700 year old skeletal remains of an ancient yogi sitting in samadhi have been found in an Indus valley civilization archaeological site located at Balathal, Rajasthan.

Many Indus Valley seals depict pictures of yogis sitting in lotus position. Here are two examples showing ancient yogis sitting in meditation and keeping their hands on their knees as done in modern yoga meditations. If we see the skeletal remains of the yogi above, we can note that his fingers are in gyana mudra (with thumb touching index finger), resting on his knees as well….

Balathal is an archaeological site located in Vallabhnagar tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan state in western India. This site, located 6 km from Vallabhnagar town and 42 km from Udaipur city, was discovered by V. N. Misra during a survey in 1962-63. Excavation began in 1994 jointly by the Department of Archaeology of the Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute, Pune and the Institute of Rajasthan Studies, Udaipur…

Excavation of sites from the 4,500 year old Ahar culture provide clues to the link between the Harappans and their predecessors.

That it existed at all was a surprise – a fortified enclosure of mud and brick, comparable to the citadels of the Harappans, spread over 500 sq m. It was filled with ash and cowdung. A people called the Ahars had built it in Balathal near modern Udaipur some 4,500 years ago.

Carbon dating established that they had lived in and around the Mewar region in Rajasthan between 3,500 and 1,800 B.C. They were Mewar’s first farmers, older even than the Harappans. But why had they built a fort only to fill it with ash and cowdung? To solve the mystery, a team of Indian archaeologists excavating the site went on removing layer after layer of civilisation.

The mystery deepened. They found five skeletons, four in layers between 2,000 B.C. and 1,800 B.C. That was the age of stone and copper, the chalcolithic age. This was the first time human skeletons had been found at any Ahar site. The Ahars, it had been thought, cremated their dead. And the Harappans buried theirs.

There are 90 sites of Ahar – a rural society. The recent round of excavations is establishing that Ahar culture and Harappan civilisation were different though contemporary and related. This village life emerged much before the mature Harappan era.

Harappa’s progress in the mature Harappan period (2,500 B.C.) helped the rural Ahar people to flourish and develop their own township and stone and brick houses. On the scale of civilisation, they emerged far ahead of other chalcolithic cultures in the subcontinent.

And they may be the missing link to show how the Indus people made such a quantum leap from small rural communities to an advanced civilisation.

Ahar culture flourished predominantly in the Mewar region of Rajasthan, on the eastern side of the Aravallis, and in undulating rocky plateaus and plains along the Banas river and its tributaries.

In modern Rajasthan, Ahar sites have been reported in Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Dungarpur, Bhilwara, Rajsamand, Bundi, Tonk and Ajmer dotting10,000 sq km. “There is a commonality in all 90-sites located in South eastern Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh,” says Jaipur-based Rima Hooja, a scholar on Ahar culture.

Their name comes from a mid-1950s excavation led by R.C. Aggarwal, former director of archaeology, Rajasthan, at Ahar near Udaipur. A few years later, one excavation was carried out at Gilund in Rajsamand and then the focus shifted to the Harappans.

The Deccan College, Pune and Institute of Rajasthan Studies, Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Udaipur turned their attention to Ahar culture in 1994 and began excavations in Balathal. Deccan College and the University of Pennsylvania began digging in Gilund in 1999 and the Jaipur circle of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) began excavation at Ojiyana in Bhilwara in 2000. And discoveries began pouring in.

Gwen Robbins, a biological anthropologist from the University of Oregon, USA, in her ongoing preliminary analysis of the bones, found the first skeleton uncovered was of a male. Dead at the age of 50, he suffered from a joint disease and had lost all but four of his teeth at least five years before death. On closer inspection of the remains, a left mandible and a few cranial fragments were found to be of a second individual aged 35 whose sex couldn’t be determined.

The third skeleton was of a female approximately 35 years of age.The fourth was of a 35-year-old woman, and it caught the archaeologists’ interest. It had been buried with a small earthen lota (pot) near the head. Why was the lota there? “I am certain that the fortified enclosure had a ritual function,” says Dr V.N. Mishra, former principal of the Deccan College, who led the excavations: “You don’t find such selective burials in cow dung and ash anywhere else.”

The fifth skeleton, from a different era, was of an adult male 35 to 40 years old, and had been buried in a seated position that resembles the modern samadhi burial of sadhus who renounce the world. The ritual of burial in ash and cowdung raises the need to look at related traditions in present-day Hindu communities such as Gosain and Jogi which bury their dead.

Citation and reference.