Hindusim, Tamils

Tambaram Stone Age Settlement Rajendra Chola Inscriptions

The areas around Tambaram, especially the stretch from Nemilicherry, Nanmangalam , and the route from nanmangalam is declared as archeological area.

I investigated this.

This is the information.

Tambaram,now a bustling suburb of Chennai was a settlement of Stone Age People.

Implement of the Stone Age and Iron Age have been found here for a radius of 10km from Old Tambaram.

A 13th Century inscription of  Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola have been found(1000 AD).

Stone Age Hand Axe, Tambram.image.jpg

Stone Age Hand Axe, Tambram, Chennai

The area then was called Thondai Nadu.

Aathondai Flower.Image,jpg

Aathondai ,Capporis zeylanicaFlowers Used by the Pallava Kings.

Tambaram is referred to as  Taamapuram.

It’s still earlier name was Gunaseelpuram

Kunrathur near Tambaram is the birthplace of Sekkizhar who compiled the 63 Nayanmars ‘(Devotees of Shiva) lives, calling the work as Periyapuranam.

This was first inaugurated during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.


. One of the famous battles of Pallava history was fought in this region. The later Cholas, the Pandias and the Vijayanagar kings also ruled this region. Even the flowers in the jungle are connected with our history. During February and March the beautiful pink and white flowers of the aathondai or thondai creepers (Capparis zeylanica)1 adorn the campus. The region of thondai nadu comprising mainly Madras and Chinglepet districts derives its name from this flower from which garlands of the famous Pallava kings were made.

About 200,000 years ago people of the Old Stone Age (Lower Paleolithic Culture) roamed about Tambaram. They fashioned rough stone implements out of quartzite and used them for hunting and skinning wild animals. These implements or artifacts are called ‘ the hand axes of Madras industry.’ . The primitive men did not know the use of wooden handles for their stone axe-heads but used their hands instead. The first hand axe was picked up at Pallavaram over a century ago, and within the campus, several artifacts have been picked up by students4 and members of staff .


Around 300 B.C., there were people of the Iron Age living in Tambaram area and they built their burial monuments in the form of dolmens and stone circles which are called Megaliths5 (big stones). Fine examples of such Megalithic Monuments can be seen about 100 metres east of the Great Southern Trunk Road near Guduvancheri railway station.

Tambaram region must have been a flourishing country during the later Chola period which lasted for about 250 years after 1000 A.D. Tamil inscriptions of the Cholas are found in Manimangalam, Tiruneermalai, Tirusoolam and Kunrathoor. At Kunrathoor, the birth-place of Sekkilar, one Kaasyappa was the local doctor (Vaidya) 8 and some lands were set apart for his services. Inscriptions at Tiruneermalai refer to certain merchants from Pammal showing that this village near Pallavaram existed even then. Inscriptions at Manimangalam of Rajadhiraja I (1018-1054) give us details of a war with Ceylonese kings. Rajadhiraja defeated one Veerasalaamaygan of Ceylon, carried away his wife and sister and cut off the nose of his mother. This sort of barbaric behaviour seems to have been very common in those days even though the kings were supposed to follow Manu’s Dharma Sastra. Stories of such mutilations and abductions have been handed down to us in epics like the Ramayana. The inscriptions of Kulothunga I (1070-1120), the hero of Kalingathu parani, are found at Tirusoolam near Pallavaram and of the inscriptions of Kulothunga III there are several in this area.

At Pammal, on the basement of a ruined Siva temple, two Chola inscriptions not heretofore noticed were copied by the students. One is dated in the reign of Tribhuvanachakravarti Sri Rajarajadeva, and the other, in the reign of Virarajendra.

The inscription of the time of Rajaraja (III) is incomplete. It refers to an endowment for burning a lamp at a temple at Pammal. The inscription mentions that the village of Pammal belonged to Surathurnadu. It may be interesting to note that Surathurnadu was a territorial division probably named after Tiruchuram. Tiruchuram happens to be the old name of the apsidal Chola temple near Pallavaram, which is now called Tirusulam.

The second inscription at Pammal is dated in the 35th year of the reign of Virarajendra Chola. If Virarajendra is Rajendra III, the king who succeeded Rajaraja III, then this is probably the latest reported inscription of the reign of Rajendra III.

The inscription is complete and refers to an endowment of land by Panchanadhivaanan Nilakangarayan and to its exemption from taxes. The endowment is made to the temple of Azhaga Perumal by the Sri Vaishnavas.

Of special interest was the fact that this inscription refers to Tambaram, which is also called Gunaseelanallur. Tambaram is referred to here as Taampuram.


A a newly discovered Chola inscription on the basement of the Ahatisvara temple in Perungalatur gives the old name of the village as Perunkulatur, that is, the village of the big tank.

Pandya inscriptions are found at Kunrathoor, Tirusoolam and Tiruneermalai. Temple building activity which started during the Chola period continued during the Vijayanagar period in this area and inscriptions of the Vijayanagar kings of the 14th to the 17th centuries are found here. This brings us to the modern period.

This find will be one of the references for my theory that the Sanatana Dharma was in Dravida desa , if not originated from it.



1.S. Gamble, Flora of the Presidency of Madras (Calcutta, 1957), p. 33.
2 Nandikkalambakam (Tamil), (Madras, 1961), p. 66.
3 V. D. Krishnaswami, ‘ Stone Age India ‘, Ancient India (1947).
4 The largest hand axe was picked up by Mitran Devanesen when he was a student here in the Pre-University class.
5 N. R. Banerjee, ‘ Megalithic problem of Chinglepet district in the light of the recent exploration’, Ancient India, (1956), pp. 22-32.
6 V. Rangacharya, Inscriptions of the Madras Presidency, Vol. i (Madras, 1919), p. 411.
7 E. Hultzsch, South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I (Madras, 1890), p. 152.
8 K. V. Raman, The Early History of the Madras Region (Madras,1957), p. 184.
9 E. Hultzsch, South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. 3, Part I (Madras, 1899), p. 53.
10 Annual Report of Epigraphy (1932-33), p. 75.

Lord krishna with Radha,Image.jpg

Krishna Attended Tamil Sangam Daughter in Madurai

This is  a part of a series of articles on how the Sanatna Dharma and Tamil Dravida was intertwined.


Rama’s ancestor Vaivaswatha Manu migrated from Dravida to Ayodhya after a Tsunami.


Krishna as a Toddler.jpgLord Krishna attended Tamil Poet summit.jpg

Toddler Krishna


Shiva and his son Ganesha  migrated through the Middle east to Arctic, after establishing their lineage, clan in the present Europe,Africa, and the successors reentered Bharata varsha from the Arctic through Russia ,Iran .


Valmiki is considered as a Siddha and wrote a literary work Vanmikar Pathinaaru,Valmiki’s Sixteen, which deals with Philosophy and Practical Life.


Krishna married a Pandya Princess and had a Daughter through her.


Arjuna married a Pandyan Princess and had a son, Babruvahana.


Sahadeva traveled in the South.


Tamil Chera King,Perunchotru Udiyan Cheralathan fed both the Pandava and Kaurava Armies during the Mahabharata Battle and performed Tharpana in Tamil Nadu, (Rites for Dead killed during the war).


Ravana entered into a peace treaty with a Pandya King.


Rig Veda and Puranas have references to pieces, Elephant Tusks,Gems, and Pearls being imported from Tamil Nadu /Dravida.


Tamil Kings were present during the Swayamwar of Damayanthi, Sita, Draupadi, descriptions of the may be found in the Ramayana ,Mahabharata and the Puranas.


I have some articles on this.


During the Mahabharata Days the interaction between the South and the North were more intense and frequent than what it was during the Ramayana Period.


Lord Krishna attended the Tamil Sangam,Conclave of Poets held at Kavatapuram.


He was a special Invitee.


“Krishna was known to Tamil lands even during his life time. He had been one of the esteemed guests at the 2nd Sangam assemblage that took place in Kavaatam, the then capital of the Pandyans. Kavaatam’s location can be deciphered from Shugreeva’s description of the trail to the South which he described to the vanaras in chapter 4-41-19a. That place was submerged around the time Byt Dwaraka was submerged.”


Krishna married Nappinnai, a Pandyan Princess and had a Daughter Pandyahs, that’s how Megasthanes calls her.


Krishna had probably had his daughter married to a Pandya Prince and had her settled near Madurai.


Krishna’s daughter had been given a gift of 365 Yadava Families by Krishna.


Krishna’s daughter’s descendants have been in existence during the Silappadhikaram, A Tamil Epic, period, where it is mentioned that the Ayar woman performed the story of Hari Vamsa.


“The inference is that she must have been one among the 365 families of Yadavas of Mathura or Dwaraka whom Krishna must have sent as his gifts to his daughter on her marriage to the Pandyan king. The Krishna cult can therefore be said to have started in Tamil lands even at that time when Krishna was around. The Rasa lila which is not found in any ancient Sanskrit text but cropped up as late as the 15th century in the North, is found mentioned in Agananuru written not less than 2000 years ago goes to show that the intimate memories of Krishna had been carried by the Yadavas who had once shared their moments with Krishna.




Hanuman Shifts Sanjeevi Parvatha Right To Left Temple

Struck by the Astra of Indrajit, son of Ravana, Lakshmana fainted.


On the advice of Sage Agastya, Hanuman flew and brought the Sanjeevi Parvatha, unable to find a particular herb to the battle field in Sri Lanka.


While bringing it, he had to pass through a temple of Lord Venkateswara.



He wanted to worship the Lord.


As a mark of respect, he shifted the Sanjeevi parvatha from his left hand to the right.


As Hanuman did not keep the mountain down, the place is called  ‘place where the mountain was not kept’ திருமலை வையாவூர்.


The Prasanna Venkatesa Temple is 70 km from Chennai and 18 km from Chengalpattu.


Nearest Railway station.Chennai, Chengalpattu.


Bus Station.Chengalpattu.


While traveling from Chennai, after crossing Chengalpattu, one can find Padaalam Cross Road (Koot Road) from where a road goes off GST Road on the right side. This road leads to Thirumalai Vaiyaavoor.


Airport. Chennai.


Buses are available from Chengalpattu.


The main deity Sri Srinivaasa Perumaal is seen facing west.

The Lord is beautifully decorated with ornaments and gives dharshan exactly as in Thirupathi. Goddess Sri Alarmel Mangai Thaayaar has a separate shrine here.

There are separate shrines for Sri Aandaal and Sri Ramanuja too.


More legends.


Once a demon king called Hiranyaakshan took the earth and kept under his custody, hiding it deep inside the ocean. Lord Vishnu took Varaaha Avatar, killed the demon and brought back the earth to its position. After this Sri Varaaha Perumaal wished to take abode on a hill to bless the world. He directed Sri Garuda to bring a hill from Vaikuntam itself. Sri Garuda Bhagavan brought a hill from Vaikuntam and placed it near the banks of Swarnamuki River, which was called Garudagiri (present Thirupathi). While Sri Garuda carried the hill, a small part of it broke and fell near the banks of the river Palar and came to be known as Dhakshina Garudagiri (Thirumalai Vaiyaavoor).

After placing the hill in the banks of river Swarnamuki, Sri Garuda prayed God to see His Viswaroopa Dharsanam. As wished by Sri Garuda, Lord Vishnu gave him Viswaroopa Dharshan in the form of Sri Varaaha Perumaal here at Dhakshina Garudagiri.

Once, Lord Vishnu told Sri Aadhiseshan to take the form of a mountain on Garudagiri, for Him to take abode and bless the world during Kaliyugam. Sri Aadhiseshan took form of a hill on Garudagiri and from then the place (Thirupathi) came to be known as Seshagiri. Lord Vishnu took abode as Sri Srinivaasa Perumaal on Seshagiri in the Thamizh month of Purattaasi, on the day of Dwadasi when ‘Thiruvonam’ star occurred.

Sri Aadhiseshan prayed Sri Srinivaasa Perumaal and told that he had a wish to serve as an umbrella to the Lord. Sri Srinivaasa Perumaal agreed and told that his wish would come true at Dhakshina Garudagiri. In Thirumalai Vaiyaavoor Sri Aadhiseshan is seen above the deity Sri Srinivaasa Perumaal’s head as an umbrella. Hence, this place came to be known as Dhakshina Seshagiri.





Chambers Of The Heart Temple Hrudayaleswarar For Chest Problems

There is a temple which is believed to cure Heart  problems,Lung Diseases, Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis.


Here the inner roof of the temple is designed resembling the four chambers of the Heart.


Thee was a Pallava King named Rajasimhan, who built a Temple for Lord Shiva and fixed the Muhurat for the Kumbhabishekam.


The night before the Kumbhabhishekam Lord Shiva is reported to have appeared in the King’s dream and informed him that He could not be present for the consecration ceremony as He had already agreed to be present for a Temple being built by Poosalar.

The King along with his  entourage set forth to find out who could be building a better temple than a King,only to find a poor man sitting under a tree meditating.

On enquiring him , it was known that the poor man was devotee of Lord Shiva, was building a Temple for Him in his heart and fixed the date for consecration, which was the same as fixed by the King.

The King was able to see the Tempe visualised by Poosalar.

He built a Temple on the design of Poosalar and inner roof was designed to resemble the four chambers of the Heart.

The temple dedicated to Lord Shiva is in Thiruninravur, near Chennai.


How to reach.


Tiruninravur is 30 kms from Chennai.

Suburban trains from Chennai central to Arakonam, Tiruvallur, Tiruttani and Kadambattur stop at Tiruninravur.

Share autos, private autos and buses are available to go to the temple.

The temple is within walking distance from the Railway Station.(2Km)

Bus station.Thiruninravur.Buses are available from Chennai.




Sannadhis for the follwong can be found in the temple.

Hrudayaleeswarar(Onwho resides and the Lord in The Heart)
Maragada ambika
Paal vinayagar
Paal Murugar
Maha Vishnu
Subramanya swamy

Thirunindravur, the place where the temple of Hridayaleeswarar is situated is located in the Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu near Chennai. The inner roof of the temple is fashioned like that of a heart divided into four compartments probably displaying Poosalaar’s conception. Parvati here is worshipped as Maragathambigai. Poosalaar’s statue is found with folded hands in the shrine of Irudhayaleeeswarar. Irudhayaleeswarar is also worshipped as Manavaleswarar. People with an ailing heart is said to flock to this temple for speedy recovery due to Irudhayaleeswarar’s grace.




There are, according to Hinduism, four sates of Being.


Jagrat, Wakefulness,


Swapna, Dream State,


Sushupti, Deep Sleep,


Turiya, Beyond  Deep Sleep,- Consciousness.


The Avadhta Upanishad talks about  beyond this Fourth Stae, Turiyadita.


Turiyatita Avadhuta Upanishad falls in the category of Shukla Yajurvaveda Upanishads.


Turiyatita Avadhuta Upanishad presents a conversation between Lord Brahma and Lord Vishnu


In this Upanishad, Lord Brahma asks Lord Vishnu about the importance of Turiyatita Avadhuta.



A person successful in walking this path is closer to Lord Brahma.


He finds every soul in himself and his soul in everyone. Such a person sees Lord Vishnu in every soul and is blessed by him.


He feels closer to Lord Vishnu and is free from all sins and desires.



Turiyatita Avadhuta Upanishad defines the importance of Avidhuta path.


This Upanishad also talks about sacrificing worldly matters and walking on this path after understanding his soul.



Avadhuta Upanishad.

Translated by Prof. A. A. Ramanathan
Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai

Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together;

May we work conjointly with great energy,

May our study be vigorous and effective;

May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).

Om ! Let there be Peace in me !

Let there be Peace in my environment !

Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

1. Then, it is said, Samkriti approached the venerable Avadhuta, Dattatreya, and questioned: Venerable Sir, Who is an Avadhuta ? What is his condition ? What his characteristic ? And what his worldly existence ? To him replied the venerable Dattatreya, the most compassionate:

2. The Avadhuta is so called because he is immortal [akshara]; he is the greatest [varenya]; he has discarded worldly ties [dhutasamsarabandhana]; and he is the indicated meaning of the sentence ‘Thou art That’, etc., [tattvamasyadi-lakshya].

3. He who rests constantly in himself, after crossing (the barrier of) castes and stages (of social position) and thus rises above varnas and asramas and is in union (with God) is said to be an Avadhuta.

4. His joy [priya] is (to be envisaged as) the head; delight [moda] is his right wing; great delight [pramoda] his left wing; and bliss (his very self). Thus he assumes a fourfold condition.

5. One should identify Brahman neither with the head nor with the middle part nor with the bottom but with (what remains in the shape of) the tail, since it is said that Brahman is ‘the Tail’ and substratum. Thus, those who contemplate this fourfold division attain the supreme Goal.

6. Not by rituals, not by begetting children, not by wealth, but by renunciation [tyaga] alone a few attained immortality.

7. His (the Avadhuta’s) worldly existence consists in moving about freely, with or without clothes. For them there is nothing righteous or unrighteous; nothing holy or unholy. Through all-consuming, correct knowledge [samgrahaneshti] (the Avadhuta) performs Ashvamedha sacrifice within (himself). That is the greatest sacrifice and the great Yoga.

8. Nought of this extraordinary, free action (of his) should be disclosed. This is the great vow [mahavrata]. He is not tainted like the ignorant.

9. As the sun absorbs all waters, and the fire consumes all things (remaining unaffected by them), even so, the pure Yogin enjoys all objects, unstained by virtues or sins.

10. As the ocean into which all waters flow maintains its own nature despite the water pouring in (from all sides), so, he alone attains peace into whom all desires flow in like manner; not he who seeks the objects of pleasure.

11. There is neither death nor birth; none is bound, none aspires. There is neither seeker after liberation nor any liberated; this indeed is the ultimate Truth.

12. Many were my activities perchance in the past for gaining things here and hereafter, or for obtaining liberation. All that is now of the past.

13. That itself is the state of contentment. Verily remembering the same (i.e. the past) achievements involving objects, he now remains thus ever content. The miserable ignorant, desirous of children, etc., needs must suffer.

14. Wherefore shall I suffer, who am filled with supreme bliss ? Let those who yearn to go to the other worlds perform rituals.

15. What shall I, who am of the nature of all the worlds, perform ? For what and how ? Let those who are worlds, perform ? For what and how ? Let those who are qualified interpret the Shastras or teach the Vedas.

16. I have no such qualification, since I am free of action. I have no desire for sleeping or begging, bathing or cleaning. Nor do I do them.

17. If onlookers thus superimpose, let them do so. What matters to me the superimposition of others ? A heap of the red-black berries (of the Abrus precatorius) would not burn, even if others superimposed fire on it. Likewise, I partake not of worldly duties superimposed (on me) by others.

18. Let them, who are ignorant of the reality, study the scriptures; knowing (the reality) why should I study ? Let them who have doubts reflect (upon what was studied). Having no doubts, I do not reflect.

19. Were I under illusion, I may meditate; having no illusion, what meditation can there be (for me) ? Confusion of body for the self, I never experience.

20. The habitual usage ‘I am a man’ is possible even without this confusion, for it is due to impressions accumulated during a long time.

21. When the results of actions set in motion [prarabdha-karman] are exhausted, the habitual usage also ends. This (worldly usage) will not cease even with repeated meditation unless such actions are exhausted.

22. If infrequency of worldly dealings is sought, let there be contemplation for you. Wherefore should I, to whom worldly dealings offer no hindrance, contemplate ?

23. Because I do not have distractions, I do not need concentration, distraction or concentration being of the mind that modifies.

24. What separate experience can there be for me, whom am of the nature of eternal experience ? What has to be done is done, what has to be gained is gained for ever.

25. Let my dealings, worldly, scriptural or of other kinds proceed as they have started, I being neither an agent (of action) nor one affected (by it).

26. Or, even though I have achieved what has to be achieved, let me remain on the scriptural path for the sake of the well-being of the world. What harm for me thereby?

27. Let the body be engaged in the worship of gods, bathing, cleaning, begging and so forth. Let speech repeatedly utter the tara-mantra or recite the Upanishadic passages.

28. Let thought contemplate Vishnu or let it be dissolved in the bliss of Brahman. I am the witness. I neither do nor cause any doing.

29. Being contented with duties fulfilled and achievements accomplished, he ceaselessly reflects as follows with a contented mind:

30. Blessed am I, blessed am I. Directly and always, I experience my own self. Blessed am I, blessed am I, the bliss of Brahman shines brightly in me.

31. Blessed am I, blessed am I. I do not see the misery of existence. Blessed am I, blessed am I; my ignorance has fled away.

32. Blessed am I, blessed am I; no duty exists for me. Blessed am I, blessed am I; everything to be obtained is now obtained.

33. Blessed am I, blessed am I. What comparison is there in the world for my contentment ! Blessed am I, blessed am I; blessed, blessed, again and again blessed.

34. Logical ! The virtues accrued have yielded fruit ! Indeed they have ! By the richness of virtue we are as we are.

35. Wondrous knowledge, wondrous knowledge ! Wondrous happiness, wondrous happiness ! Wondrous scriptures, wondrous scriptures ! Wondrous teachers, wondrous teachers !

36. He who studies this also achieves everything to be achieved. He becomes free of the sins of drinking liquor. He becomes free of the sins of stealing gold. He becomes free of the sins of killing a Brahmin. He becomes free of actions, ordained or prohibited. Knowing this, let him wander according to his free will. Om, Truth. Thus (ends) the Upanishad.

Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together;

May we work conjointly with great energy,

May our study be vigorous and effective;

May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).

Om ! Let there be Peace in me !

Let there be Peace in my environment !

Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

Here ends the Avadhuta Upanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda.


Sanskrit Text at,





Advaita Yoga Avadhuta Upanishad Beyond The Fourth