Delhi,Indraprastha Built by Builder From Atlantis

Maya is the Architect of the Devas, Beings of a Higher Plane from the Humans.

They are called Devas, Indra being their Head.

Early Atlanteans spread.jpg Early Atlanteans spread.

Indian Philosophy, Religion and History are so intermingled that at times it is difficult for the reader to determine one from another.

One has to be cautious while evaluating them.

One such concept is the Devas.

Devas indicate a state of evolution of  man where he ‘ she reaches higher in terms of perception and abilities.

It also indicates beings of a different plane of Existence.

It means a group of people on the earth as well.

Confirming the later there is the Amravathi city of Indra, the Chief of the Devas in Russia.

There is also the Rig Veda Mandala City as well.

Indra Amravathi Baikal

Baikal Vaikanasa Theertha

Krishna’s son Pradhyumna built a city in Russia.

Siberians worship Ayur Devathas.

These are Dhanavas, excepting Pradhyumna who was a human being.(Dhanavas, Beings of a Higher Plane and living in area which was considered sacred)

The Rig Veda was composed in the Arctic,Shiva leading it, Vasishta , along with the other Rishis.

And the Mayas and Incas trace their origin to the Tamils.

Ravana was an Asura,meaning valorous.

The Asuras lived, in general, The Pathala Loka.

There is also the Nazca Lines of Peru resembling Shiva’s Trishul.

I had written about Shiva leaving the south and traveling through the western hemisphere,Europe, Americas before finally reaching the Arctic.

And Atlantis was there in the path.

‘Maya is a generic name for the people of sakadweepa.or Atlantis.In other words ,Maya,the yavanasilpi or architect of olden times was also a Magha Brahmin and who knew solar and lunar calendars and vaasthuvidya.

He was the one who built Indraprastha during Yudhishtira’s time and another of his race with the same generic name was the father of Mandodari .(Ravana’s wife).

He was an original inhabitant of sakadweepa(Atlantis)and he had come to live in present Rajasthan during Ravana’s time.

The word Asura and Azorus ,Atlantis and Atlantic ocean and Athalam of the scriptures are from the same root .

According to Sounakahora ,Maya was a astronomer of excellence and he taught astronomy to the great Rajarshi Viswamithra.

The original abode of Maya according to Indian scriptures is Romakapura in Athalam.

(The Romakapura spoken by the Mahgha Brahmin Varahamihira ,is this Romakapuram of Atlantis and not Rome.)

Romakasidhantha of Maya,the yavanaguru came from Atlantis and not Rome as the historians of Astronomy think.

The knowledge came to India in very very ancient times .

When Viswamithra accepted the southern stars as polestar there was a great debate between his disciples and disciples of Vasishta who followed the northern star clusters.’

Modern Delhi ,( portion of it) was called Indraprastha .

It was built by Maya.

Maya was from Sakadweepa.

Saka Dweepa was Atlantis.

More on Atlantis to follow.

Earth as Seven Islands.

King Priyavratha had seven sons each with names synonymous with Agni or fire God.The purana considers the world as 7 dweepa or islands belonging to these 7 Agni or fire,who were brothers.
Jambudweepa Agneendran
Plakshadweepa Idmadwajan
Salmali dweepa Yagnabahu
Kusadweepa Hiranyarethas
Krounchadweepa Grithaprishtan
Sakadweepam Methathithi
Pushkaradweepam Veethihothran

Jambu Asia Eurasia
Plaksham South America South America
Salmali Australia Australia
Kusa oceania oceania
Krouncha Africa Africa
Saka Europe Atlantis
Pushkaram North America North America
According to Blavatsky the Plaksha ,kusa ,salmali and Krouncha had been under the sea for a long time and surfaced again and Sakam which is at present submerged is the legendary lost Atlantis.

A part of sakadweep called the swethadweepa or white island(Shet land)is the present Greenland and parts of Siberia.

Bhavishyapurana says that swethadweepa lies beyond the salty sea and Magha Brahmins of this land had once built a sun temple for Sambha,the son o f Krishna and Jambavathy .(Varahamihira was adescendent of Magha Brahmins).

Jambavathy,the daughter of Jambavan,the oldest root race of inhabitants of the world(partly human and partly Riksha-the bear-ape man)was a south Indian wife of Krishna and belonged to the oldest Adivasi of the continent.

Thus ,the relation of Atlantean race and Indian race is mentioned in scriptures.



There is a view that the Saka Dweepa was in the South west of the present India.


Lakshmi Jyeshta Devi Durga In Ancient Sumeria?

I have written on the presence of Sanatana Dharma throughout the world.

Either they have been a part of Sanatana Dharma directly or having been there after being inhabited by the Tamils who have been, contrary to what the fraudulent Tamil Historians say on this, a part of Sanatana Dharma.

Sanatana Dharma had been there in Sumeria, Mesopotamia , apart from being present in other Cultures.

The Hindu Gods are present in the Sumerian and Mesopotamian Culture

Rama and Dasaratha’s names are found in the King’s List of Sumeria.

In the Kings List, one finds the Dynasties of the Kings of Sumeria with their official locations.

It includes the names of Kings of adjoining countries, then called city states

The Kingship was believed to be from the Gods and was transferable from one  city to another.

Rama in Sumerian King List

If Ram-Sin is identified as Rama his greatest Amorite enemy Hammurabi must be Ravana or Ravi-anna. This presents some difficulties although Valmiki’s version of the abduction of Sita probably has more to do with poetic imagination than history. However, that she was the chief priestess of the moon-temple at Ur may have been at the root of some events of the politically turbulent era. There is a possibility that at some stage Ur was captured by Hammurabi. The chief-priestess of Ur was inviolable under Sumerian law and the fact that Ravana did not dishonour Sita may show his regard for law. The Battle between Khammu-ravi and Ram-Sin who led a group of Ten-Kings was one of the most famous events of Sumerian history.

Rama Invaded Babylon

There is also a similarity between the war of Ten Kings during the Vedic period and battle of Ten kings in Sumeria,

Now I have come across references to Goddess Durga and Lakshmi in the Sumerian Culture.

Look at the following Image of Inanna.

Inanna, Sumerian Goddess.jpg Inanna, Sumerian Goddess.

You find the Lion  as one would find in Durga Temples and Trishul as well.

Goddess Durga.jpg Goddess Durga.

Inanna, the goddess of love and war, with a lion. No other image of Inanna better illustrates her dual nature. She is depicted as a goddess of love, “showing some leg”; while the lion and the weapons of battle (maces) seen rising up behind her shows that she is also the goddess  of war. In all of ancient mythology, no other deity is the goddess of love and war combined. The eight-pointed star (Venus) is another symbol associated with Inanna. This image is in photographic reverse. See the complete seal impression. Also see a line-drawing of the seal by S. Beaulieu.

Although she is called the goddess of love, Inanna is really the goddess of lust. She is not associated with romance, marriage, fertility or child-bearing. She is so extreme in her emotions, so psychotic in her desires, and so relentless in getting what she wants, she thus symbolizes the violence of human passion. This is why she is also represents the destruction and carnage of war.’

Durga is a Goddess of Power .

As Mahalakshmi.

I have not found the legend of Lakshmi as the daughter of Moon in any other culture excepting in Hinduism.

Inanna’s Akkadian counterpart is Ishtar. In different traditions Inanna is the daughter of Anu or she is the daughter of the moon-god Sin.

And like Lakshmi, Inanna has a sister,

‘Additionally, the myth may be described as a union of Inanna with her own “dark side”, her twin sister-self, Ereshkigal, as when she ascends it is with Ereshkigal’s powers, while Inanna is in the underworld it is Ereshkigal who apparently takes on fertility powers, and the poem ends with a line in praise, not of Inanna, but of Ereshkigal. It is in many ways a praise-poem dedicated to the more negative aspects of Inanna’s domain, symbolic of an acceptance of the necessity of death to the continuance of life.

Lakshmi’s Elder sister is Jyesta Devi, personification of things inauspicious.

Devadasi system in Sumeria.

The Devadasi system, I have been thinking, was unique to India.


‘Along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers were many shrines and temples dedicated to Inanna. The House of Heaven (Sumerian: e2-anna; Cuneiform: 𒂍𒀭 E2.AN) temple[6] in Uruk[7] was the greatest of these, where sacred prostitution was a common practice. In addition, according to Leick 1994 persons of asexual or hermaphroditic bodies and feminine men were particularly involved in the worship and ritual practices of Inanna’s temples (see gala)’

And Iraq, has Sanatna Dharma connection!






Godmen Prophets Not Approved by Vedas Smritis Hinduism

Of late there has been a proliferation of godmen in Hinduism, offering salvation and performing miracles.

There are corporate Gurus, whose background is murky, who address world leaders, in the garb of Hinduism.

Their qualification is a few words of Hindu thoughts, some quotes and slick marketing.

There are Gurus for Yoga.

Yoga has become a school exercise!

Idiots like me imagine one has to follow Patanjali, who lays down strict code of conduct ad diet for yoga sadhana.

Today what one needs is a few mumbo-jumbo , basic lines in yoga and slick marketing.


Self styled godmen.jpg. Self styled godmen.

Please check my Posts on yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

Hinduism does not approve of Prophets, Godmen.

Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism is personal.

It does not allow brokers between you and God,after all He is your father.

You do not need a broker to talk to your father.

Nor does Hinduism believe in Prophets.

Vedas and Smritis do not approve of or condone these Godmen or Prophets.

There is no concept of Prophet or Godmen in Hinduism.

One strives to realize Oneself.

Paths travelled by great men are shown.

They are only indicative.

Each Man/woman has to find His/Her salvation.

It is purely personal and determined by one’s disposition, Swabhava.

No one can convert any one , in the real sense ,against his swabhava, Nature.

Lord Krishna, in The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 18, towards the close of the discourse to Arjuna, in the battle field of Mahabharata, says to Arjuna,

I have briefed you the secret of secrets, you decide what to follow, according to your nature, after analysing what is good for you’

This comes from Lord Krishna, an Avatar of Vishnu!

Arthur osbourne records thus on his discussion with Ramana Maharishi, the great Saint of this century.

When asked about his not accepting Sishyas , Disciples,Ramana Maharishi replied.

‘Who is a Guru and who is a Sishya?

All are Brahman.

and if you are hungry, only you should eat, not Me.

So search for reality on you’

  • Though the article has received acceptance, there have been some comments in Facebook communities and by way of personal omments to my mail ID, about me questioning the Guru system of Hinduism

What I have written here is about Godmen and Prophets, who have no place either in Sruthi and Smriti.

However the Guru systemws practised during the Veidc and subsequent periods to teach Vedas and guide individuals in the Dharmic path, with no intent on the part of the teacher to ern money.

And the concept of Guru, Acharya and Updhyaya are laid down.

Excerpt from my earlier Post.

Vedas have Chapters.

One who teaches these parts is called Upaadhyayaa.

He takes compensation for this service.

‘एकदेसम तु  वेदस्य वेदान्गान्यबी  वा पुन:: यूअध्यापथि वृथ्यर्थं  उपाध्याय: स  उच्च्यथे I’-Manu Smriti.

Whereas one who does Brahmopadesam at the time of Upanayana and follows up with Teaching of the vedas is Called Acharya.

Guru is one who seeks you out, if your yearning is sincere.

He knows your yearnings ,assesses your capacity and initiates you in the process that suits you, for individuals are unique ,so are the paths to Realization.

Guru is the Mentor while others are facilitators to study Veda

Guru Acharya Upadhyaya

If people believe in Godmen and at  later date they come to know that they have been misled, there is no point in blaming Hinduism as Hinduism, I repeat does not approve of Godmen and Prophets.

It may be of interest to note that even Lord Rama and Krishna were not worshiped in the same way we worship them today, during their time.

They were respected because of their actions, in the case of Krishna ,He was even abused!

Everyone was ( at least many were) engaged in following Dharma as enshrined in the Vedas and were attempting to realize self.




Veda Shakhas Brahmin Distribution Region wise

Vedas, the basic referral text of Hindus is a highly organized one.

There are four Vedas, Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Veda.

Each Veda has four divisions,

Samhitas or Hymns.

Texts of Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism.png Texts of Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism.

Brahmanas, Rituals.

Aranyakas, to be recited in the forest and

Upanishads, containing the highest Knowledge of Reality, Brahman.

Veda has  two sub divisions.

Shukla and Krishna Yajur.

These Hymns have Sukhthas in them which are in praise of  Deities and they are also explanation of Cosmology.

Some of them are also addressed to curing diseases .

These texts have been classified by Rishis.

Each Veda has many Branches. called Shakhas.

A shakha (Sanskrit śākhā, “branch” or “limb”), is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school.[3][4] An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a śākhin.[5] The term is also used in Hindu philosophy to refer to an adherent of a particular orthodox system.

A related term caraṇa, (“conduct of life” or “behavior”) is also used to refer to such a Vedic school:[7] “although the words caraṇa andśākhā are sometimes used synonymously, yet caraṇa properly applies to the sect or collection of persons united in one school, andśākhā to the traditional text followed, as in the phrase śākhām adhite, (“he recites a particular version of the Veda”)”.[4] The schools have different points of view, described as “difference of (Vedic) school” (śākhābhedaḥ). Each school would learn a specific VedicSaṃhita (one of the “four Vedas” properly so-called), as well as its associated Brahmana, Aranyakas, Shrautasutras, Grhyasutrasand Upanishads.

The traditional source of information on the shakhas of each Veda is the Caraṇa-vyūha, of which two, mostly similar, versions exist: the 49th pariśiṣṭa of the Atharvaveda, ascribed to Shaunaka, and the 5thpariśiṣṭa of the Śukla (White) Yajurveda, ascribed to Kātyāyana. These have lists of the numbers of recensions that were believed to have once existed as well as those still extant at the time the works were compiled. Only a small number of recensions have survived.

Rig Veda

Śaunaka‘s Caraṇa-vyuha lists five shakhas for the Rig Veda, the Śākala, Bāṣkala, Aśvalāyana, Śaṅkhāyana, and Māṇḍukāyana of which only the Śākala and Bāṣkala are now extant. The Bashkala recension of the Rigveda has the Khilani which are not present in the Shakala text but is preserved in one Kashmir manuscript (now at Pune). The Shakala has the Aitareya-Brahmana, The Bashkala has the Kausitaki-Brahmana.

There is, however, Sutra literature from the Aśvalāyana shakha, both a shrauta sutra and a grhya sutra, both surviving with a commentary (vrtti) by Gargya Naranaya. Gargya Naranaya’s commentary was based on the longer commentary or bhashya by Devasvamin, written in the 11th century.

Yajur Veda

Śaunaka‘s Caraṇa-vyuha lists forty-two or forty-four out of eighty-six shakhas for the Yajur Veda, but that only five of these are now extant, with a sixth partially extant. For the Yajur Veda the five (partially in six) shakhas are the (Vajasaneyi Madhandina, Kanva; Taittiriya, Maitrayani, Caraka-Katha, Kapisthala-Katha).

The Yajurvedin shakhas are divided in Shukla (White) and Krishna (Black) schools. The White recensions have separate Brahmanas, while the Black ones have their(much earlier) Brahmanas interspersed between the Mantras.

  • Shukla Yajurveda: Vājasaneyi Samhita Madhyandina (VSM), Vājasaneyi Samhita Kānva (VSK): Shatapatha Brahmana (ShBM, ShBK)
  • Krishna Yajurveda: Taittirīya Saṃhita (TS) with an additional Brahmana, Taittiriya Brahmana (TB), Maitrayani Saṃhita (MS), Caraka-Katha Saṃhita (KS), Kapiṣṭhala-Katha Saṃhita (KapS).
  • Citation.


for more on Vedas check my Posts by Googling Vedas ramanan50.


Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Madhyandina (VSM) Currently recited by all over North Indian Brahmins and by Deshastha Brahmins Madhyandina Shatapatha (SBM) survives as Shatapatha XIV.1-8, with accents. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad= SBM XIV. 3-8, with accents, Ishavasya Upanishad = VSM 40
Kanva (VSK) Currently recited by Utkala Brahmins, Kannada Brahmins, Karhade Brahmins and few Iyers Kanva Shatapatha (SBK)(different from madhyandina) survives as book XVII of SBK Brihadaranyaka Upanishad=SBK,with accents, Ishavasya Upanishad = VSK 40


Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Taittiriya TS,Present all over South India and in Konkan Taittiriya Brahmana (TB) and Vadhula Br. (part of Vadhula Srautrasutra) Taittiriya Aranyaka (TA) Taittiriya Upanishad (TU)
Maitrayani MS,Recited by few Brahmins in Nasik virtually same as the Upanishad Maitrayaniya Upanishad
Caraka-Katha Katha Aranyaka (almost the entire text from a solitary manuscript) Kathaka Upanishad, Katha-Shiksha Upanishad
Kapishthala KapS (fragmentary manuscript, only first sections accented), edited (without accents) by Raghu Vira.

Sama Veda

Śaunaka‘s Caraṇa-vyuha lists twelve shakhas for the Sama Veda out of a thousand that are said to have once existed, but that of these only one or perhaps two are still extant. The two Samaveda recensions are the Jaiminiya and Kauthuma.

The Kauthuma shakha has the PB, SadvB, the Jaiminiya shakha has the Jaiminiya Brahmana.

Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Kauthuma edited,Recited by all over North and in South India[citation needed] edited (8 Brahmanas in all), no accents None. The Samhita itself has the ‘Aranyaka’. Chandogya Upanishad
Ranayaniya Manuscripts of Samhita exist.Recited byGokarna[disambiguation needed],and Deshastha Brahmins[citation needed] Same as Kauthuma with minor differences. None. The Samhita itself has the ‘Aranyaka’. Same as Kauthuma.
Jaiminiya/Talavakara Samhita edited.Recited by Nambudiris and choliyal of Tamil nadu[citation needed] Two distinct styles of Saman recitation, partially recorded and published.[citation needed] Brahmana published (without accents) – Jaiminiya Brahmana, Arsheya Brahmana Tamil Nadu version of Talavakara Aranyaka (=Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana) published[citation needed] Kena Upanishad

Atharva Veda

Only one shakha of an original nine is now extant for the Atharvaveda. The nine sakhas were Paippalada, Tauda, Mauda, Shaunakiya, Jajala, Jalada, Brahmavada, Devadarsa and Chaarana-Vaidya.

The Shaunaka is the only shakha of the Atharvaveda for which both printed texts and an active oral tradition are known to still exist.

For the Atharvaveda, both the Shaunakiya and the Paippalada traditions contain textual corruptions, and the original text of the Atharvaveda may only be approximated from comparison between the two.

Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Shaunaka AVS, edited and recited by all over North India and South India Fragmentary Gopatha Brahmana (extant and published), no accents. Mundaka Upanishad (?) published.
Paippalada AVP; recited by Utkala Brahmins as samhita patha only. otherwise, two manuscripts survive: Kashmiri (mostly edited) and Oriya (partly edited, by Dipak Bhattacharya and others, unaccented) lost,similar to that of Gopatha Brahmana Prashna Upanishad, Sharabha Upanishad etc. – all edited.[citation needed]

Bullfighting Jallikkattu Spain corrida de toros Started By Krishna

The presence of Bull in Hinduism is on two counts.

One is as the Mount of Lord Shiva.

As Shiva’s mount the bull is called Nandi.


There are temples dedicated to Nandikeshwara or Nandeswara.

There is a Huge Nandi, among other places in India, in Bangalore.

A road is also named as Bull Temple Road in Bangalore.

Another instance of buffalo is the slaying of it by Mahishauramardhini.

Tamil literature speaks of bull fighting as Jallikkattu , which is about 5000 Years old practice.

This event takes place in Tamil Nadu even today.

The important place where the jallikkatu takes place is Alanganaalur,near madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

The Bullfighting practice has been in vogue in many ancient cultures.

The bullfighting in Spain and Latin American countries is called corrida de toros.

Lord Krishna married a  Pandyan princess, had a daughter through her, Pandya and gifted her 100 Yadava families as dowry.

Krishna also attended Tamil Sangam as a Guest.

Please read my posts on this.

It is probable that Krishna introduced bullfighting in Tamil Nadu and throughout the world.

Bullfighting Inscription in Tamil Nadu musuem.jpg

Bull fighting in Tamil Literature. “A Bull baiting inscription 1” by Thamizhpparithi Maari – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_Bull_baiting_inscription_1.JPG#/media/File:A_Bull_baiting_inscription_1.JPG

Bullfighting Inscription in Tamil Nadu musuem.

Spanish Bullfight.jpg Spanish Bullfight.

Bullfighting (Spanish: corrida de toros [koˈriða ðe ˈtoɾos] or toreo [toˈɾeo]; Portuguese: tourada [toˈɾaðɐ]), also known astauromachia or tauromachy (Spanish: tauromaquia  listen , Portuguese: tauromaquia; from Greek: ταυρομαχία“bull-fight”),is a traditional spectacle of Spain, Portugal, southern France and some Latin American countries (Mexico,Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Peru),[7] in which one or more bulls are fought in a bullring. Although a blood sport, by definition, some followers of the spectacle prefer to view it as a ‘fine art’ and not a sport,[8] as there are no elements of competition in the proceedings.’

The Mitanni Empire covered what is now known as Iraq, Turkey Syria, Lebanon,Egypt and included Italy.

They were the ancestors of these people.

Mitanni were the ancestors of the Egyptians as well…

These Kings and even a Roman Emperor sported Thiruman, The Vaishnavite marks on their Body.

The Sun King Akhenaten of Egypt who ruled between 1352-1336 BC was a son-in-law of Tushratta, the Mitanni king. The name Tushratta has been recorded in the Hittite cuneiform script.

Some have suggested that the Sanskrit origin of Tushratta is Dasaratha, a few others that it is Tvesaratha (having splendid chariots), a name which is attested in the Rigveda.

“The first Mitanni king was Sutarna I (good sun). He was followed by Baratarna I (or Paratarna great sun), Parasuksatra(ruler with axe),…. Saustatar (Sauksatra, son of Suksatra, the good ruler), Artadama (abiding in cosmic law)..Tushratta (Dasaratha), and finally Matiwazza (Mativaja, whose wealth is thought) during whose lifetime the Mitanni state appears to have become a vassal to Assyria”. Subhash Kak traces the ‘arna’ syllable in the names of the kings to ‘araNi’ (अरणि) meaning ‘sun’…

(Akhenaten, Surya, and the Rigveda’, Prof Subhash Kak (an Indian American computer scientist, previous Head of Computer Science Department, Oklahoma State University)…

Bull fighting in Spain started around 18th century. There are different versions of bull fighting. In Spain the bull is killed ,that too with a weapon like we see in the Indus seals. This type of bull fighting has spread to Latin America and Mexico when the Spanish culture was introduced.

Whether it is Tamil Nadu or Spain special kind of bulls are raised exclusively for this purpose with a special type of diet and special training. Tamils have practised this ancient sport for at least two thousand years. They call it Jalli kattu or Manju Virattu or Eru Thazuvuthal. It means chasing the bull or tackling the bull. In ancient Tamil Nadu the horns of the bulls were tied with coins, may be gold coins…

We have lot of proof to believe that the Bull fighting was started by Lord Krishna who was the most popular cowherd (Yadava Kula Tilaka) in the world. Kaliyuga started in 3102 BC after the death of Krishna. But Mahabharata war took place between 1000 and 1500 BC according to majority of the scholars. Even if we go by this date, Krishna was the first one to have a fight with almost all the animals. He fought with an elephant, a bull, a python, a horse, a cran , a donkey and many more . All were set up by his uncle Kamsa according to Hindu mythology. These anecdotes have produced huge literature in Tamil and Sanskrit which has got no parallel in any part of the world. Krishna’s episodes are mentioned in film songs even today in almost all the Indian languages. The bull Krishna fought was Aristasura.

The proof for Krishna starting this comes from 2000 year old Sangam Tamil literature. Kalitokai is one of the eight anthologies of Sangam (Cankam) period. Nalluruthtiranar who sang Mullai Kali gave a graphic description of bull fighting. Justifying his name Shiva (Rudra), the poet mentioned Lord Siva in all his poems. Justifying that it was started during Mahabaharata days the poet gave lot of references to Mahabharata episodes. He said that it was practised by the Ayar community (cowherds)in the pastoral areas.

The poet mentioned how the bulls tear the bull fighters apart like the buffalo riding Yama, God of Death. The colourful bulls are described and compared to various personalities -white bull to Balarama and black bull to Krishna and so on. The Mullaik Kali has got 16 poems beautifully describing the pastoral culture of ancient Tamilnadu. Anyone who reads this Mullaik Kali will get a better picture of how it was practised in ancient Tamil Nadu. All the suspense, gossip, flirting, amorous desires of Ayar girls are dealt with in hundreds of lines- a feast to Tamil lovers.’



Jallikkattu, Alanganallur.jpg Jallikkattu, Alanganallur.

Jallikattu (Tamil: சல்லிகட்டு, callikaṭṭtu) also known Eruthazhuvuthal (Tamil: ஏறுதழுவல், ērutazhuval) or Manju viraṭṭu (Tamil: மஞ்சு விரட்டு), is a bull taming sport played in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations on Mattu Pongal day. Bulls are bred specifically for the sporting event and a specific breed of cattle bred for this purpose is known as “Jellicut”. In May 2014, the Supreme Court banned the sport citing animal welfare issues.

Jallikattu, which is bull-baiting or bull cuddling/holding was a popular sport amongst warriors during the Tamil classical period. Bull fighting was common among the ancient tribes who lived in the ‘Mullai’ geographical division of the ancient Tamil country.[5] Later, it the sport became a platform for display of bravery and prize money was introduced for entertainment. The term “Jallikattu” originated from the words “Jalli” and “Kattu”, referring to silver or gold coins tied to the bulls’ horns.[5] A seal from the Indus Valley Civilization depicting the sport is preserved in the National Museum, New Delhi.[6] A single painting discovered in a cave about 35 km west of Madurai shows a lone man trying to control a bull and the painting, done in white kaolin is estimated to be about 1,500 years old