Lost Ancient Cities Of India


Sanatana Dharma, as has been proved was ancient.

Madurai Meenakshiamman Temple.Image.jpg Madurai Meenakshiamman Temple. Image Credit. http://ayshamohamed93.blogspot.in/2014/11/my-madurai.html

It was quite advanced in Arts, Literature,Science and Philosophy.

The temple architecture bears testimony to the development of Science, especially Astronomy .

Gangaikonda Cholapuram,.Image.jpg Gangaikonda Cholapuram,. Image credit.http://www.incredibleindiaphotogallery.com/2012/07/glimpse-to-the-glorious-past-gangaikonda-cholapuram/dsc_5102/

The construction of these temples, with stones in an area where no stones or Mountains were available is a testimony to the fact that the ancient knew quarrying and more importantly transporting heavy materials like a single stone of nearly 180 tons to the roof of the temple which is 216 feet in the year 1000 AD.

It is the Thanjavur Brhadeeswara Temple in Tamil Nadu.

There are temples where the rays of the Sun touch the idol at the sanctum on a particular day of the year.

1000 pillars Halls, Stone pillars producing the Seven Notes of the Carnatic Music, cave temples ..the list is endless.

The cities were laid out in a systematic pattern in south India.

In the Centre was a temple, with a Pond.

The city was surrounded by square-shaped streets around the temple complex, all the streets leading to the Temple.

This can be seen in many temples in many cities of Tamil Nadu, notable examples being  Madurai, Sri Rangam Srivilliputhur, Chidambaram.

These cities had a resting place for Travelers at regular intervals on the highways, at every Kaatham, about 16 Kilometers.

This may be seen on the road from Madurai to Srivilliputtur.

Each city , at the outskirts , had a small water tank meant for animals.

A stone column was erected for the animals to relieve their itching!

Such a civilization should have had great cities.

Many have sunk as in Lemuria where the Tamil Sangam 1  and 2 were held, in Then Madurai ( South Madurai and Kavatapuram)

We had Indraprastha  now called Delhi,Pataliputra, now Patna

I had a look at  some of the ancient cities of India which are to be discovered in full.

If people can look around places where tanks had been located with the satellite imagery they would find more cities.

Here is  a List, which, of course, is not exhaustive.

I shall be writing on each of them in detail.

Readers may also contribute.

  • Dholavira – Located in Gujarat, India. Indus Valley Civilization city
  • Vijayanagar – Located in Karnataka, India. Now a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Poompuhar – Located in Tamil Nadu, South India
  • Lothal – Located in Gujarat, India – early city of the Indus Valley Civilization
  • Surkotada – Located in Gujarat, India – early city of the Indus Valley Civilization
  • Pattadakal – Located in Karnataka, South India. Now a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Vasai-Located in India, former capital (1533-1740) of the Northern Provinces of Portuguese India
  • Aror is located 8 kilometres east ofRohri in present daySindh, Pakistan. It had served as the ancient capital ofSindh and was oncelocated on the banks of Indus River. The city was once the prime nucleus centre of commerce and trade. The main languages spoken by the people are Hindi language, Urdu language, Punjabi language and Sindhilanguageand the religion followed were Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism.Kannauj
    Kannauj was one of the most beautiful ancient cities in India that was ruled by different rulers. The city was described as a city which raised its head to the skies and which in strength and beauty might boast of being unrivalled. Kannauj has incessantly served as a place of immense historical significance. The city had, much later, become a new district of the Uttar Pradesh on September 18th, 1997.Bairat
    Bairat is a much celebrated and momentous town in the northern Jaipur of Rajasthan. It is located 52 kilometres north of Jaipur and 66 kilometres west of Alwar.

    Kalibangan
    Kalibangan is a town situated in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan. The town is precisely located upon the banks of Ghaggar River. This ancient city of India has been considered as the third important city amongst all the excavated Harappan sites, under the Indus valley civilization. The city had received its name from the innumerable pieces of terracotta bangles that were excavated here.

    Sravasti
    Sravasti is an exceedingly substantial Buddhist religious and research centre, located in the Gonda district of Uttar Pradesh.

    Sagala
    Sagala is believed to be the modern day Sialkot, and it had once served as a great centre of trade and commerce, filled with business prospects.

    Sitanagaram
    Sitanagaram is a small and humble and ancient site located in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.

  • Hansi is a town in theHisar district of Haryana. The ancient city ofHansi is known to possess five gates to enter Delhi. It majestically incorporate the Delhi Gate at the East,Hisar gate at the West,Gosain gate at North-West,Barsi Gate at South andUmra Gate in thesouth west direction.Kumbhoj
    Kumbhoj is the name of an ancient town located in the Kolhapur district of Maharashtra.Kalpi
    Kalpi is an ancient city of India, in Jalaun district of Uttar Pradesh. Kalpi rather seizes stronghold from its sisterly counterparts, due to being conceived as the birthplace of sage Ved Vyas. The city of Kalpi is also renowned for its art of paper making.

    Bhinmal
    Bhinmal is a town in the Jalore district of Rajasthan. Bhinmal had once served as the capital of ancient Gujarat. The earlier name of Bhinmal was Bhillamala.

    Tamralipta
    Tamralipta is the name of another important ancient city of West Bengal. Now the place is however identified as Tamluk. Tamluk derives its name from the Sanskrit word Tamra Lipta meaning ‘full of copper’.

    Urayur
    Urayur is an ancient city located in Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu.

    Dwaraka
    Dwaraka is another ancient city situated in Gujarat. According to Hindu mythology, Dwaraka was the dwelling place of Lord Krishna. The meaning of the word Dwaraka is a ‘door’.

    Ujjain
    Ujjain is located on the banks of Shipra River in Madhya Pradesh. According to Hindu mythology, Shipra had originated from the much admired churning of the oceans by the Gods and the Demons, with Vasuki, the serpent, serving as the rope. Osiyan is another ancient city that is approximately located at a distance of 65 kilometres from Jodhpur in Rajasthan. The city houses a number of temples and is presently a famous tourist spot.

    Bayana
    Bayana is a town in the Bharatpur district of Rajasthan.

  • The ancient name of the city wasSripatha orSriprashtha orShantipura. The city is claimed to have been discovered rather accidentally by an asura namedBanasura.Chunar
    Chunar is in the Mirzapur District of Uttar Pradesh.

Citation and Reference.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_city#India

Rama Sita in Vedas A Contradiction?


Sometimes one comes across references in the Ithihasa and Puranas , when related to the Vedas there is confusion.

Rama and Sita. image.jpg Rama and Sita.

The Vedas,the Scripture of the Hindus, are accepted as Apaurusheya, not man-made and timeless, are undoubtedly the earliest works of Sanatana Dharma, and the Vedas , especially the Rig Veda is considered to be first literature of Mankind.dated conservatively at 5000 BC.

The Ithihasas Ramayana and Mahabharata come later.

One comes across references to Rama and Sita in the Ramayana.

References to Rama in Ramayana.

“14 This to Duḥśīma Pṛthavāna have I sung, to Vena, Rama, to the nobles, and the King.
They yoked five hundred, and their love of us was famed upon their way.
15 Besides, they showed us seven-and-seventy horses here.
Tānva at once displayed his gift, Pārthya at once displayed his gift; and straightway Māyava showed his.” XCIII Visvedevas.

Vena is the ancestor of Rama.

In the absence of Dasaratha reference, some dispute the name Rama as the Rama of Ramayana.

There is an interesting  note found in the Bala Kanda of Ramayana.

Valmiki wrote that he wrote the Ramayana to expound The Vedas.

“kushiilavau tu dharmaGYau raajaputrau yashasvinau |
bhraatarau svarasampannau dadarsha aashramavaasinau ||
sa tu medhaavinau dR^ishhTvaa vedeShu pariniShThitau |
vedopabR^ihmaNaarthaaya taavagraahayata prabhuh ||
kaavyaM raamaayaNaM kR^itsnaM siitaayaashcharitaM mahat.h|
paulastya vadhamityeva chakaara charitavrataH||

(vAlmIki-rAmAyaNa–bAlakANDa 1.4.5-7)

The princes, the brothers, Kusha and Lava, were knowledgeable about Dharma and were glorious. Their voices were melodious and they lived in the hermitage of (vAlmIki). He (vAlmIki), established in good deeds, observed those two extremely intelligent (princes), skilled in the Vedas, and for the sake of expounding the Vedas, he composed and made them study the poem sampUrNa-rAmAyaNa (the entire rAmAyaNa) (containing) the great story of sItA and the slaying of rAvaNa.

These verses from the vAlmIki-rAmAyaNa clearly show that the sage vAlmIki composed the rAmAyaNa to expound the meaning of the Vedas…

Sita in the Vedas.

Auspicious Sita, come thou near;We venerate and worship thee
That thou mayst bless and prosper us
And bring us fruits abundantly.

-Rig veda 4.57

In Harivansha Sita has been invoked as one of the names of goddess Arya:

O goddess, you are the altar’s center in the sacrifice,
The priest’s fee
Sita to those who hold the plough
And Earth to all living being.

The Kausik-sutra and the Paraskara-sutra associate her repeatedly as the wife of Parjanya (a god associated with rains) and Indra.[4]

Sita is known by many epithets. She is called Jānaki as the daughter of Janaka and Maithili as the princess of Mithila.[5] As the wife of Rama, she is called Ramā. Her father Janaka had earned the sobriquet Videha due to his ability to transcend body consciousness; Sita is therefore also known as Vaidehi.

Is this not an Anachronism?

How can the Vedas mention Rama and Sita who came later?

The Ramayana mention that Rama was adorned with Upaveeda and the Upanayana ceremony was performed according the Vedic procedure.

Sita Rama Marriage was performed according to Vedic rites.

Why this contradiction?

The explanation for Rama being found Rama in Vedas.

10.111.07 sacanta yad uShasaH sooryeNa citrAm asya ketavo rAm avindan |
10.111.07 A yan nakShatraM dadRushe divo na punar yato nakir addhA nu veda ||(Rig Veda)

pra tadduHshIme pR^ithavAne vene pra rAme vochamasure maghavatsu |
ye yuktvAya pa.ncha shatAsmayu pathA vishrAvyeshhAm.h ||9Rig Veda 10.93.14),

In yajnas of wealthy kings such as duHshIma, pR^ithavAna, vena, and the powerful rAma, I utter hymns to the gods who travel by 500 chariots drawn by horses in the world of the gods, and who are fond of us (humans).

1.’Since rAmAyaNa is based on the Vedas, there must be mantras in the Vedas that correspond to the immortal story of rAma. It is with this objective that nIlakaNTha, the great commentator on the mahAbhArata, has presented, with his own wonderful commentary, the mantra-rAmAyaNa. The mantra-rAmAyaNa is a compilation of Riks from the R^ig Veda that narrate the story of rAma or the rAmAyaNa.”

2.As I have posted earlier the Vedas were not grasped in one shot.

They were grasped by different Rishis at different times.

Hence the reference to  Rama in the Ramayana could have been included in the later revelations, while a portion of the Vedas were in existence before Rama, which Rama followed.

Reference of Sita in Ramayana.

1. If one were to look at the etymology of the word Sita, it means Furrow, indicating that Sita was found while using furrowing.

As such she was considered to be daughter of Earth.

As Sita was found while using the Furrow, she might have been given the name Sita.

The name given to her was Janaki, daughter of Janaka..

This practice is called Thaddidhaantam, that of linking the the name of the offspring to father.

Thus Rama is also called Dasarathy.

The other explanation for Sita being mentioned in the Vedas is the same as stated for Rama.

Citation.

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2014/08/07/ramayana-in-the-rig-veda/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sita#Legend

Oldest Himalayan Cave Temple Ravana’s Gate Patal Bhuvaneswar


There are lost Cave Temples in the Himalayas.

Some of them have been found are in a difficult terrain.

They have fascinating histories.

Patal Bhuvaneswar.image.jpg Patal Bhuvaneswar.Pithogarh.

One such is Pathala Bhuvaeswara temple, in Uttarkhand,India

 

Patal Bhuvaneswar Cave Entrance.image.jpg Patal Bhuvaneswar Cave Entrance.

‘The first human to discover this cave was Raja Ritupurna who was a king in Surya Dynasty who was ruling Ayodhya during the Treta Yuga. The story starts with Ritupurna and King Nala. It is said that once, King Nala was defeated by his wife, Queen Damayanti. In order to escape his wife’s prison Nala requested Ritupurna to hide him. Ritupurna took him to the forests of the Himalayas and asked him to stay there. While going back home he was fascinated by a deer which ran into woods and went after it. He could not find it and took rest under a tree. He had a dream where the deer was asking Ritupurna not to chase him. His sleep broke and as he woke up and went to a cave where a guard was standing. After enquiring about the cave he was allowed to go inside. Right at the entrance, Ritupurna met Sheshnag who agreed to take him through the cave. It carried him on his hood. He saw the marvels of Gods taking place inside. He all the 33-crore gods and goddesses including Lord Shiva himself. It is said that after his visit, the cave was closed for ages with a slight prediction in the Skandpurana that it will be reopened again in Kaliyuga. Shankarcharya in Kalyug, during his temporary visit to Himalayas re-discovered this cave. Since then regular worship and offering are being done at this place.

Patal Bhuvaneswar Location Map.image.jpg

Patal Bhuvaneswar Location Map.

According to belief King Rituparna of the Sun dynasty (Surya Vansha) discovered the cave in ‘Treta yug’. It has been described in the ‘MANAS KHAND’ of ‘SKAND PURAN’. Adi Shankaracharya visited this cave in 1191 AD. That was the beginning of the modern pilgrimage history, at Patal Bhuvaneshwar.[2] The journey inside the cave has to be carried in feeble lights, holding protective iron chains. The Stone formations of Sheshnag can be seen, holding earth, heaven the world beneath. ‘Havan’ (fire sacrifice) is performed in a dimly lit, solemn atmosphere, under the spell of holy chants. You’ll also be impressed by theto visit these parts form the celestial heights of His abode in Kailash.The cave, it is believed, is connected by an underground route to Mount Kailash.[3] it’s believed that Pandavas, the ‘Mahabharat’ heroes proceeded towards their last journey in the Himalayas after meditating here, in front of Lord Shiva.This hidden pilgrimage situated at 1,350mts above sea level is mainly dedicated to Lord Shiva.Almost every god that you would have heard of resides in this mystifying cave. It is also believed that you can worship at Patal Bhuvaneshwar is equivalent to worshipping at Char Dham of Uttarakhand.

The priest family, the Bhandaris are performing religious rites at Patal Bhuvaneshwar since the time of the Adi Shankaracharya. More than 20 generations in the line. They are a treasure house of legends, lores, anecdotes and information about this holy place. It is also believed that this cave is internally connected to the four abodes /seats (Char Dham)

“This awesome cave is believed to be as old as the earth itself. It has been mentioned in detail in the 103 chapter of Manaskhand of “Skanda Purana”. The first human who entered this cave was king “Rituparna” of Suraya Dynasty during the “Tretayuga”. It is said that during his visit, he had encountered several demons and “Sheshnaag” himself acted as his guide.One can see the gateway of the great ages in Patal Bhuvaneshwar. There are four entrances inside the cave named as ‘Randwar’ ‘Paapdwar’, ‘Dharamdwar’ and ‘Mokshadwar’. The Paapdwar was closed soon after the death of Ravana and the Randwar, literally, the road to war, was closed down after the great Mahabharata war. At present only two gateways are opened. You can see the tongue of Kali Bhairav, Aravati of Indra, hairs of Lord Shiva and several other wonders inside the caves of Patal Bhuvaneshwar.

How to reach Patal Bhuvaneswar.

 


The nearest airport to Patal Bhuvaneshwar is Pantnagar Airport. Pantnagar Airport is situated 244kms from Patal Bhuvaneshwar. Taxis are easily available to Patal Bhuvaneshwar from Pantnagar Airport. Patal Bhuvaneshwar is well connected by motorable roads with major towns of Kumaon.

By Train

The nearest railhead to Patal Bhuvaneshwar is Tanakpur situated at a distance of 154kms. Taxis and buses are easily available from Tanakpur Railway Station to Patal Bhuvaneshwar, Gangolighat, and Lohaghat etc. Tanakpur is well connected with major destinations of India like Lucknow, Delhi, Agra and Kolkata. Trains are frequent to Tanakpur Railway Station.

Patal Bhuvaneshwar is well connected by motorable roads with major destinations of Uttarakhand state. Buses from ISBT Anand Vihar are available to Tanakpur, Champawat, Pithoragarh, Lohaghat and many other destinations from where you can easily hire a local cab or bus to reach Patal Bhuvaneshwar.

Citation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patal_Bhuvaneshwar

 

Hanuman Chanting Rama's Name.Image.jpg

Ramayana Is Gayatri Mantra. Rig Veda,Valmiki ,Agastya


Indian Legends is Factual.Allegorical and Philosophical.

Persons and events narrated in the legends are open for verification , they convey spiritual truth in the form of allegory and they also express complex abstract philosophical thoughts.

Thus the existence of Rama is proved by astronomical and archaeology.

Ramayana also expresses the spiritual truth thus.

Coronation of Lord Rama.Image.jpg Sri Rama Pattabhisheka.

Ravana represents the qualities of Sattva Rajas and Tamas not in balance.

While he is the personification for Satva for he is one of the ardent devotees of Shiva, a good ruler, and an affectionate brother, and husband.

He is an active ruler with military might,enjoyed the Bohemian way of Life by maintaining a huge Harem.

He was Tamasic when he lusted after another wife.

Though he had his control over his senses and desires he could not master them is this case.

So despite his valor ,piety, scholarship, and love of his subjects he was doomed once he gave way to the Tamasic impulse of lust.

Rama represents  the Satva in ascendance.

How this conquers  tendencies  the Rajasic and Tamasic  is Ramayana.

All the characters  represent some tendencies or Gunas and the result one begets in yielding to them.

At the philosophical level, it personifies in Lord Rama, The Brahman.

It illustrates how the Brahman when expressing itself, becomes entangled imagines itself ,because of Avidya/Maya,as  Aham(Mine) with worldly pleasures and pain an d in the end wisdom dawns  once t the Guna Viseshas are exhausted.

Not only this.

Valimiki states that he has designed the Ramayana after The Gayatri Mantra.

‘rAmAyaNadrumaM naumi rAmaraxAnavAN^kuram.h |
gAyatrIbIjamAmnAyamUlaM moxamahAphalam.h ||
(nIlakaNTha’s commentary on the
mantra-rAmAyaNa)

I bow to the tree of rAmAyaNa that has a new bud called the rAma-raxA-stotra, that which has the the gAyatrI (mantra) as its seed (bIja), that which has its roots in the Vedas, and that yields the great fruit of mokshha!

kushiilavau tu dharmaGYau raajaputrau yashasvinau |
bhraatarau svarasampannau dadarsha aashramavaasinau ||
sa tu medhaavinau dR^ishhTvaa vedeShu pariniShThitau |
vedopabR^ihmaNaarthaaya taavagraahayata prabhuh ||
kaavyaM raamaayaNaM kR^itsnaM siitaayaashcharitaM mahat.h|
paulastya vadhamityeva chakaara charitavrataH||

(vAlmIki-rAmAyaNa-bAlakANDa 1.4.5-7)

The princes, the brothers, Kusha and Lava, were knowledgeable about Dharma and were glorious. Their voices were melodious and they lived in the hermitage of (vAlmIki). He (vAlmIki), established in good deeds, observed those two extremely intelligent (princes), skilled in the Vedas, and for the sake of expounding the Vedas, he composed and made them study the poem sampUrNa-rAmAyaNa (the entire rAmAyaNa) (containing) the great story of sItA and the slaying of rAvaNa…

ata eva rAmAyaNe chaturvimshatisAhasrAyaM chaturvimshatigAyatryaxarANi
vAlmIkinA saMgR^ihItAni

For this reason, vAlmIki bases the twenty-four thousand verses of the rAmAyaNa on the twenty-four akshhara’s (syllables) of the gAyatrI mantra (of the Vedas).

nIlakaNTha quotes from the agastya-saMhitA to further support the fact that the rAmAyaNa story is drawn from the Vedas:

vedavedaye pare puMsi jAte dasharathAtmaje |
vedaH prAchetasAdAsIt.h sAxAdrAmAyaNAtmanA |
tasmAdrAmAyaNaM devi veda eva na saMshayaH ||

When the Supreme Being, known through the Vedas, was born as the son of dasharatha (rAma), the Veda (manifested itself) through the (mouth) of the sage prAchetasa directly as the rAmAyaNa. Therefore, O devi, the rAmAyaNa is the Veda itself, without a doubt.

nIlakaNTha is well known as the commentator par excellence of the mahAbhArata. He hailed from what is modern day Kopargaon in the state of Maharashtra but he is said to have settled down in Varanasi, where he wrote his commentary on the ‘bhArata called the “bhAratabhAvapradIpa.” This commentary is also known as the “nIlakaNThI.” This famous commentary on the bhArata is said to have been written towards the end of the 17th century C.E.

nIlakaNTha compiled a collection of mantras from the R^ig Veda that correspond to the story of rAma. This collection is called the “mantra- rAmAyaNa.” I will present a few of these mantras from the R^ig Veda, with notes from nIlakaNTha’s commentary, “mantra-rahasya-prakAshikA.”

The rAmAyaNa can be told in as many as 24,000 verses as in the vAlmIki rAmAyaNa or in just one verse as in the eka-shlokI-rAmAyaNa which captures all the main events of the epic such as rAma’s exile to the forest, killing of the golden deer, the kidnapping of sItA, the death of jaTAyu, the meeting with sugrIva and the punishment of vAlI, the crossing of the oceana and burning of laN^kA by HanumAn, and finally the slaying of rAvaNa and kuMbhakarNa:

Adau rAmatapovanAdigamanaM hatvA mR^iga-kAJNchanam.h
vaidehIharaNaM jaTAyumaraNaM sugrIva-saMbhAshhaNam.h |
vAli-dushhTa-nigrahaNam samudrataraNaM laN^kAdAhanam.h
pashchAt.h rAvaNa-kuMbhakarNa-hananaM etaddhi rAmAyaNam.h ||

The mantra-rAmAyaNa itself has more than 150 Riks. But I will present a few of them summarizing the immortal story of rAma.

First, there arises the question: does the name “rAma” occur in the veda and in what context?

R^ig Veda 10.93.14 (maNDala 10, sUkta 93, Rik 14) says:

pra tadduHshIme pR^ithavAne vene pra rAme vochamasure maghavatsu |
ye yuktvAya pa.ncha shatAsmayu pathA vishrAvyeshhAm.h ||

In yajnas of wealthy kings such as duHshIma, pR^ithavAna, vena, and the powerful rAma, I utter hymns to the gods who travel by 500 chariots drawn by horses in the world of the gods, and who are fond of us (humans).’

The Gayatri Ramayana.


Valmiki Ramayana contains 24000 slokas divided into 7 Kandas, namely, Balakanda, Ayodhya Kanda, Aranya Kanda, Kishkindha kanda, Sundara kanda,  Yuddha kanda  and Uttara Kanda.  The first letter of the first sloka in each group of 1000 slokas is taken from the Gayatri Mahamantra (given below) in the same sequence namely, त, स, वि, तु, व  etc.,

तत्सवितुर्वरॆण्यं
भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि
धियॊ यॊ नः प्रचोदयात्

The collection of these slokas constitutes the Gayatri Ramayana.

Each sloka is identified below by the
Kanda (1 for Balakanda, 2 forAyodhya Kanda etc),
chapter number within the Kanda,
and serial number of the sloka within the chapter:

  1. तपस्स्वाध्यायनिरतं तपस्वी वाग्विदां वरम्।

नारदं परिपप्रच्छ वाल्मीकिर्मुनिपुङ्गवम् ॥  (१.१.१)

Sage Valmiki, ever engaged in austerities and reading of scriptures, asked Narada, foremost among Munis and a Master in the art of word craft (speech).

[Note: Valmiki’s questions are expressed in the following slokas:

कोन्वस्मिन् सांप्रतं लोके गुणवान् कश्च वीर्यवान्।

धर्मज्ञश्च कृतज्ञश्च सत्यवाक्यो दृढव्रतः ॥   (१.१.२)

चारित्रेण च को युक्तः सर्वभूतेषु को हितः ।

विद्वान् कः कस्समर्थश्च कश्चैकप्रियदर्शनः॥(१.१.३)

आत्मवान् को जितक्रोधः द्युतिमान् कोऽनसूयकः।

कस्य बिभ्यति देवाश्च जातरोषस्य संयुगे ॥(१.१.४)

एतदिच्छाम्यहं श्रोतुं परं कौतूहलं हि मे।

महर्षे त्वं समर्थोऽसि ज्ञातुमेवं विधं नरं ॥(१.१.५)

O Naradamuni, Is there any man on this earth now who has all sterling qualities, who is valiant, who knows what is dharma, who acknowledges with gratitude whatever help is rendered to him, who always speaks the truth, who is firm on his commitments, whose conduct is unblemished, who thinks of the welfare of all beings, who is wise and competent, who has a pleasing appearance, who is rooted in his Atma, who has conquered anger, who gives out light, who is not envious and whom even the devas fear when he is afire with anger in a war?  I want to hear about him from you. I am keenly interested in this. You must be knowing someone with all these attributes.]

 

  1. स हत्वा राक्षसान्सर्वान् यज्ञघ्नान् रघुनन्दनः।

ऋषिभिः पूजितस्सम्यक् यथेन्द्रो विजयी पुरा ॥ (१.३०.२३)

Having killed the demons obstructing the sacrifice, Sri Ram was felicitated by the sages as Indra was felicitated long ago on his victory (over the asuras)

[Note: The context here is Rama’s protecting the sacrifice being performed by sage Viswamitra from the depredations ofrakshasas like Maricha]

  1. विश्वामित्रस्तु धर्मात्मा श्रुत्वा जनकभाषितम् ।

वत्स राम धनुः पश्य इति राघवमब्रवीत्  ॥ (१.६७.१२)

Hearing Janaka’s words, the righteous Viswamitra said to  Sri Ram  “O my boy Rama, take a look at this bow”

[Note: The context is the condition laid down by Janaka for the hand of Sita. The aspiring suitors had to lift the bow of Shiva, bend it and string it.  Sri Ram effortlessly lifted it and, in a swift lightning movement, broke it into two pieces in the act of stringing it]

  1. तुष्टावास्य तदा वंशं प्रविश्य च विशांपतेः।

शयनीयं नरेन्द्रस्य तदासाद्य व्यतिष्ठत ॥  (२.१५.२०)

Then Sumantra approached Rama’s abode and standing at the entrance of Rama’s bedroom praised Rama and his forebears in the dynasty.

[Note: The context is Kaikeyi’s insistence on sending Rama into the forests for fourteen years in exchange for one of the boons granted to her by Dasaratha earlier.  Dasaratha was heart-broken at the prospect of separation from his son for such a long time.  How could he convey this news to Rama?  He sends Sumantra to bring Rama to him.]

  1. वनवासं हि संख्याय वासांस्याभरणानि च।

भर्तारमनुगच्छन्त्यै सीतायै श्वशुरो ददौ ॥ (२.४०.१५)

Dasaratha gave Sita, who was following her husband (into the forest), enough clothes and ornaments reckoning the number of days to be spent in the forest,

[Note: The context is impending departure of Rama, Sita and Lakshmana into the forests]

  1. राजा सत्यं च धर्मं च राजा कुलवतां कुलम्।

राजा माता पिता चैव राजा हितकरो नृणाम् ॥  (2.67.34)

It is the king who the is upholder of Truth and Dharma, it is he who protects those of good genealogy (kula) and he is the father, mother and well-wisher of his subjects.

[Note: The above words are those of Markandeya and other hermits as well as ministers of Dasaratha who request Vasishtha to appoint one of Dasarath’s sons as the King since Rama has gone on vanavasa  and Dasaratha is dead unable to bear the separation of Rama ]

  1. निरीक्ष्य स मुहूर्तं तु ददर्श भरतो गुरुम् ।

उटजे राममासीनं जटामण्डलधारिणम् ॥२.९९.२५)

Bharata (after sighting the hermitage of Rama), spent a few minutes looking at it and then saw Rama , his Guru, sitting inside with his matted locks.

[Note: The context is Bharata visiting Rama at Chitrakuta with a view to persuading him to return to Ayodhya]

  1. यदि बुद्धिः कृता द्रष्टुं अगस्त्यं तं महामुनिम्।

अद्यैव गमने बुद्धिं रोचयस्व महायशाः ॥  (३.११.४४)

Sutikshna Rishi (in whose hermitage Rama was staying) said to  Rama “O Rama of great fame, if you intend visiting Agastya, the great sage,  then make up your mind to go there today itself”.

[Note: The context is when Rama spent time at the hermitage of Sutikhsna after Bharata’s visit]

  1. भरतस्यार्यपुत्रस्य श्वश्रूणां मम च प्रभो।

मृगरूपमिदं व्यक्तं विस्मयं जनयिष्यति  (३.४३.१७)

Sita  says to Rama “ This deer (of golden colour) will be an object of wonder for Aryaputra Bharata, my in-laws and for myself”

[Note: The context is Sita’s fascination for the deer of golden hue which was the guise put on by Maricha by his magical powers to lure Rama away from Sita]

  1. गच्छ शीघ्रमितो राम सुग्रीवं तं महाबलम्।

वयस्यं तं कुरु क्षिप्रमितो गत्वाद्य राघव ॥  (३.७२.१७)

Kabandha to Rama ( after he was freed from his curse and regained his original form): “ O Rama ! Leave this place without delay and go to the powerful Sugreeva.  Make friends with him quickly after going there today itself.“

  1. देशकालौ प्रतीक्षस्व क्षममाणः प्रियाप्रिये।

सुखदुःखसहः काले  सुग्रीववशगो भव ॥  (४.२२.२०)

Vali’s words, on his death bed, to Angada  “ Wait for the appropriate place and time,  taking with equanimity both likes and dislikes and pleasure and pain which occur over a period of time and put yourself under the control of Sugriva “

  1. वन्द्यास्ते तु तपस्सिद्धास्तपसा वीतकल्मषाः

प्रष्टव्याश्चापि सीतायाः प्रवृत्तिं विनयान्वितैः  ॥ (४.४३.३४)

Sugriva’s instructions to the Vanaras regarding the rishis they would meet during their search for Sita: “Those Rishis,  who by their austerities,  have attained the highest goal of life and have been purified by their tapas, are to be revered and respected.  You should enquire of them about Sita and her present situation with modesty and humility.”

  1. स निर्जित्य पुरीं श्रेष्ठां लङ्कां तां कामरूपिणीम्।

विक्रमेण महातेजाः हनूमान्मारुतात्मजः ॥ (५.४.१)

Having conquered  by his valour the guarding deity ofLankapuri,   who was capable of taking any form she desired, Hanuman, son of Vayu and very powerful (scaled the ramparts of Lanka)

  1. धन्या देवाः सगन्धर्वाः सिद्धाश्च परमर्षयः ।

मम पश्यन्ति ये नाथं रामं राजीवलोचनम् ॥ (५.२६.४१)

This sloka is from the soliloquy of Sita kept in captivity by Ravana in Ashokavanika:Devas, Gandharvas, Siddhas andRishis whosoever see my Lord Rama, who has eyes beautiful as lotus petals, will have their lives fulfilled.”

  1. मंगलाभिमुखी तस्य सा तदासीन्महाकपेः।

उपतस्थे विशालाक्षी प्रयता हव्यवाहनम् ॥ (५.५३.२६)

The wide-eyed (Sita), with the intention of blessing Hanuman and preventing any hurt to him,  prayed to the Fire God with a pure heart.

[Note: The context is the episode of Hanuman’s tail being wrapped in clothes, soaked in oil and set on fire by therakshasas. But the God of Fire (Agni) did not hurt Hanuman as the latter’s father Vayu was the former’s friend]

  1. हितं महार्थं मृदु हेतुसंहितं व्यतीतकालायतिसंप्रतिक्षमम्।

निशम्य तद्वाक्यमुपस्थितज्वरः प्रसङ्गवानुत्तरमेतदब्रवीत् ॥ (६.१०.२७)

Hearing (the Advice of Vibhishana) which was well-meaning, having a superior purpose, mild, reasoned, relevant equally in the past, the present and the future, Ravana was infuriated and being passionately attached gave the following reply.

[Note: The context is Vibhishana’s advising Ravana not to buy the enmity of Rama and honourably return Sita to him. Ravana could not digest this advice]

  1. धर्मात्मा रक्षसां श्रेष्ठः संप्राप्तोऽयं विभीषणः ।

लङ्कैश्वर्यं ध्रुवं श्रीमानयं प्राप्नोत्यकण्टकम् ॥ (६.४१.६८)

This Vibhishana, the embodiment of dharma and foremost amongrakshasas has arrived (to surrender himself to Rama) and he will surely inherit the whole of the riches of Lanka free of all enemies.

[Note: These are the words of Vali’s son Angada addressed to Ravana.  Angada had come to Ravana’s court as the emissary of Rama]

  1. यो वज्रपाताशनिसन्निपातान्न चुक्षुभे नापि चचाल राजा।

स रामबाणाभिहतो भृशार्तश्चचाल चापं च मुमोच वीरः ॥  (६.५९.१४०)

The valiant Ravana, struck by the vajrayudha of Indra or by thunder-bolt, was never agitated or moved but struck by the arrows of Rama he became extremely hurt, and the bow slipped from his hand.

[Note: The context is the first day’s fight between Rama and Ravana}

  1. यस्य विक्रममासाद्य राक्षसा निधनं गताः।

तं मन्ये राघवं वीरं नारायणमनामयम् ।  (6.72.11)

 

“On the strength of whose valour many rakshasas lost their lives that valiant Rama, I think, is the eternal Narayana Himself.”

[Note: These are the musings of Ravana when many of his commanders and his brother Kumbhakarna were put to death by Rama and Lakshmana]

  1. न ते ददर्शिरे रामं दहन्तमरिवाहिनीम्।

मोहिताः परमास्त्रेण गान्धर्वेण महात्मना ॥६.९४.२६॥

The large-hearted  Rama was scorching to death the army of the enemy but the rakshasas could not see him, deluded as they were by the  Gandharvastra (shot from the bow of Rama)

 

  1. प्रणम्य देवताभ्यश्च ब्राह्मणेभ्यश्च मैथिली ।

बद्धांजलिपुटाचेदमुवाचाग्निसमीपतः ॥  (६.११९.२३)

Offering her salutations to the devas and the brahmanas  Sita, with folded hands went near Agni and spoke thus

[Note: As commanded by Rama Sita steps into fire to prove her chastity and prays to Agni thus:

             यथा मे हृदयं नित्यं नापसर्पति राघवात् ।

             तथा लोकस्य साक्षी मां सर्वतः पातु पावकः ॥

            

              यथा मां शुद्धचारित्रां दुष्टां जानाति राघवः।

              तथा लोकस्य साक्षी मां सर्वतः पातु पावकः ॥

            

Just as my heart never moves away from Rama, so Agni the witness for all the world protect me from all sides.

I am pure and chaste but Rama thinks I am polluted; so Agni the witness for all the world protect me from all sides.]

  1. चलनात्पर्वतेन्द्रस्य गणा देवाश्च कंपिताः।

    चचाल पार्वती चापि तदाश्लिष्टा महेश्वरम् ॥  (७.१६.२६)

When the mountain was shaking, the ganas and devas were tossed about.  Parvati also felt the tremor and embraced her consort Maheshwara (Siva)

[Note:  The context is when Ravana tried to uproot the Kailasa Mountain, the abode of Siva, when his Pushpaka was not allowed to fly over it by Nandi]

  1. दाराः पुत्राः पुरं राष्ट्रं भोगाच्छादनभोजनम्।

    सर्वमेवाविभक्तं नौ भविष्यति हरीश्वर ॥ (७.३४.४१)

O Chief of Vanaras,  henceforth wives, sons, city, country, objects of enjoyment, clothes and food would be undivided between us, that is, we will partake of them as common assets.

[Note: Ravana was overcome by Vali’s superior strength.  Discretion being the better part of valour, Ravana concluded a treaty of friendship with Vali.  The above are words of Ravana to Vali]    

  1. यामेव रात्रिं शत्रुघ्नः पर्णशालां समाविशत्।

    तामेव रात्रिं सीतापि प्रसूता दारकद्वयम् ॥(७.६६.१)

The night during which  satrughna entered the hermitage of Valmiki, the same night Sita was delivered of twin male children.

  1. इदं रामायणं कृत्स्नं गयत्रीबीजसंयुतम् ।

    त्रिसन्ध्यं यः पठेन्नित्यं सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥

Those who recite this, the whole of the story of Rama, composed of the bijaksharas (seed letters) of Gayatri Mantra, in the morning, midday and evening sandhyas, will be rid of all his evil deeds.

Citation.

http://prramamurthy1931.blogspot.in/2011/08/gayatri-ramayanam.html

http://www.advaita-vedanta.org/articles/rig_vedic_ramayana/rig_vedic_ramayana-1.htm

World Human Races are From India


What is the original source and authority on any subject?

I encountered this issue when a comment for a Post mine stated that the Links/sources provided by me depend on each other and as such they commit the fallacy of Circular reasoning.

Hence they are unacceptable.

India where Human Races spread from.Image.jpg
Human Race From India.

The comment also observed that I must provide a reliable source like Text Books(?) or a reputed authority.

What then is a source that is dependable?

You depend and take reference to the one that is in agreement with known facts that are available.

And these facts are to be borne out by physical evidence such as Archaeology  an , in my opinion, Astronomy  as one can not tamper with Astronomical events while one can with Archaeology.

And in addition one may have to depend on contemporary references of the relevant period  where the events have occurred and the foreign sources which were contemporary in terms of Time that refer to these events.

This the procedure I follow in validating information.

But all these have to stop at one point where the trail ends.

If you star doubting the authenticity of this, then no knowledge is possible.

Science conveniently circumvents this by saying some fundamentals are self-evident,Axioms, and are not to be questioned.

But Arts and History does not have this privilege.

The first source has o be proved as in Philosophy.

Philosophy tries to answer questions that are unanswerable by Science.

So the talk about God Reality evokes a lot of arguments an denials.

These areas need perception combined with inference,and testimony.

If one were to deny Inference as it may be faulty because non availability of all the facts then Inference can not be used.

In that case many day-to-day activities might come to a standstill.

And on Testimony if one were to doubt every testimony , I can not even say who my parents are!

Indian philosophy accepts Inference and Testimony(Sabda) as sources of Knowledge, under certain conditions.

I shall be writing on the sources of Knowledge shortly.

Now to the subject on hand, that of where did all the races originate from?

If one were to check western sources, both historical and religious,they would simply state that it was there or it is from another place.

You check on Human migration to Europe,

Waves of people came in intervals in they state.

Then they add from Asia.

Please read my post on Human Migration.

The trail ends there.

But the source they quote, namely India,comes out with references then they are dismissed at Myths.

Bu the west’s statement that human migration just happened and it is from Asia people accept it.

Why?

I leave it at that.

Now when we find human races History the same pattern is observed.

This is what  is Race about.

Groups of humans have always identified themselves as distinct from neighboring groups, but such differences have not always been understood to be natural, immutable and global. These features are the distinguishing features of how the concept of race is used today. In this way the idea of race as we understand it today came about during the historical process of exploration and conquest which brought Europeans into contact with groups from different continents, and of the ideology of classification and typology found in the natural sciences.

The European concept of “race,” along with many of the ideas now associated with the term, arose at the time of the scientific revolution, which introduced and privileged the study of natural kinds, and the age of European imperialism and colonizationwhich established political relations between Europeans and peoples with distinct cultural and political traditions.[37][38] As Europeans encountered people from different parts of the world, they speculated about the physical, social, and cultural differences among various human groups. The rise of the Atlantic slave trade, which gradually displaced an earlier trade in slaves from throughout the world, created a further incentive to categorize human groups in order to justify the subordination of African slaves.[39] Drawing on Classical sources and upon their own internal interactions — for example, the hostility between the English and Irish powerfully influenced early European thinking about the differences between people[40] — Europeans began to sort themselves and others into groups based on physical appearance, and to attribute to individuals belonging to these groups behaviors and capacities which were claimed to be deeply ingrained. A set of folk beliefs took hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectual, behavioral, and moral qualities.[41] Similar ideas can be found in other cultures,[42] for example in China, where a concept often translated as “race” was associated with supposed common descent from the Yellow Emperor, and used to stress the unity of ethnic groups in China. Brutal conflicts between ethnic groups have existed throughout history and across the world.[43]

The 1775 treatise “The Natural Varieties of Mankind,” by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach proposed five major divisions: the Caucasoid race,Mongoloid race, Ethiopian race (later termed the Negroid race), American Indian race, and Malayan race, but he did not propose any hierarchy among the races.[47] Blumenbach also noted the graded transition in appearances from one group to adjacent groups and suggested that “one variety of mankind does so sensibly pass into the other, that you cannot mark out the limits between them”.[48]

From the 17th through the 19th centuries, the merging of folk beliefs about group differences with scientific explanations of those differences produced what one scholar has called an “ideology of race”.[38] According to this ideology, races are primordial, natural, enduring and distinct. It was further argued that some groups may be the result of mixture between formerly distinct populations, but that careful study could distinguish the ancestral races that had combined to produce admixed groups.[43] Subsequent influential classifications by Georges Buffon, Petrus Camper and Christoph Meiners all classified “Negros” as inferior to Europeans.[47] In the United States the racial theories of Thomas Jefferson were influential. He saw Africans as inferior to Whites especially in regards to their intellect, and imbued with unnatural sexual appetites, but described Native Americansas equals to whites.[49]

Where is the evidence here on Races?

Check the source provide here or check any other source.

The same information under esoteric words with no shred of hard evidence and what is quoted in rare cases as an archaeological finds point out Indian connection and no body shall pursue it.

This blog does that ,Pursuing sources  and the trail stops with the Puranas and Ithihasas.

And the facts mentioned by them are borne out by archaeology9Indain and Foreign) and Astronomy.

On the issue of races this is what the Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata and The Puranas have to say.

And my research shows most of them have been validated and I have published them.

I shall continue to pursue what has not yet been covered.

King Yayati a king of the Lunar Dynasty is mentioned to have 5 sons, all of whom became the founders of many royal dynasties.

The sons of Yadu are known by the name of the Yadavas: while those of Turvasu have come to be called the Yavanas. And the sons of Drahyu are the Bhojas, while those of Anu, the Mlechchhas. The progeny of Puru, however, are the Pauravas (1:85). Yadavas became strong in central India. The Pauravas (Kurus and Panchalas were branches of this race) became strong in northern India. The sons of Anu were also called Anavas, thought to be the Iranian tribes, who were all grouped as Mlechas. The Yavanas along with the Anavas established themselves in the far western regions.

It is not clear if the Bhojas mentioned here represents the Bhoja-Yadavas, a sub-sect of the Yadavas. However the epic mentions a king named Kunti-Bhoja (the king of Kunti and the foster-father of Pandava’s mother Kunti) and a city named Bhojakata in Vidarbha. There is a highly speculative possibility that the Druids of Ireland were the descendants of Drahyu.

Race from Kamadhenu.

When the sage Vasistha was attacked by king Viswamitra’s army, Vasistha’s cow, Kamadehnu, brought forth from her tail, an army of Palhavas, and from her udders, an army ofDravidas and Sakas; and from her womb, an army of Yavanas, and from her dung, an army of Savaras; and from her urine, an army of Kanchis; and from her sides, an army of Savaras. And from the froth of her mouth came out hosts of Paundras and Kiratas, Yavanas and Sinhalas, and the barbarous tribes of Khasas and Chivukas and Pulindas andChinas and Hunas with Keralas, and numerous other Mlechchhas.

This is also found in Ramayana:- the tribes like the Kambojas, Barbaras, Pahlavas, Yavanas, Sakas, Mlecchas, Haritas and Kiratas etc. had originated from the body parts of the divine cow, Kamadhenu of sage Vasistha, as hords of army men, to protect him from the attack of the king Viswamitra (Ramayana 1.55.2-3). The following passage from Mahabharata. At (12:35) is mentioned:- What duties should be performed by the Yavanas, the Kiratas, the Gandharvas, the Chinas, the Savaras, the Barbaras, the Sakas, theTusharas, the Kankas, the Pathavas, the Andhras, the Madrakas, the Paundras, the Pulindas, the Ramathas, the Kamvojas, the several castes that have sprung up fromBrahmanas and Kshatriyas, the Vaisyas, and the Sudras, that reside in the dominions of (Arya) kings?

They were later given the status of Sudras. The Mekalas, the Dravidas, the Lathas, the Paundras, the Konwasiras, the Saundikas, the Daradas, the Darvas, the Chauras, the Savaras, the Varvaras, the Kiratas, the Yavanas, and numerous other tribes of Kshatriyas, have become degraded into the status of Sudras through the wrath of Brahmanas. (13:35). It is in consequence of the absence of Brahmanas from among them that the Sakas, the Yavanas, the Kamvojas and other Kshatriya tribes have become fallen and degraded into the status of Sudras. The Dravidas, the Kalingas, the Pulandas, the Usinaras, the Kolisarpas, the Mahishakas and other Kshatriyas, have, in consequence of the absence of Brahmanas from among their midst, become degraded into Sudras (13:33).

Kamadhenu in this context has to be taken in its meaning of perennial.

It means that the Races originate from India perennially.

A passage in the Mahabharata, which is rendered as a futuristic prediction mentions thus:- The Andhra Kingdom, the Sakas, the Pulindas, the Yavanas, the Kamvojas, theBahlika Kingdom Valhikas and the Abhira Kingdom Abhiras, will then become possessed of bravery and the sovereignty of the earth (3:187).

Yavana rulers might have spread throughout ancient India, who established their city-states or small kingdoms during the period of Mahabharata. Many ancient Indian warriors like Pandu, Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadeva, Karna and Vasudeva Krishna were mentioned as encountering Yavana kings.

Mention of Yavanas who fought with Arjuna and his father Pandu:- The king of the Yavanas himself whom the powerful Pandu even had failed to bring under subjection was brought by Arjuna under control (1:141). Mention of a Yavana stronghold in Mathura:- The Yavanas, the Kamvojas, and those that dwell around Mathura are well skilled in fighting with bare arms (12:100). Nakula the son of Pandu reduced to subjection the fierce Mlechchas residing on the sea coast, as also the wild tribes of the Palhavas, the Kiratas, the Yavanas, and the Sakas. And having subjugated various monarchs, and making all of them pay tributes, Nakula that foremost of the Kurus, full of resources, retraced his way towards his own city (2:31). Sahadeva, the son of Pandu, brought under his subjection and exacted tributes from the Paundrayas and the Dravidas along with theUdrakeralas and the Andhras and the Talavanas, the Kalingas and the Ushtrakarnikas, and also the delightful city of Atavi and that of the Yavanas (2:30). The Yavana city mentioned here seems to be a south Indian port city of the Yavanas during the ancient era.

Having come to the western regions, Karna made all the Yavana and Varvara kings pay tribute. The Suta’s son brought the Sasakas and the Yavanas under his sway.(3:252).Vasudeva Krishna slew the Yavana called Kalyavana (3:12). The Sakas, and the Yavanas with followers, were all vanquished by Krishna. (7:11).

Citations.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yavana_Kingdom

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_%28human_classification%29#Historical_origins_of_racial_classification