Lost Ancient Cities Of India


Sanatana Dharma, as has been proved was ancient.

Madurai Meenakshiamman Temple.Image.jpg Madurai Meenakshiamman Temple. Image Credit. http://ayshamohamed93.blogspot.in/2014/11/my-madurai.html

It was quite advanced in Arts, Literature,Science and Philosophy.

The temple architecture bears testimony to the development of Science, especially Astronomy .

Gangaikonda Cholapuram,.Image.jpg Gangaikonda Cholapuram,. Image credit.http://www.incredibleindiaphotogallery.com/2012/07/glimpse-to-the-glorious-past-gangaikonda-cholapuram/dsc_5102/

The construction of these temples, with stones in an area where no stones or Mountains were available is a testimony to the fact that the ancient knew quarrying and more importantly transporting heavy materials like a single stone of nearly 180 tons to the roof of the temple which is 216 feet in the year 1000 AD.

It is the Thanjavur Brhadeeswara Temple in Tamil Nadu.

There are temples where the rays of the Sun touch the idol at the sanctum on a particular day of the year.

1000 pillars Halls, Stone pillars producing the Seven Notes of the Carnatic Music, cave temples ..the list is endless.

The cities were laid out in a systematic pattern in south India.

In the Centre was a temple, with a Pond.

The city was surrounded by square-shaped streets around the temple complex, all the streets leading to the Temple.

This can be seen in many temples in many cities of Tamil Nadu, notable examples being  Madurai, Sri Rangam Srivilliputhur, Chidambaram.

These cities had a resting place for Travelers at regular intervals on the highways, at every Kaatham, about 16 Kilometers.

This may be seen on the road from Madurai to Srivilliputtur.

Each city , at the outskirts , had a small water tank meant for animals.

A stone column was erected for the animals to relieve their itching!

Such a civilization should have had great cities.

Many have sunk as in Lemuria where the Tamil Sangam 1  and 2 were held, in Then Madurai ( South Madurai and Kavatapuram)

We had Indraprastha  now called Delhi,Pataliputra, now Patna

I had a look at  some of the ancient cities of India which are to be discovered in full.

If people can look around places where tanks had been located with the satellite imagery they would find more cities.

Here is  a List, which, of course, is not exhaustive.

I shall be writing on each of them in detail.

Readers may also contribute.

  • Dholavira – Located in Gujarat, India. Indus Valley Civilization city
  • Vijayanagar – Located in Karnataka, India. Now a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Poompuhar – Located in Tamil Nadu, South India
  • Lothal – Located in Gujarat, India – early city of the Indus Valley Civilization
  • Surkotada – Located in Gujarat, India – early city of the Indus Valley Civilization
  • Pattadakal – Located in Karnataka, South India. Now a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Vasai-Located in India, former capital (1533-1740) of the Northern Provinces of Portuguese India
  • Aror is located 8 kilometres east ofRohri in present daySindh, Pakistan. It had served as the ancient capital ofSindh and was oncelocated on the banks of Indus River. The city was once the prime nucleus centre of commerce and trade. The main languages spoken by the people are Hindi language, Urdu language, Punjabi language and Sindhilanguageand the religion followed were Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism.Kannauj
    Kannauj was one of the most beautiful ancient cities in India that was ruled by different rulers. The city was described as a city which raised its head to the skies and which in strength and beauty might boast of being unrivalled. Kannauj has incessantly served as a place of immense historical significance. The city had, much later, become a new district of the Uttar Pradesh on September 18th, 1997.Bairat
    Bairat is a much celebrated and momentous town in the northern Jaipur of Rajasthan. It is located 52 kilometres north of Jaipur and 66 kilometres west of Alwar.

    Kalibangan
    Kalibangan is a town situated in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan. The town is precisely located upon the banks of Ghaggar River. This ancient city of India has been considered as the third important city amongst all the excavated Harappan sites, under the Indus valley civilization. The city had received its name from the innumerable pieces of terracotta bangles that were excavated here.

    Sravasti
    Sravasti is an exceedingly substantial Buddhist religious and research centre, located in the Gonda district of Uttar Pradesh.

    Sagala
    Sagala is believed to be the modern day Sialkot, and it had once served as a great centre of trade and commerce, filled with business prospects.

    Sitanagaram
    Sitanagaram is a small and humble and ancient site located in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.

  • Hansi is a town in theHisar district of Haryana. The ancient city ofHansi is known to possess five gates to enter Delhi. It majestically incorporate the Delhi Gate at the East,Hisar gate at the West,Gosain gate at North-West,Barsi Gate at South andUmra Gate in thesouth west direction.Kumbhoj
    Kumbhoj is the name of an ancient town located in the Kolhapur district of Maharashtra.Kalpi
    Kalpi is an ancient city of India, in Jalaun district of Uttar Pradesh. Kalpi rather seizes stronghold from its sisterly counterparts, due to being conceived as the birthplace of sage Ved Vyas. The city of Kalpi is also renowned for its art of paper making.

    Bhinmal
    Bhinmal is a town in the Jalore district of Rajasthan. Bhinmal had once served as the capital of ancient Gujarat. The earlier name of Bhinmal was Bhillamala.

    Tamralipta
    Tamralipta is the name of another important ancient city of West Bengal. Now the place is however identified as Tamluk. Tamluk derives its name from the Sanskrit word Tamra Lipta meaning ‘full of copper’.

    Urayur
    Urayur is an ancient city located in Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu.

    Dwaraka
    Dwaraka is another ancient city situated in Gujarat. According to Hindu mythology, Dwaraka was the dwelling place of Lord Krishna. The meaning of the word Dwaraka is a ‘door’.

    Ujjain
    Ujjain is located on the banks of Shipra River in Madhya Pradesh. According to Hindu mythology, Shipra had originated from the much admired churning of the oceans by the Gods and the Demons, with Vasuki, the serpent, serving as the rope. Osiyan is another ancient city that is approximately located at a distance of 65 kilometres from Jodhpur in Rajasthan. The city houses a number of temples and is presently a famous tourist spot.

    Bayana
    Bayana is a town in the Bharatpur district of Rajasthan.

  • The ancient name of the city wasSripatha orSriprashtha orShantipura. The city is claimed to have been discovered rather accidentally by an asura namedBanasura.Chunar
    Chunar is in the Mirzapur District of Uttar Pradesh.

Citation and Reference.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_city#India

Rama Sita in Vedas A Contradiction?


Sometimes one comes across references in the Ithihasa and Puranas , when related to the Vedas there is confusion.

Rama and Sita. image.jpg Rama and Sita.

The Vedas,the Scripture of the Hindus, are accepted as Apaurusheya, not man-made and timeless, are undoubtedly the earliest works of Sanatana Dharma, and the Vedas , especially the Rig Veda is considered to be first literature of Mankind.dated conservatively at 5000 BC.

The Ithihasas Ramayana and Mahabharata come later.

One comes across references to Rama and Sita in the Ramayana.

References to Rama in Ramayana.

“14 This to Duḥśīma Pṛthavāna have I sung, to Vena, Rama, to the nobles, and the King.
They yoked five hundred, and their love of us was famed upon their way.
15 Besides, they showed us seven-and-seventy horses here.
Tānva at once displayed his gift, Pārthya at once displayed his gift; and straightway Māyava showed his.” XCIII Visvedevas.

Vena is the ancestor of Rama.

In the absence of Dasaratha reference, some dispute the name Rama as the Rama of Ramayana.

There is an interesting  note found in the Bala Kanda of Ramayana.

Valmiki wrote that he wrote the Ramayana to expound The Vedas.

“kushiilavau tu dharmaGYau raajaputrau yashasvinau |
bhraatarau svarasampannau dadarsha aashramavaasinau ||
sa tu medhaavinau dR^ishhTvaa vedeShu pariniShThitau |
vedopabR^ihmaNaarthaaya taavagraahayata prabhuh ||
kaavyaM raamaayaNaM kR^itsnaM siitaayaashcharitaM mahat.h|
paulastya vadhamityeva chakaara charitavrataH||

(vAlmIki-rAmAyaNa–bAlakANDa 1.4.5-7)

The princes, the brothers, Kusha and Lava, were knowledgeable about Dharma and were glorious. Their voices were melodious and they lived in the hermitage of (vAlmIki). He (vAlmIki), established in good deeds, observed those two extremely intelligent (princes), skilled in the Vedas, and for the sake of expounding the Vedas, he composed and made them study the poem sampUrNa-rAmAyaNa (the entire rAmAyaNa) (containing) the great story of sItA and the slaying of rAvaNa.

These verses from the vAlmIki-rAmAyaNa clearly show that the sage vAlmIki composed the rAmAyaNa to expound the meaning of the Vedas…

Sita in the Vedas.

Auspicious Sita, come thou near;We venerate and worship thee
That thou mayst bless and prosper us
And bring us fruits abundantly.

-Rig veda 4.57

In Harivansha Sita has been invoked as one of the names of goddess Arya:

O goddess, you are the altar’s center in the sacrifice,
The priest’s fee
Sita to those who hold the plough
And Earth to all living being.

The Kausik-sutra and the Paraskara-sutra associate her repeatedly as the wife of Parjanya (a god associated with rains) and Indra.[4]

Sita is known by many epithets. She is called Jānaki as the daughter of Janaka and Maithili as the princess of Mithila.[5] As the wife of Rama, she is called Ramā. Her father Janaka had earned the sobriquet Videha due to his ability to transcend body consciousness; Sita is therefore also known as Vaidehi.

Is this not an Anachronism?

How can the Vedas mention Rama and Sita who came later?

The Ramayana mention that Rama was adorned with Upaveeda and the Upanayana ceremony was performed according the Vedic procedure.

Sita Rama Marriage was performed according to Vedic rites.

Why this contradiction?

The explanation for Rama being found Rama in Vedas.

10.111.07 sacanta yad uShasaH sooryeNa citrAm asya ketavo rAm avindan |
10.111.07 A yan nakShatraM dadRushe divo na punar yato nakir addhA nu veda ||(Rig Veda)

pra tadduHshIme pR^ithavAne vene pra rAme vochamasure maghavatsu |
ye yuktvAya pa.ncha shatAsmayu pathA vishrAvyeshhAm.h ||9Rig Veda 10.93.14),

In yajnas of wealthy kings such as duHshIma, pR^ithavAna, vena, and the powerful rAma, I utter hymns to the gods who travel by 500 chariots drawn by horses in the world of the gods, and who are fond of us (humans).

1.’Since rAmAyaNa is based on the Vedas, there must be mantras in the Vedas that correspond to the immortal story of rAma. It is with this objective that nIlakaNTha, the great commentator on the mahAbhArata, has presented, with his own wonderful commentary, the mantra-rAmAyaNa. The mantra-rAmAyaNa is a compilation of Riks from the R^ig Veda that narrate the story of rAma or the rAmAyaNa.”

2.As I have posted earlier the Vedas were not grasped in one shot.

They were grasped by different Rishis at different times.

Hence the reference to  Rama in the Ramayana could have been included in the later revelations, while a portion of the Vedas were in existence before Rama, which Rama followed.

Reference of Sita in Ramayana.

1. If one were to look at the etymology of the word Sita, it means Furrow, indicating that Sita was found while using furrowing.

As such she was considered to be daughter of Earth.

As Sita was found while using the Furrow, she might have been given the name Sita.

The name given to her was Janaki, daughter of Janaka..

This practice is called Thaddidhaantam, that of linking the the name of the offspring to father.

Thus Rama is also called Dasarathy.

The other explanation for Sita being mentioned in the Vedas is the same as stated for Rama.

Citation.

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2014/08/07/ramayana-in-the-rig-veda/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sita#Legend

Oldest Himalayan Cave Temple Ravana’s Gate Patal Bhuvaneswar


There are lost Cave Temples in the Himalayas.

Some of them have been found are in a difficult terrain.

They have fascinating histories.

Patal Bhuvaneswar.image.jpg Patal Bhuvaneswar.Pithogarh.

One such is Pathala Bhuvaeswara temple, in Uttarkhand,India

 

Patal Bhuvaneswar Cave Entrance.image.jpg Patal Bhuvaneswar Cave Entrance.

‘The first human to discover this cave was Raja Ritupurna who was a king in Surya Dynasty who was ruling Ayodhya during the Treta Yuga. The story starts with Ritupurna and King Nala. It is said that once, King Nala was defeated by his wife, Queen Damayanti. In order to escape his wife’s prison Nala requested Ritupurna to hide him. Ritupurna took him to the forests of the Himalayas and asked him to stay there. While going back home he was fascinated by a deer which ran into woods and went after it. He could not find it and took rest under a tree. He had a dream where the deer was asking Ritupurna not to chase him. His sleep broke and as he woke up and went to a cave where a guard was standing. After enquiring about the cave he was allowed to go inside. Right at the entrance, Ritupurna met Sheshnag who agreed to take him through the cave. It carried him on his hood. He saw the marvels of Gods taking place inside. He all the 33-crore gods and goddesses including Lord Shiva himself. It is said that after his visit, the cave was closed for ages with a slight prediction in the Skandpurana that it will be reopened again in Kaliyuga. Shankarcharya in Kalyug, during his temporary visit to Himalayas re-discovered this cave. Since then regular worship and offering are being done at this place.

Patal Bhuvaneswar Location Map.image.jpg

Patal Bhuvaneswar Location Map.

According to belief King Rituparna of the Sun dynasty (Surya Vansha) discovered the cave in ‘Treta yug’. It has been described in the ‘MANAS KHAND’ of ‘SKAND PURAN’. Adi Shankaracharya visited this cave in 1191 AD. That was the beginning of the modern pilgrimage history, at Patal Bhuvaneshwar.[2] The journey inside the cave has to be carried in feeble lights, holding protective iron chains. The Stone formations of Sheshnag can be seen, holding earth, heaven the world beneath. ‘Havan’ (fire sacrifice) is performed in a dimly lit, solemn atmosphere, under the spell of holy chants. You’ll also be impressed by theto visit these parts form the celestial heights of His abode in Kailash.The cave, it is believed, is connected by an underground route to Mount Kailash.[3] it’s believed that Pandavas, the ‘Mahabharat’ heroes proceeded towards their last journey in the Himalayas after meditating here, in front of Lord Shiva.This hidden pilgrimage situated at 1,350mts above sea level is mainly dedicated to Lord Shiva.Almost every god that you would have heard of resides in this mystifying cave. It is also believed that you can worship at Patal Bhuvaneshwar is equivalent to worshipping at Char Dham of Uttarakhand.

The priest family, the Bhandaris are performing religious rites at Patal Bhuvaneshwar since the time of the Adi Shankaracharya. More than 20 generations in the line. They are a treasure house of legends, lores, anecdotes and information about this holy place. It is also believed that this cave is internally connected to the four abodes /seats (Char Dham)

“This awesome cave is believed to be as old as the earth itself. It has been mentioned in detail in the 103 chapter of Manaskhand of “Skanda Purana”. The first human who entered this cave was king “Rituparna” of Suraya Dynasty during the “Tretayuga”. It is said that during his visit, he had encountered several demons and “Sheshnaag” himself acted as his guide.One can see the gateway of the great ages in Patal Bhuvaneshwar. There are four entrances inside the cave named as ‘Randwar’ ‘Paapdwar’, ‘Dharamdwar’ and ‘Mokshadwar’. The Paapdwar was closed soon after the death of Ravana and the Randwar, literally, the road to war, was closed down after the great Mahabharata war. At present only two gateways are opened. You can see the tongue of Kali Bhairav, Aravati of Indra, hairs of Lord Shiva and several other wonders inside the caves of Patal Bhuvaneshwar.

How to reach Patal Bhuvaneswar.

 


The nearest airport to Patal Bhuvaneshwar is Pantnagar Airport. Pantnagar Airport is situated 244kms from Patal Bhuvaneshwar. Taxis are easily available to Patal Bhuvaneshwar from Pantnagar Airport. Patal Bhuvaneshwar is well connected by motorable roads with major towns of Kumaon.

By Train

The nearest railhead to Patal Bhuvaneshwar is Tanakpur situated at a distance of 154kms. Taxis and buses are easily available from Tanakpur Railway Station to Patal Bhuvaneshwar, Gangolighat, and Lohaghat etc. Tanakpur is well connected with major destinations of India like Lucknow, Delhi, Agra and Kolkata. Trains are frequent to Tanakpur Railway Station.

Patal Bhuvaneshwar is well connected by motorable roads with major destinations of Uttarakhand state. Buses from ISBT Anand Vihar are available to Tanakpur, Champawat, Pithoragarh, Lohaghat and many other destinations from where you can easily hire a local cab or bus to reach Patal Bhuvaneshwar.

Citation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patal_Bhuvaneshwar

 

Hanuman Chanting Rama's Name.Image.jpg

Ramayana Is Gayatri Mantra. Rig Veda,Valmiki ,Agastya


Indian Legends is Factual.Allegorical and Philosophical.

Persons and events narrated in the legends are open for verification , they convey spiritual truth in the form of allegory and they also express complex abstract philosophical thoughts.

Thus the existence of Rama is proved by astronomical and archaeology.

Ramayana also expresses the spiritual truth thus.

Coronation of Lord Rama.Image.jpg Sri Rama Pattabhisheka.

Ravana represents the qualities of Sattva Rajas and Tamas not in balance.

While he is the personification for Satva for he is one of the ardent devotees of Shiva, a good ruler, and an affectionate brother, and husband.

He is an active ruler with military might,enjoyed the Bohemian way of Life by maintaining a huge Harem.

He was Tamasic when he lusted after another wife.

Though he had his control over his senses and desires he could not master them is this case.

So despite his valor ,piety, scholarship, and love of his subjects he was doomed once he gave way to the Tamasic impulse of lust.

Rama represents  the Satva in ascendance.

How this conquers  tendencies  the Rajasic and Tamasic  is Ramayana.

All the characters  represent some tendencies or Gunas and the result one begets in yielding to them.

At the philosophical level, it personifies in Lord Rama, The Brahman.

It illustrates how the Brahman when expressing itself, becomes entangled imagines itself ,because of Avidya/Maya,as  Aham(Mine) with worldly pleasures and pain an d in the end wisdom dawns  once t the Guna Viseshas are exhausted.

Not only this.

Valimiki states that he has designed the Ramayana after The Gayatri Mantra.

‘rAmAyaNadrumaM naumi rAmaraxAnavAN^kuram.h |
gAyatrIbIjamAmnAyamUlaM moxamahAphalam.h ||
(nIlakaNTha’s commentary on the
mantra-rAmAyaNa)

I bow to the tree of rAmAyaNa that has a new bud called the rAma-raxA-stotra, that which has the the gAyatrI (mantra) as its seed (bIja), that which has its roots in the Vedas, and that yields the great fruit of mokshha!

kushiilavau tu dharmaGYau raajaputrau yashasvinau |
bhraatarau svarasampannau dadarsha aashramavaasinau ||
sa tu medhaavinau dR^ishhTvaa vedeShu pariniShThitau |
vedopabR^ihmaNaarthaaya taavagraahayata prabhuh ||
kaavyaM raamaayaNaM kR^itsnaM siitaayaashcharitaM mahat.h|
paulastya vadhamityeva chakaara charitavrataH||

(vAlmIki-rAmAyaNa-bAlakANDa 1.4.5-7)

The princes, the brothers, Kusha and Lava, were knowledgeable about Dharma and were glorious. Their voices were melodious and they lived in the hermitage of (vAlmIki). He (vAlmIki), established in good deeds, observed those two extremely intelligent (princes), skilled in the Vedas, and for the sake of expounding the Vedas, he composed and made them study the poem sampUrNa-rAmAyaNa (the entire rAmAyaNa) (containing) the great story of sItA and the slaying of rAvaNa…

ata eva rAmAyaNe chaturvimshatisAhasrAyaM chaturvimshatigAyatryaxarANi
vAlmIkinA saMgR^ihItAni

For this reason, vAlmIki bases the twenty-four thousand verses of the rAmAyaNa on the twenty-four akshhara’s (syllables) of the gAyatrI mantra (of the Vedas).

nIlakaNTha quotes from the agastya-saMhitA to further support the fact that the rAmAyaNa story is drawn from the Vedas:

vedavedaye pare puMsi jAte dasharathAtmaje |
vedaH prAchetasAdAsIt.h sAxAdrAmAyaNAtmanA |
tasmAdrAmAyaNaM devi veda eva na saMshayaH ||

When the Supreme Being, known through the Vedas, was born as the son of dasharatha (rAma), the Veda (manifested itself) through the (mouth) of the sage prAchetasa directly as the rAmAyaNa. Therefore, O devi, the rAmAyaNa is the Veda itself, without a doubt.

nIlakaNTha is well known as the commentator par excellence of the mahAbhArata. He hailed from what is modern day Kopargaon in the state of Maharashtra but he is said to have settled down in Varanasi, where he wrote his commentary on the ‘bhArata called the “bhAratabhAvapradIpa.” This commentary is also known as the “nIlakaNThI.” This famous commentary on the bhArata is said to have been written towards the end of the 17th century C.E.

nIlakaNTha compiled a collection of mantras from the R^ig Veda that correspond to the story of rAma. This collection is called the “mantra- rAmAyaNa.” I will present a few of these mantras from the R^ig Veda, with notes from nIlakaNTha’s commentary, “mantra-rahasya-prakAshikA.”

The rAmAyaNa can be told in as many as 24,000 verses as in the vAlmIki rAmAyaNa or in just one verse as in the eka-shlokI-rAmAyaNa which captures all the main events of the epic such as rAma’s exile to the forest, killing of the golden deer, the kidnapping of sItA, the death of jaTAyu, the meeting with sugrIva and the punishment of vAlI, the crossing of the oceana and burning of laN^kA by HanumAn, and finally the slaying of rAvaNa and kuMbhakarNa:

Adau rAmatapovanAdigamanaM hatvA mR^iga-kAJNchanam.h
vaidehIharaNaM jaTAyumaraNaM sugrIva-saMbhAshhaNam.h |
vAli-dushhTa-nigrahaNam samudrataraNaM laN^kAdAhanam.h
pashchAt.h rAvaNa-kuMbhakarNa-hananaM etaddhi rAmAyaNam.h ||

The mantra-rAmAyaNa itself has more than 150 Riks. But I will present a few of them summarizing the immortal story of rAma.

First, there arises the question: does the name “rAma” occur in the veda and in what context?

R^ig Veda 10.93.14 (maNDala 10, sUkta 93, Rik 14) says:

pra tadduHshIme pR^ithavAne vene pra rAme vochamasure maghavatsu |
ye yuktvAya pa.ncha shatAsmayu pathA vishrAvyeshhAm.h ||

In yajnas of wealthy kings such as duHshIma, pR^ithavAna, vena, and the powerful rAma, I utter hymns to the gods who travel by 500 chariots drawn by horses in the world of the gods, and who are fond of us (humans).’

The Gayatri Ramayana.


Valmiki Ramayana contains 24000 slokas divided into 7 Kandas, namely, Balakanda, Ayodhya Kanda, Aranya Kanda, Kishkindha kanda, Sundara kanda,  Yuddha kanda  and Uttara Kanda.  The first letter of the first sloka in each group of 1000 slokas is taken from the Gayatri Mahamantra (given below) in the same sequence namely, त, स, वि, तु, व  etc.,

तत्सवितुर्वरॆण्यं
भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि
धियॊ यॊ नः प्रचोदयात्

The collection of these slokas constitutes the Gayatri Ramayana.

Each sloka is identified below by the
Kanda (1 for Balakanda, 2 forAyodhya Kanda etc),
chapter number within the Kanda,
and serial number of the sloka within the chapter:

  1. तपस्स्वाध्यायनिरतं तपस्वी वाग्विदां वरम्।

नारदं परिपप्रच्छ वाल्मीकिर्मुनिपुङ्गवम् ॥  (१.१.१)

Sage Valmiki, ever engaged in austerities and reading of scriptures, asked Narada, foremost among Munis and a Master in the art of word craft (speech).

[Note: Valmiki’s questions are expressed in the following slokas:

कोन्वस्मिन् सांप्रतं लोके गुणवान् कश्च वीर्यवान्।

धर्मज्ञश्च कृतज्ञश्च सत्यवाक्यो दृढव्रतः ॥   (१.१.२)

चारित्रेण च को युक्तः सर्वभूतेषु को हितः ।

विद्वान् कः कस्समर्थश्च कश्चैकप्रियदर्शनः॥(१.१.३)

आत्मवान् को जितक्रोधः द्युतिमान् कोऽनसूयकः।

कस्य बिभ्यति देवाश्च जातरोषस्य संयुगे ॥(१.१.४)

एतदिच्छाम्यहं श्रोतुं परं कौतूहलं हि मे।

महर्षे त्वं समर्थोऽसि ज्ञातुमेवं विधं नरं ॥(१.१.५)

O Naradamuni, Is there any man on this earth now who has all sterling qualities, who is valiant, who knows what is dharma, who acknowledges with gratitude whatever help is rendered to him, who always speaks the truth, who is firm on his commitments, whose conduct is unblemished, who thinks of the welfare of all beings, who is wise and competent, who has a pleasing appearance, who is rooted in his Atma, who has conquered anger, who gives out light, who is not envious and whom even the devas fear when he is afire with anger in a war?  I want to hear about him from you. I am keenly interested in this. You must be knowing someone with all these attributes.]

 

  1. स हत्वा राक्षसान्सर्वान् यज्ञघ्नान् रघुनन्दनः।

ऋषिभिः पूजितस्सम्यक् यथेन्द्रो विजयी पुरा ॥ (१.३०.२३)

Having killed the demons obstructing the sacrifice, Sri Ram was felicitated by the sages as Indra was felicitated long ago on his victory (over the asuras)

[Note: The context here is Rama’s protecting the sacrifice being performed by sage Viswamitra from the depredations ofrakshasas like Maricha]

  1. विश्वामित्रस्तु धर्मात्मा श्रुत्वा जनकभाषितम् ।

वत्स राम धनुः पश्य इति राघवमब्रवीत्  ॥ (१.६७.१२)

Hearing Janaka’s words, the righteous Viswamitra said to  Sri Ram  “O my boy Rama, take a look at this bow”

[Note: The context is the condition laid down by Janaka for the hand of Sita. The aspiring suitors had to lift the bow of Shiva, bend it and string it.  Sri Ram effortlessly lifted it and, in a swift lightning movement, broke it into two pieces in the act of stringing it]

  1. तुष्टावास्य तदा वंशं प्रविश्य च विशांपतेः।

शयनीयं नरेन्द्रस्य तदासाद्य व्यतिष्ठत ॥  (२.१५.२०)

Then Sumantra approached Rama’s abode and standing at the entrance of Rama’s bedroom praised Rama and his forebears in the dynasty.

[Note: The context is Kaikeyi’s insistence on sending Rama into the forests for fourteen years in exchange for one of the boons granted to her by Dasaratha earlier.  Dasaratha was heart-broken at the prospect of separation from his son for such a long time.  How could he convey this news to Rama?  He sends Sumantra to bring Rama to him.]

  1. वनवासं हि संख्याय वासांस्याभरणानि च।

भर्तारमनुगच्छन्त्यै सीतायै श्वशुरो ददौ ॥ (२.४०.१५)

Dasaratha gave Sita, who was following her husband (into the forest), enough clothes and ornaments reckoning the number of days to be spent in the forest,

[Note: The context is impending departure of Rama, Sita and Lakshmana into the forests]

  1. राजा सत्यं च धर्मं च राजा कुलवतां कुलम्।

राजा माता पिता चैव राजा हितकरो नृणाम् ॥  (2.67.34)

It is the king who the is upholder of Truth and Dharma, it is he who protects those of good genealogy (kula) and he is the father, mother and well-wisher of his subjects.

[Note: The above words are those of Markandeya and other hermits as well as ministers of Dasaratha who request Vasishtha to appoint one of Dasarath’s sons as the King since Rama has gone on vanavasa  and Dasaratha is dead unable to bear the separation of Rama ]

  1. निरीक्ष्य स मुहूर्तं तु ददर्श भरतो गुरुम् ।

उटजे राममासीनं जटामण्डलधारिणम् ॥२.९९.२५)

Bharata (after sighting the hermitage of Rama), spent a few minutes looking at it and then saw Rama , his Guru, sitting inside with his matted locks.

[Note: The context is Bharata visiting Rama at Chitrakuta with a view to persuading him to return to Ayodhya]

  1. यदि बुद्धिः कृता द्रष्टुं अगस्त्यं तं महामुनिम्।

अद्यैव गमने बुद्धिं रोचयस्व महायशाः ॥  (३.११.४४)

Sutikshna Rishi (in whose hermitage Rama was staying) said to  Rama “O Rama of great fame, if you intend visiting Agastya, the great sage,  then make up your mind to go there today itself”.

[Note: The context is when Rama spent time at the hermitage of Sutikhsna after Bharata’s visit]

  1. भरतस्यार्यपुत्रस्य श्वश्रूणां मम च प्रभो।

मृगरूपमिदं व्यक्तं विस्मयं जनयिष्यति  (३.४३.१७)

Sita  says to Rama “ This deer (of golden colour) will be an object of wonder for Aryaputra Bharata, my in-laws and for myself”

[Note: The context is Sita’s fascination for the deer of golden hue which was the guise put on by Maricha by his magical powers to lure Rama away from Sita]

  1. गच्छ शीघ्रमितो राम सुग्रीवं तं महाबलम्।

वयस्यं तं कुरु क्षिप्रमितो गत्वाद्य राघव ॥  (३.७२.१७)

Kabandha to Rama ( after he was freed from his curse and regained his original form): “ O Rama ! Leave this place without delay and go to the powerful Sugreeva.  Make friends with him quickly after going there today itself.“

  1. देशकालौ प्रतीक्षस्व क्षममाणः प्रियाप्रिये।

सुखदुःखसहः काले  सुग्रीववशगो भव ॥  (४.२२.२०)

Vali’s words, on his death bed, to Angada  “ Wait for the appropriate place and time,  taking with equanimity both likes and dislikes and pleasure and pain which occur over a period of time and put yourself under the control of Sugriva “

  1. वन्द्यास्ते तु तपस्सिद्धास्तपसा वीतकल्मषाः

प्रष्टव्याश्चापि सीतायाः प्रवृत्तिं विनयान्वितैः  ॥ (४.४३.३४)

Sugriva’s instructions to the Vanaras regarding the rishis they would meet during their search for Sita: “Those Rishis,  who by their austerities,  have attained the highest goal of life and have been purified by their tapas, are to be revered and respected.  You should enquire of them about Sita and her present situation with modesty and humility.”

  1. स निर्जित्य पुरीं श्रेष्ठां लङ्कां तां कामरूपिणीम्।

विक्रमेण महातेजाः हनूमान्मारुतात्मजः ॥ (५.४.१)

Having conquered  by his valour the guarding deity ofLankapuri,   who was capable of taking any form she desired, Hanuman, son of Vayu and very powerful (scaled the ramparts of Lanka)

  1. धन्या देवाः सगन्धर्वाः सिद्धाश्च परमर्षयः ।

मम पश्यन्ति ये नाथं रामं राजीवलोचनम् ॥ (५.२६.४१)

This sloka is from the soliloquy of Sita kept in captivity by Ravana in Ashokavanika:Devas, Gandharvas, Siddhas andRishis whosoever see my Lord Rama, who has eyes beautiful as lotus petals, will have their lives fulfilled.”

  1. मंगलाभिमुखी तस्य सा तदासीन्महाकपेः।

उपतस्थे विशालाक्षी प्रयता हव्यवाहनम् ॥ (५.५३.२६)

The wide-eyed (Sita), with the intention of blessing Hanuman and preventing any hurt to him,  prayed to the Fire God with a pure heart.

[Note: The context is the episode of Hanuman’s tail being wrapped in clothes, soaked in oil and set on fire by therakshasas. But the God of Fire (Agni) did not hurt Hanuman as the latter’s father Vayu was the former’s friend]

  1. हितं महार्थं मृदु हेतुसंहितं व्यतीतकालायतिसंप्रतिक्षमम्।

निशम्य तद्वाक्यमुपस्थितज्वरः प्रसङ्गवानुत्तरमेतदब्रवीत् ॥ (६.१०.२७)

Hearing (the Advice of Vibhishana) which was well-meaning, having a superior purpose, mild, reasoned, relevant equally in the past, the present and the future, Ravana was infuriated and being passionately attached gave the following reply.

[Note: The context is Vibhishana’s advising Ravana not to buy the enmity of Rama and honourably return Sita to him. Ravana could not digest this advice]

  1. धर्मात्मा रक्षसां श्रेष्ठः संप्राप्तोऽयं विभीषणः ।

लङ्कैश्वर्यं ध्रुवं श्रीमानयं प्राप्नोत्यकण्टकम् ॥ (६.४१.६८)

This Vibhishana, the embodiment of dharma and foremost amongrakshasas has arrived (to surrender himself to Rama) and he will surely inherit the whole of the riches of Lanka free of all enemies.

[Note: These are the words of Vali’s son Angada addressed to Ravana.  Angada had come to Ravana’s court as the emissary of Rama]

  1. यो वज्रपाताशनिसन्निपातान्न चुक्षुभे नापि चचाल राजा।

स रामबाणाभिहतो भृशार्तश्चचाल चापं च मुमोच वीरः ॥  (६.५९.१४०)

The valiant Ravana, struck by the vajrayudha of Indra or by thunder-bolt, was never agitated or moved but struck by the arrows of Rama he became extremely hurt, and the bow slipped from his hand.

[Note: The context is the first day’s fight between Rama and Ravana}

  1. यस्य विक्रममासाद्य राक्षसा निधनं गताः।

तं मन्ये राघवं वीरं नारायणमनामयम् ।  (6.72.11)

 

“On the strength of whose valour many rakshasas lost their lives that valiant Rama, I think, is the eternal Narayana Himself.”

[Note: These are the musings of Ravana when many of his commanders and his brother Kumbhakarna were put to death by Rama and Lakshmana]

  1. न ते ददर्शिरे रामं दहन्तमरिवाहिनीम्।

मोहिताः परमास्त्रेण गान्धर्वेण महात्मना ॥६.९४.२६॥

The large-hearted  Rama was scorching to death the army of the enemy but the rakshasas could not see him, deluded as they were by the  Gandharvastra (shot from the bow of Rama)

 

  1. प्रणम्य देवताभ्यश्च ब्राह्मणेभ्यश्च मैथिली ।

बद्धांजलिपुटाचेदमुवाचाग्निसमीपतः ॥  (६.११९.२३)

Offering her salutations to the devas and the brahmanas  Sita, with folded hands went near Agni and spoke thus

[Note: As commanded by Rama Sita steps into fire to prove her chastity and prays to Agni thus:

             यथा मे हृदयं नित्यं नापसर्पति राघवात् ।

             तथा लोकस्य साक्षी मां सर्वतः पातु पावकः ॥

            

              यथा मां शुद्धचारित्रां दुष्टां जानाति राघवः।

              तथा लोकस्य साक्षी मां सर्वतः पातु पावकः ॥

            

Just as my heart never moves away from Rama, so Agni the witness for all the world protect me from all sides.

I am pure and chaste but Rama thinks I am polluted; so Agni the witness for all the world protect me from all sides.]

  1. चलनात्पर्वतेन्द्रस्य गणा देवाश्च कंपिताः।

    चचाल पार्वती चापि तदाश्लिष्टा महेश्वरम् ॥  (७.१६.२६)

When the mountain was shaking, the ganas and devas were tossed about.  Parvati also felt the tremor and embraced her consort Maheshwara (Siva)

[Note:  The context is when Ravana tried to uproot the Kailasa Mountain, the abode of Siva, when his Pushpaka was not allowed to fly over it by Nandi]

  1. दाराः पुत्राः पुरं राष्ट्रं भोगाच्छादनभोजनम्।

    सर्वमेवाविभक्तं नौ भविष्यति हरीश्वर ॥ (७.३४.४१)

O Chief of Vanaras,  henceforth wives, sons, city, country, objects of enjoyment, clothes and food would be undivided between us, that is, we will partake of them as common assets.

[Note: Ravana was overcome by Vali’s superior strength.  Discretion being the better part of valour, Ravana concluded a treaty of friendship with Vali.  The above are words of Ravana to Vali]    

  1. यामेव रात्रिं शत्रुघ्नः पर्णशालां समाविशत्।

    तामेव रात्रिं सीतापि प्रसूता दारकद्वयम् ॥(७.६६.१)

The night during which  satrughna entered the hermitage of Valmiki, the same night Sita was delivered of twin male children.

  1. इदं रामायणं कृत्स्नं गयत्रीबीजसंयुतम् ।

    त्रिसन्ध्यं यः पठेन्नित्यं सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥

Those who recite this, the whole of the story of Rama, composed of the bijaksharas (seed letters) of Gayatri Mantra, in the morning, midday and evening sandhyas, will be rid of all his evil deeds.

Citation.

http://prramamurthy1931.blogspot.in/2011/08/gayatri-ramayanam.html

http://www.advaita-vedanta.org/articles/rig_vedic_ramayana/rig_vedic_ramayana-1.htm

Three Million Scientific Papers Wrong Statistical Method Wrong


I have been, in this blog, maintaining that Science at best is workable hypothesis for the time being and there is no certainty about it.

And the Scientists hide under the cloak of Axioms, which you are not allowed to question.

They say it is self-evident.

Science is built on faulty logic.

That a certain result shall follow a given set of cause/s/events under similar conditions.

What people forget or do not dare to question is that all the conditions in any scientific testing or experiments are not in our control , we do not know how reliable they are and we are not guaranteed the circumstances shall remain repeatedly the same.

That Nature shall behave uniformly is a fallacy not supported by Logic.

We can not say Nature shall behave uniformly for we have not examined all the cases of Nature and it is impossible to know this.

We assume it shall.

p Value Imaginary.Image.jpg
Many researchers have labored under the misbelief that the p-value gives the probability that their study’s results are just pure random chance. Credit: Lenilucho/Wikipedia

Secondly Science is certain of Causal relationship ,that is an effect has a Cause and a Cause  must  produce a result.

Logically a Cause may have more than One effect and one effect may have more than one Cause.

Therefore this is also faulty.

(Indian Philosophy addresses this problem by Parinama Vada and Vivatha Vada)

And the scientists also assumes many tools for verification of data,those that are purely imaginary and have no factual basis.

Now a Testing tool used by Psychology is found to be wrong and so are the three million scientific papers based on these tools.

Worse is that this has happened in Applied Psychology

How the patients were ever cured based on these scientific papers only GOK!

Psychology researchers have recently found themselves engaged in a bout of statistical soul-searching. In apparently the first such move ever for a scientific journal the editors of Basic and Applied Social Psychologyannounced in a February editorial that researchers who submit studies for publication would not be allowed to use a common suite of statistical methods, including a controversial measure called the p-value.

These methods, referred to as null hypothesis significance testing, or NHST, are deeply embedded into the modern scientific research process, and some researchers have been left wondering where to turn. “The p-value is the most widely known statistic,” says biostatistician Jeff Leek of Johns Hopkins University. Leek has estimated that the p-value has been used at least three million scientific papers. Significance testing is so popular that, as the journal editorial itself acknowledges, there are no widely accepted alternative ways to quantify the uncertainty in research results—and uncertainty is crucial for estimating how well a study’s results generalize to the broader population.

Unfortunately, p-values are also widely misunderstood, often believed to furnish more information than they do. Many researchers have labored under the misbelief that the p-value gives the probability that their study’s results are just pure random chance. But statisticians say the p-value’s information is much more non-specific, and can interpreted only in the context of hypothetical alternative scenarios: The p-value summarizes how often results at least as extreme as those observed would show up if the study were repeated an infinite number of times when in fact only pure random chance were at work.

This means that the p-value is a statement about imaginary data in hypothetical study replications, not a statement about actual conclusions in any given study. Instead of being a “scientific lie detector” that can get at the truth of a particular scientific finding, the p-value is more of an “alternative reality machine” that lets researchers compare their results with what random chance would hypothetically produce. “What p-values do is address the wrong questions, and this has caused widespread confusion,” says psychologist Eric-Jan Wagenmakers at the University of Amsterdam

..

Ostensibly, p-values allow researchers to draw nuanced, objective scientific conclusions as long as it is part of a careful process of experimental design and analysis. But critics have complained that in practice the p-value in the context of significance testing has been bastardized into a sort of crude spam filter for scientific findings: If the p-value on a potentially interesting result is smaller than 0.05, the result is deemed “statistically significant” and passed on for publication, according to the recipe; anything with larger p-values is destined for the trash bin.

Quitting p-values cold turkey was a drastic step. “The null hypothesis significance testing procedure is logically invalid, and so it seems sensible to eliminate it from science,” says psychologist David Trafimow of New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, editor of the journal.’

In plain English the p value is imaginary and has no basis.

I can foresee a host of scientists coming out against this post using fancy jargon, while the questions raised by me remain unanswered/will remain so.

Long Live Science!

News Source,

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/scientists-perturbed-by-loss-of-stat-tool-to-sift-research-fudge-from-fact/