Ahalyas Consensual Relation Indras Thousand Vulvas

I am intrigued by the Pancha kanya ,deifying five virgins. This list included among others Sita. Tara. Mandodari , Tara.

Some texts mention seven virgins ,Saptha Kanyas which includes Draupadi.The curious point is none of these women were virgins and excepting Sita had more than one husband, some under pressure and others willingly.


Please read my post on this ,Seven Chaste women of Hinduism.

Most intriguing is the case of Ahalya who was married to Sage Gautama.

Ahalya was created by Brahma and was an Ayonisha.

That is she was not born of a womb.

After her marriage Indra, Chief of Devas lusted after her and in the guise of her husband Gautama approached her ,seduces her and had relationship with her.

Gautama coming to know of this curses Indra to have 1000 Vulvas in his body and Ahalya was cursed to become a stone.

On her en treaties, Gautama tells her that she would regain her form once Lord Rama’s feet touch her.

And she she sholud offer oblations to Lord Rama.Balakanda of Ramyana by Valmiki states that Ahalya willingly gave herself up because she wasand flattered that thevKing of Devas was infatuated with her.And she was very proud of her beauty.

Essence is that she and Indra had consensual relationship.

But Uttara Ramayana differs slighly about how Ahalya was created by Brahma.

Later Brahnanas and folklore resorted to misinformation stating that Ahalya was an unwilling partner.

This difference is enough for foreigner scholars(?) to inject further sexual inundoe.

They have taken thecword Ahalya to mean ‘unploughed’

And Indra plouughed her.

What a crude and vulgar attempt.

The word Ahalya neans pure as a virgin land.

And , allegorically speaking, Indra , being the God of thunder maked infertile lands fertile.

TAGORE in his comment subscribes to this view

.Reference.Wiki Ahalya.







































Subrahmanya Formula Agnishtoma An Orgy?

I have been searching for material to write on Gautama Rishi.

It is inevitable that one has to have details about Ahalya, His wife.

In the sources on Ahalya I have found some links that seemed to me a misinterpretation of some of the Vedic Rites.

That is the Subrahmanya Formula, a Mantra recited in the Agnishtoma Rite.

In this rite the Mantra,

Murugan with Valli and Devasena

Lord Subramanya with Valli and Devasena

‘Subramanyom’ is recited thrice.

Subranyam + Aham

One would have noticed ,at Home while performing Homas, and at the temple.Yaagas, the Santhi Mantras conclude with,

Subramanyom chanted thrice.

The meaning is,

May I become the Best Brahman,the Reality.

Brahmin is one who has realized Brahman, the Reality.

Subrahmanya is considered as the Best among Brahmins as He is reported to have explained the meaning of Pranava OM to His Father Lord Shiva.( hence Subrahmanya is called  Swaminathan).

But in the hands of the Foreign Scholars(?) with a Mission to destroy Hinduism  and half baked pseudo left wing(?) writers,this sentence and the ceremony associated with it takes a beating.

In the same way these scholars have written that the Asvamedha Yaaga performed by King Dasarata was followed by an Orgy with Rama’s Mohter Kousalya copulating with a Horse!

From Max Muller to Ambedkar,..

This Mantra , chanted during the Agnishtoma is accompanied by an Orgy, it is implied in their comments and explanations of the Rite!.

The Procedure explained in the Rig and Sama Veda,Aitreya Brahmana does not say this.


I am posting this article to misspell any misunderstanding that might arise because of not reading the Sanskrit original Text and an objective translation.

Hinduism has two parts in performance of Yaaga.

One is factual and actual.

Another one is allegorical, like the Purusha Suktha which describes the evolution of the Universe and not a mere Yaga/Yangya.

Agnishtoma is a Yaaga as it is performed with a specific purpose, for welfare and begetting progeny.

Oblations are offered to Fire symbolically.

The Subrahmanya Formula Details.

(The Subrahmanyd formula. On its nature. By 
whom it is to be repeated. The oblation from th^ 
Patnivata Graha. The Yajya of the Agnidhrd.) 

The Subrahmanya ^ is Vach. Her son is the 

* The Subrahmany& formula is contained in the L4ty&yana S'r&uta 
St^tras (1, 3), the Aguishtoma Sdma Pravoga, the S'atapatha Br&hm, 
(d^ 3,4, 17*90), and the Talttirtya ibranyaka (1, 12, 8*4). Th« 


king Soma. At the time of buying Soma, they call 
the Subrahmanya (thither) just as one calls a cow. 


peculiar ppoQanciation of thjls formula is noted by Pl^ini (1,S, 37-38). 
The most complete information on its use being only to be found 
ia the Samaveda SiHtras, I here give the* passages from L4ty§iyana 
referring to it along with the formula itself: — 

^'^f^^'S >i ?T^^ ^^w[^ ^J^T^ ^Tff^mifmTK f%- 

After the Atithya Ishti has b^n finished, he (the Subrahmany^) 
should stand in the front part of the enclosure made for the wife of 
the sacrificer inside the Vedi, and when touching the sacriflcer and 
his wife, after having called thrice '' subrahmiinyom," recite the 
following formula, '* Come, Indra ! come owner of the yellow horses ! 
*' ram of Medhatithi ! Men& of Vrishanas'va ! thou bufiiilo (gaura) 
" who ascendest the female {avaskandin) ! lover of Ahaly& ! son of 
'* Kus'ika ! Br&hmana ! son of Gotama ! (come) thou who art called" 
(to appear) at the Soma feast in so and so many days how many 
there might intervene (between the day on which the 8abrahmany4 
calls him, and that of the Soma festival at which his presence it 
requested). The Subrahmany& is required on the second, third^ 
fourth, and fifth day of the Agnishtoma, and almost on every day of 
the other Soma sacrifices.^ On the second day the terms tryahg 
tutydm, "three days hence" (i,e, on the fifth); on the thrid day, 
dvyahefutydm, t. e. two days hence ; on the fourth, *'rfl#,i. e, to- 
nionow ; and on the fifth (the day of the Soma feast) adya^ ue. to day, 
are uspd to maik the time when the Soma banquet, to which Indra 
is by this formula solemnly invited, is to come off. As far as n-pif 

which is followed by the mentioning of the time appointed "VSJ^, 'WJf^ 

Sec. there is no difference anywhere observable. But the few 
sentences which follow, and which conclude the formula, differ accord- 
ing to different schools. Some were (according to L^^vayana) 
of opinion, that only ^f^Tn^i^ " cotne hither** is to follow; others 
recommended 3i)T9*i^ im^cf, "come hither, O Magha van. "Others, 

such as Gautama, were of opinion, that either is to be omitted, and 
the concluding formula, ^^T ff^VT «nir^^cfTJl''^flT^^?f 
" comp, ye divine Brahma priests, come, come !" has to follow 
immediately upon ^R^f* 


Through this son the Subrahmany& priest milks • 
(obtains) all desires for the sacrificer. For Vach 

? rants all desires of him who has this knowledge, 
hey ask, What is the nature of this Subrahmany& ? 

The name of the tune (S&man) according^ to which it is chanted 
(or rather recited) is Brahmas'ri, the metre is called Sampdtg the 
Rishi is Aditya, and India is the deity. 

At the 80-called Agni:*htut sacrifices, which open the Chatur- 
das'ar&tra Sattras (sacriticial sessions lasting for a fortnight), (Aa'T« 
8'r. S. 11, 2) the 8ubrahmany& calln Aq^ni instead of Indra (L&ty&y. 
1, 4) according to Gautama, by the following formula : 

^V ^TJT^ rif^fiTWlt ^^^HTifT W#1TT «»T?l5^T f%^^ 
«Ttfif^ ITT^TUflfn^^ ^^TTF? »• «• " Come, O Agni, with (thy) 

two red ones (horses), thou brightly shining, thou blazing in smoke, 
J&tavedfts, thou wise! Angirus! Bi-ahmana, (come) called," dec 
In the concluding formula ^\ Ji^o,^Xi-q fires, is used inatead of 
^j^j According to Dh&nanjaya the Subrahmany& formula for Agni 

runs as follows ; ^TTT^TTJT^ ^Tf^ff 'T BH^T^ HTITST^T^T ^^^: 
^T ^l^^^f»^lR§T srmfir'C^. (the remainder as above) i. e. 

'* Come, Agni ! master of the red horses, goat of Bharadvftja, son of 
power, thou who ascendest (the female) ; lover of Ushas/' ice The 
latter formula is just like that one addressed to Indra. Agni, as weU 
as Indra, are in both these formulas, which must be very ancient, 
invoked as family deities, the first pre-eminently worshipped by the 
Angirasa, the latter by the Kuslkas. Both ffods are here caUed 
" Bi&hmans." In later books ludra appears as a Kshattriya, and 
as a model of a king. 

On the so-called Agnishtomtya day of all sacrifices (in the Agni- 
sh^oma it is the fourth and precedes the Soma day), on which day 
the animal for Agni and Soma is slain and sacrificed, an extension of 
the Subrahmanyi formula takes place. The Subiahmany& priest 
has on this day to announce to the gods, that such and such one 
(the name of the sacrificer must be mentioned), the son of such and 
such one, the grandson of such and such one, offers, as a Dikshita, 
(as initiated into the sacrificial rites) a sacrifice. ("^fg^T^lJiS) 
The term ' Dtkshita' forms then henceforth part of the name of the 
sacrificer, and his descendants down to the seventh degree. In this 
part of India there are many Biahmans distinguished by this honorary 
epltiiet, which always indicates that either tlie bearer of it or his im- 
me«iiate ancestors have performed a Soma sacrifice, and have been 
proclaimed dikshita by the Subrahmany4 in all due form. , 

* J^uhe must be a 8rd person singular, as S&y explains it. 


One should answer, She is Vach. For Vach is 
Brahma, and Subrahma (good Brahma). 

They ask, Why does one call him (the Subrah- 
manya priest) who is a male, a female ? (They answer) 
Subrahmanya represents VacH (which is in the 
feminine gender). 

They further ask, When all the other priests are to 
perform their respective duties within the Vedi, and 
the Subrah manya outside the Vedi, how is it that 
the duty of the Subrah manya (in this particular 
case) becomes performed inside the Vedi ? One 
should answer. The Vedi has an outlet where things 
(which are no more required) are ' thrown ; if the 
Subrahmanya priest calls (the Subrahmanya) when 
standing in this outlet, then, in this way, (his duty 
is performed within the bounds of the Vedi). They 
ask. Why does he, standing in the outlet, repeat 
the SubrahmanyS, ? (On this they tell the following 

The Rislns held once a sacrificial session. They 
said to the most aged man among them, " Call the 
Subrahmanya^ Thou shalt call the gods standing 
among us (on account of thy age), as it were, nearest 
to them." In consequence of this the gods make 
him (the Subrahmanya) very aged. In this way he 
pleases the whole Vedi. 

They ask. Why do they present to him (the Su- 
brahmanya) a bull as a reward for his services ? (The 
answer is) The bull is a male ( vrlshd)^ the Subrah- 
manya is a female, both making thus a ( ouple. 
(This is done) for producing offspring from this 

The ^gridhra repeats the YSjya mantra for the 
P^tnivata Graha (a Soma vessel), with a low voice. 
For the Patnivatais the semen virile, and the effusion 
of the semen virile passing on without noise, as it 
were, he does cot make the Anuvashatk&m. Foe 

33 a 


the Anuvashatara is a stop. Thinking, I will not 
stop the effusion of the semen, he does not make the 
Anuvashtkara, for the semen which is not disturbed 
in its effusion, beare fruit. Sitting near the N'eshtair, 
he then eats, for the Neshtar is in the room of women. 
Agni (Agnidhra) pours semen in women, to produce 
children. He who has this knowledge provides 
through Agni his females with semen, and is blessed 
with children and cattle. 

The Subrahmanya ends after the distribution of 
the Dakshina,* for she is Vach. The Dakshina is 
food ; thus they place finally the sacrifice in food, 
which is Speech. 


(On the Skastras of the minor Hotri-priests at the 


(On the Shastras of minor Hoiri-priests at the morn^ 

ing and evening libations!) 

The Devas spread the sacrifice. When doing so, 
the Asuras approached them, thinking, let us ob^ 
struct their sacrifice. They attacked them from the 
right side, thinking this to be the weak point. The 
Devas awoke, and posted two of their number, Mitra 
and Varuna on the right side. Through the as- 
sistance of these two, the Devas drove the Asuras 
and Rakshas away from the morning libation. And 
thus the sacrificers drive them away (if they have 
the Maitravamna Shastra repeated); thence the 
Maitra varuna priest repeats the Maitravaruna Shastra 

* He represents Agni. 

* The Dakshin& is distributed at the midday libation. 


at the morning libation. The Asuras, defeated on the 
right side, attacked the centre of the sacriftce^ The 
Devas awoke, posted then Indra, and defeated through 
his assistance the enemies. Therefore the Brahma- 
nachamsi repeats at the morning libation the Indra 

The Asuras, thus defeated, attacked the sacrifice 
on the northern side. The Devas posted on this 
side Indragni, and defeated thus the Asuras. There- 
fore the Achhavaka repeats the Aindragna Shastra 
at the morning libation. For by means of In- 
dragni the Devas drove the Asutas and Rakshas 
away from the northern side.
Posted in Public Interest.
Reference and citation.
Excellent source.


Irungovel Tamil King And Hoysalas Founder The Same

Apart from the well known Kings of Tamil Nadu there were some other Kings in Tamil Nadu of yore.

One such is Irungovel, who ruled over the western part of Tamil Nadu not covered by the Chera Kings.


Hoysla Kingdom.

The area corresponds roughly the area surrounding Coimbatore extending  to Dharmapuiri.

It is also interesting to note that King Pari who ruled around this area belongs to Velir Community.

This community was brought from Dwaraka when or after Dwaraka was sinking or a little before or a little after( with those who remained the deluge) by Sage Agastya.

Some intriguing points.

1.The time frame mentioned and the reference found in Nachinarkkiniyar , a famous Tamil commentator of Sangam Literature.

Sangam Tamil poets composed over 2000 poems. Purananuru is an encyclopaedia of Tamil culture. It has got less than 400 verses. Purananuru verse 201 was composed by Kapilar two thousand years ago. This is a very important verse in Purananuru. It throws much light on early Indian History. Kapilar talks about 49th generation of Irungovel. Famous Tamil Commentator Nachinarkiniyar , who lived several hundred years ago, gave a very interesting story about this verse.

Nachinarkiniyar said that Agastya brought 12 tribes from Dwaraka ruled by Lord Krishna. Another city in the name of Dwaraka was founded in Karnataka (Mysore) state in the twelfth century. There is an interesting story about how and who founded this city. Hoychalas were the kings who ruled from this city.Hoychala is translated into Tamil asPulikadimal which is found in verse 201.

Chala was a king belonging to Yadu dynasty. While he was hunting in the Western Ghats, he saw a hare heroically fighting with a tiger. This made him to think that this place must have some special importance. When he followed the fighting tiger and hare, an ascetic who was doing penance ordered king Chala to kill the tiger. The ascetic’s order in Sanskrit was “Hatham Hoy Chala”. So from that day on wards the king and his descendants were called Hoychalas. If the verse 201 refers to this anecdote then it must have happened 2000 years ago.

This is reinforced by the Temples dedicated to Hindu Gods by the Hoysalas in Karnataka.

Kannadigas from Yadava Tribe

This King could have been called as Irungovel in Tamil and Hoysala in Karnataka.

The area in question is around the present border of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

2.Tamil Literature speaks of a King who was born of a Yaaga in Dwaraka and the city of Dwaraka was enclosed by Copper walls.

We know that Dwaraka and Gujarat present a very rich archeological source for IVC. The contention of Dr Parpola and the Dravidian politicians of Tamilnadu is that Tamils have descended form the IVC locations of North India. The verse by poet Kapilar in fact traces the origins of the King IrungoveL to Dwaraka. He says that he belonged to the 49th generation of the king who was born of the Sacrificial Fire conducted by the sage of the North. This king ruled Dwaraka, so says the poet. Reserving the other details of this verse for a future post, I am now concentrating on another description in that song.

( There is another interpretation on the interpretatiion of  the term Sacrificial fire

Kapilar describes Dwaraka as being surrounded by walls made of copper.

நீயே, வடபால் முனிவன் தடவினுள் தோன்றிச்,
செம்பு புனைந்து இயற்றிய சேண்நெடும் புரிசை,
உவரா ஈகைத், துவரை ஆண்டு,
நாற்பத்து ஒன்பது வழிமுறை வந்த
வேளிருள் வேளே!
This means “O king IrungoveL! you were the 49th king in the lineage of the king, who was born of the sacrificial fire conducted by the sage and ruled Dwarka which was surrounded by long / tall walls of copper.”

From the commentary that Dr U.Ve.Sa found out form the palm leaf manuscripts :-
“நீ தான் வட பக்கத்து முனிவனுடைய ஓம குண்டத்தின் கண் தோன்றிச் செம்பால் புனைத்து செய்தாலொத்த சேய்மையை உடைத்தாகிய நெடிய மதிலை உடைய துவராவதி என்னும் படை வீட்டை ஆண்டு, வெறுப்பில்லாத கொடையினை உடையராய் நாற்பத்தொன்பது தலைமுறை தொன்றுபட்டு வந்த வேள்களுள் வைத்து வேளாய்உள்ளாய்!”..


 ‘This king was not in Dwaraka when Kapilar met him and sang this verse. He was ruling some part of the western ghats in present day’s Karnataka. This Vel’s kingdom was different from the Tamil lands of the 3 kings (Chera, Chola and Pandya). The next verse was on the same king sung by Kapilar in which he describes his land in the hills.
This king’s palace was not surrounded by walls of copper. Copper walls were there in the kingdom of his ancestors in Dwaraka.Assuming that 3 kings lived per century, we can say that 1600 years have passed by the time this 49th king had come into being. The period of this king is not exactly known, but can be deciphered from Kapilar’s other connections. Kapilar was a close friend of another VeL king, Paari who was killed by the 3 Tamil kings. Kapilar took care of Parri’s orphaned daughters and approached another Vel king, IrungoveL to request him to marry the two daughters of Paari. This verse contains that request.

If we know the time period of Paari, we can ascertain the original period of the king of Dwaraka mentioned in this verse.
Paari and other Vel kings were regarded as the 3rd and last group of Patrons (கடை ஏழு வள்ளல்கள்).

The Vel lineage seems to have ended by the time Silapapdhikaram was written.

Silappadhikaram is about the Cheran king Neduncheralaathan (நெடுஞ்சேரலாதன்) who brought the stone from Himalayas to construct a temple for Kannagi. He conquered kings of the North and brought them as prisoners (They were made to carry the stone).

He later released them and ordered his deputy to keep them in the palace of the Vel king, by name Aavikko (வேளாவிக்கோ).

(Silapapdhikaaram chapter 28 )

“வஞ்சி மூதூர் புறத்துத்
தாழ் நீர் வேலித் தன மலர்ப் பூம்பொழில்
வேளாவிக்கோ மாளிகை காட்டி”

The king showed the palace of Velaavikko surrounded by cool waters and gardens in the city of Vanji (his capital city).

(Vanji is perhaps Kochi of Kerala.)

From this we can say that the Vels were there before 2nd century AD.
1600 years before that period coincides with the time of Dwarkan excavations given by Prof S.R Rao on Bet Dwaraka.
Bet Dwaraka was a later-built city which is dated at 1520 BC by Prof Rao

Details in this link :-


This date does not coincide with Krishna‘s date as we saw in the previous post in this series. Krishna‘s time precedes by another 1500 years.

Krishna’s Dwaraka could have been very much under the sea as there is marine archeological proof of very old habitations – now sunken – of a period, 5000 years to 7500 years ago.

The Vel king of this sangam verse might have had his lineage traced to the Dwarakan king of Bet Dwaraka.’

The king could have been the descendant of Krishna’s.

3.Krishna’s dynasty listing 71 Generations of Krishna lists Shatasena as the 71 st King and Krishna comes at 64th.

Assuming 3 Kings for every hundred years Shatasena fits the bill.

More interesting is the fact that was he  Krishna’s son through Jambavathi, who is listed as Satyajit?

71 generations of Krishna

The area where Jambhavathi and her father lived was Kishkinta, now confirmed as Hampi  and surrounding areas in Karnataka.

Possible that he conquered these areas later called as Velir Areas in Tamil Nadu?

4.Irungovel and Hoysalas were the same or one is the descendant of the  other?

It may be noted that both the Velirs and the Hoyasals were at war with the Cholas initially.

One must remember tat there were no linguistic divisions of India.

5.This Irungovel might have been around by  1800 BC .

Citation and references.


 * This is an exploratory view,Please send in inputs.

Tank Built By A Lakh Men 1100Years Ago Feeds Chennai

While we keep questioning about the antiquity of our culture,dismissing them as Myths/legends we keep using the facilities built by them for our daily use even today.

I can make out a long list of them.

In this first article let me look at the reservoir, Lake built around AD, which quenches Chennai’s thirst.( a Metro in India).

This Lake, located 14 km (8.7 mi) SSW of Chidambaram in Cuddalore district in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India. 1 km (0.62 mi) from Sethiyathope., 235 km (146 mi) from Chennai, India.

Veeranam Reservoir which has a capacity of 1.5 thousand million cubic feet (tmcft), supplies 180 million litres a day (MLD) to the city.

Who Built this Lake?


Veeranam Reservoir, near Chennai.

Veeranam Lake was built in the Tenth Century during the time of Greater Cholas, from 907–955 AD, by Rajadithya Chola.

The Rashtrakutas under Krishna III mounted multiple invasions into the Chola territories between 940 and 950 A.D. In order to ward of the attacks, Rajaditya stationed himself at Takkōlam along with his troops during the latter part of his reign.


Veeranam Location.

Rajadithya was appointed by his father Parantaka Chola 1 in charge of Northern Territory of the Chola.

Rajadithya had over 100,000 Men constituting his army and he did not want to keep them idle.

He made them build a Lake, called Veerananarayna Lake, named after the Presiding Deity  Lord Vishnu in Cuddalore/Thiruppadithiripuliyur.

He also carried out works in the temple.

In the 1830s, (later Sir) Arthur Cotton, the engineer who later harnessed the waters of the Krishna and Godavari, studied the tank in detail. He noted that there was no serious defect in the tank (this, 900 years after it was constructed)






Chola King List From 3020 BC

The Tamil Kingdoms run parallel to Puranic Timelines and the Puranas, Ramayana and Mahabharata mention these kings in various places, Damayanthi/Sita/Draupadi Swayamvara,Krishna/Arjuna marrying a Pandyan Princess,Shahadeva/Balarama pilgrimage to South,import of spices and elephant tusks.Agastya’s visit to South…..


Tanjore Big Temple.image.jpg

Thanjavur Big Temple

I am providing a list of Cholas from 3020 BCE based on Puranas and the evidence from the copperplates,Chola Inscriptions belonging to Chola period.

Even this may not be accurate as Chera King Udiyan Cheralaathan , Chola and Pandya Kings took part in the Kurukshetra war in the Mahabharata.

As Ramayana also refers to these Kings the date may be pushed back to somewhere around 5000 BC.

List of Chola Kings as indicated by Puranas.

  • Eri Oliyan Vaendhi C. 3020 BCE
  • Maandhuvaazhi C. 2980 BCE
  • El Mei Nannan C. 2945 BCE
  • Keezhai Kinjuvan C. 2995 BCE
  • Vazhisai Nannan C. 2865 BCE
  • Mei Kiyagusi Aerru C. 2820 BCE
  • Aai Kuzhi Agusi Aerru C. 2810 BCE
  • Thizhagan Maandhi C. 2800 BCE
  • Maandhi Vaelan C. 2770 BCE
  • Aai Adumban C. 2725 BCE
  • Aai Nedun jaet chozha thagaiyan C. 2710 BCE
  • El Mei Agguvan a.k.a. Keezh nedu mannan C. 2680 BCE
  • Mudiko Mei Kaalaiyam Thagaiyan C. 2650 BCE
  • Ilangok keezh kaalaiyan thagaiyan a.k.a. Ilangeezh nannan C. 2645 BCE -start of Kadamba lineage by his brother Aai Keezh Nannan
  • Kaalaiyan gudingyan C. 2630 BCE
  • Nedun gaalayan dhagayan C. 2615 BCE
  • Vaengai nedu vael varaiyan C.2614 BCE
  • Vaet kaal kudingyan C. 2600 BCE
  • Maei Ila vael varaiyan C. 2590 BCE
  • Sibi Vendhi C. 2580 BCE
  • Paru nonji chaamazhingyan C. 2535 BCE
  • Vaeqratrtri chembiya chozhan C. 2525 BCE
  • Saamazhi chozhiya vaelaan C. 2515 BCE
  • Uthi ven gaalai thagan C. 2495 BCE
  • Nannan that kaalai thagan C. 2475 BCE
  • Vel vaen mindi C. 2445 BCE
  • Nedun jembiyan C. 2415 BCE
  • Nedu nonji Vendhi C. 2375 BCE
  • Maei Vael paqratrtri C. 2330 BCE
  • Aai Perun thoan nonji C. 2315 BCE
  • Kudiko pungi C. 2275 BCE
  • Perun goep poguvan C. 2250 BCE
  • Koeth thatrtri C. 2195 BCE
  • Vadi sembiyan C. 2160 BCE
  • Aalam poguvan C. 2110 BCE
  • Nedun jembiyan C. 2085 BCE
  • Perum paeyar poguvan C. 2056 BCE
  • Kadun jembiyan C. 2033 BCE
  • Nedun kathan C. 2015 BCE
  • Paru nakkan C. 1960 BCE
  • Vani sembiyan C. 1927 BCE
  • Udha chira mondhuvan C. 1902 BCE
  • Perun kaththan C. 1875 BCE
  • Kadun kandhalan C. 1860 BCE
  • Nakka monjuvan C. 1799 BCE
  • Maarko vael Maandhuvan Aaththikko C. 1786 BCE
  • Musukunthan Vaendhi C. 1753 BCE
  • Peru nakkan Thatrtri C. 1723 BCE
  • Vaer kaththan C. 1703 BCE
  • Ambalaththu Irumundruvan C. 1682 BCE
  • Kaari mondhuvan C. 1640 BCE
  • Vennakkan Thatrtri C. 1615 BCE
  • Maarko chunthuvan C. 1565 BCE
  • Vaer parunthoan mundruvan C. 1520 BCE
  • Udhan kaththan C. 1455 BCE
  • Kaariko sunthuvan C. 1440 BCE
  • Vendri nungunan C. 1396 BCE
  • Mondhuvan Vendhi C. 1376 BCE
  • Kaandhaman C. 1359 BCE
  • Mundruvan Vendhi C. 1337 BCE
  • Kaandhaman C. 1297 BCE
  • Monjuvan Vendhi C. 1276 BCE
  • Ani sembiyan C. 1259 BCE
  • Nungunan Vendhi C. 1245 BCE
  • Maarkop perum Cenni C. 1229 BCE
  • Monjuvan Nanvendhi C. 1180 BCE
  • Kop perunar chenni C. 1170 BCE
  • Monthuvan jembiyan C. 1145 BCE
  • Narchenni C. 1105 BCE
  • Caet chembiyan C. 1095 BCE
  • Nakkar chenni C. 1060 BCE
  • Parun jembiyan C.1045 BCE
  • Venjenni C. 998 BCE
  • Musugunthan C. 989 BCE
  • Maarkop perun jembiyan C. 960 BCE
  • Nedunjenni C.935 BCE
  • Thatchembiyan C. 915 BCE
  • Ambalaththu iruvaer chembiyan C. 895 BCE
  • Kaariko chenni C. 865 BCE
  • Venvaer chenni C. 830 BCE
  • Kaandhaman, C. 788 BCE
  • Kaandhalan C. 721 BCE
  • Caetchenni C. 698 BCE
  • Vani nungunan C. 680 BCE
  • Mudhu sembiyan Vendhi C. 640 BCE
  • Peelan jembiyach chozhiyan C. 615 BCE
  • Maeyan gadungo C. 590 BCE
  • Thiththan C. 570 BCE
  • Perunar killi Porvaiko C. 515 BCE
  • Kadu mundruvan C. 496 BCE
  • Kopperunjozhan C. 495 BCE
  • Narkilli Mudiththalai C. 480 BCE
  • Thevvan go chozhan C. 465 BCE
  • Naran jembiyan C. 455 BCE
  • Nakkam peela valavan C. 440 BCE
  • Iniyan thevvan jenni C. 410 BCE
  • Varcembiyan C. 395BCE
  • Nedun jembiyan C. 386 BCE
  • Nakkan aran jozhan C. 345 BCE
  • Ambalathu irungoch chenni C. 330 BCE
  • Perunar killi C. 316 BCE
  • Kochaet Cenni C. 286 BCE
  • Cerupazhi Erinda Ilanjaetcenni, C. 275 BCE
  • Nedungop perunkilli C. 220 BCE
  • Cenni Ellagan C. 205 BCE
  • Perun gilli C. 165 BCE
  • Kopperun jozhiyav ilanjaetcenni C. 140 BCE
  • Perunar killi Mudiththalai ko C. 120 BCE
  • PerumpootCenni C. 100 BCE
  • Ilam perunjenni C. 100 BCE
  • Perungilli Vendhi aka Karikaalan I C. 70 BCE
  • Nedumudi Killi C. 35 BCE
  • Ilavanthigaipalli Thunjiya Maei Nalangilli Caet Cenni, C. 20 BCE
  • Aai Vaenalangilli C. 15 BCE
  • Uruvapakraer Ilanjaetcenni, C. 10 – 16 CE
  • 16–30 CE Kingdom ruled by a series of Uraiyur chieftains
  • Karikaalan II Peruvalaththaan, C. 31 CE
  • Vaer paqradakkai Perunar killi, C. 99 CE
  • Perun thiru mavalavan, Kuraapalli Thunjiya C. 99 CE
  • Nalangilli C. 111 CE
  • Perunarkilli, Kula mutrtraththu Thunjiya C. 120 CE
  • Perunarkilli, Irasasuya vaetta C. 143 CE
  • Vael kadunkilli C. 192 CE
  • Kochenganaan C. 220 CE
  • Nalluruththiran C. 245 CE

Based on Chola Inscriptions.

  • Manu
  • Ikshvaku
  • Vikukshi
  • Puranjaya
  • Kakutstha
  • Kakshivat
  • Aryaman
  • Analapratapa
  • Vena
  • Prithu
  • Dhundhumara
  • Yuvanasva
  • Mandhata
  • Muchukunda
  • Valabha
  • Prithulaksha
  • Parthivachudamani
  • Dirghabahu
  • Chandrajit
  • Sankriti
  • Panchapa
  • Satyavrata
  • Rudrajit
  • Sibi
  • Marutta
  • Dushyanta
  • Bharata
  • Cholavarman
  • Rajakesarivarman
  • Parakesarin
  • Chitraratha
  • Chitrasva
  • Chitradhanvan
  • Suraguru
  • Chitraratha
  • Vyaghraketu
  • Narendrapati
  • Vasu
  • Visvajit
  • Perunatkilli
  • Karikala
  • Kochchengannan

Please read my posts on Cholas from Kasyapa Gotra, Sibi, Cholas from Ikshvaku Dynasty.

For more articles on Cholas ,please Google Cholas+ramanan50.


Citation and reference.