Upakarma date .image.

Avani Avittam Upakarma Dates Why Change of Dates Details.

There is confusion regarding the date/date for performing Upakarma,called Avani Avittam .

It is one of the major festivals for Brahmins,though all the three varnas,Brahmana,Kshatriya and Vaisyas must perform.

It is natural for us to get confused about Hindu Festivals,as ,I might add,to my regret,we are familiar with only English Calendar and not our calendar/s.

Hindu calendar follows both Surya Maanasa and Chandra Maanasa,that is Time calculated on the basis of Sun and Moon.

The Gregorian Calendar Calendar underwent a lot of changes,including changing the calendar on the whims of a Ruler(Julius Caesar).

It would be of interest to note that Britain was following Our Hindu Calender!

Now to Upakarma,Avani Avittam dates.

The Yajur Upakarma is to be celebrated on 6th September 2017,as the earlier day happens to be day when Grahana,Eclipse takes place.

Rig Upakarma August 28th,(Aadi12th),

Sama Upakarma,August 25th( Avani 9th),

This decision has been announced by Kanchi Kamakoti Mutt.
Generally,the Rig Vedis,Yajur and Samavedis perform on different days.

Details are given towards the close of this article.

Rigvedis generally follow Suryamaanasa and hence give importance to Nakshatra,in this case,Sravana Nakshatra.

Yajurvedis generally follow Chandra Maanasa,therefore they give importance to Thithi,the waxing and waning of the Moon.

So they perform Upakarma,Avavi Avittam on the Full Moon Day,Pournami.

However,one must remeber that by tradition,Upakarma is not performed if Grahana occurs on the Upakarma Day.

Next Nakshatra or next same Thithi is declared to be auspicious for performing Upakarma.

One may observe that Upakarma is basically equivalent to the beginning of Academic Year,that’s all.

That it should not be performed on Grahana day is something I do not find any Smriti mentioning it.

Readers may send information.

Smritis declare that any new endeavor or Auspicious activity undertaken on Grahana day would be successful and Mantras chanted during Grahana(Eclipse) would yield thousand fold result.

So this practice of changing days on account of Grahana seems not sound,barring the tradition.

For details on Vedic Syllabus and Upakarma.

Normally the child is sent for learning at the age of Five after Yagnayopaveeda ceremony to the teacher where the child stays and learns.

The period of study:

Nine years, called Adhama, not very auspicious,

Twelve Years,Madhyaman, Acceptable,

Eighteen Years,Uthamam, The best.

There were also people who were doing the Adyayana, or the learning of the Vedas, for thirty-six years or through out their Life.

One can remain a Brahmachari, without marrying through out Life learning the Vedas.

There were Two Terms in a year.

The First Term is called ‘Upakarma‘ Months.

The Second Term is for Seven moths called ‘Uthsarjanam or ‘Uthsargam’

One is reminded of Upakarma.

This is when the Upakarma term begins.

For Rig Vedis,Upakarma falls on the Sravana Nakshatra during th Sravan Month.

This period is between the Amavasya of Adi and Avani.

For Yajur Vedis. the Upakarma falls on the Full Moon , Poornima of Sravana month.

During the Mahabharata battle Lord Krishna artificially created an Eclipse to ensure the ‘Ritual Killing of  a Prince(Arjuna’s son, Aravan)

The Rig Vedis and the Yajur Vedis were performing the Upakarma on the Poornima Day..

This resulted in the change of days  in Thithis, the waxing and waning of the moon.

The next Nakshatra is Avitta.

So, the Upakarma was performed  in Avitta  with Poornima by the Yajur Vedis.

But Rig Vedis  stick to Sravana nakshtra.

Sama Vedis perform this Upakarma in the Pathrapad(Purattasi) in Hastha Nakshatra.

Mostly this falls on Ganesh Chaturthi day.

The Veda  teaching begins on the Upakarma Day.

Students will be taught Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads,

This shall continue till Pushya Monh, ‘Thai’ in Tamil.

The Term will end here by performing ‘Uthsarjan karma’

This will be performed on the Poornma or the Rohini Nakshatra that occurs before this Poornima.

Rig Vedis and Yajur Vedis follow this.

Sama Vedis end the term in Maaka Month Ppornima.

Uthsarjanam means’ leaving out’

The term ends here.

Next term begins from the Upakarma Day.

Here the Vedangas,the other Sciences will be taught, Astrology,Astronomy,Linguistics, etc,

Veda will not be taught in this period.’


Pico cao Grande mountain. Gabon.image

Meru Mountain Hinduism Pico Cao Grande Gabon Africa Where Lemuria Atlantis Met

I have written earlier that the ancient Texts of Hinduism lend themselves to minimum four interpretations.

1.The literary,word by word meaning.

2.The Philosophical meaning.

3.The Scientific meaning and

4.Tantric meaning which espouses the Geometric and Sound combined Concept for Spiritual upliftment.

All texts lend themselves to this approach.

I shall write on this shortly.

Hence each Concept in Hinduism has at least four interpretations.

So is the case with Meru.

Meru ,for example ,is described ,in Lalitha Sahasranama thus.

‘Sumeru Mandala Madhyastha Sriman Nagara Nayikaa’

Of Lalitha Devi it describes,

‘The one who dwells in the city of SriChakra(Sri Nagara),which is located in the Meru Mountain.

Let us look at the Geographical approach.

Mount Meru has been suggested to be in Arctic,Tanzania,Kashmir,apart from being a Tantric Concept.

Ayodhya, Mathura,Pandyaa Kingdoms, not to speak of the Holy places, Rivers, Mountains and even the Species that thrive in these locations.

At the same time one gets the impression that the areas mentioned are not in The Earthand are located in some other location ,Planet, under the Ocean.

And we have the Lokas, the abode of Beings confusing.

We have , for example, the Surya Loka, Chandra Loka.’

Meru in Arctic

Mount Meru is an active stratovolcano located 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of Mount Kilimanjaro in the nation of Tanzania.

And there is a Town Meru in the neighboring Kenya!

3.Meru is also identified Mount Meru or Sumeru with the Pamirs, north-west of Kashmir.

Meru in Tanzania

Mount Meru is also theorised somewhere near Sumeria,the term Sumeria from Meru ,Sumeru.

There are extensive descriptions of Meru in the Puranas.

There is a parallel system of Hinduism in the south of Vindhya ranges,called Dravida Desa,where the Tamils lived around 230 million years ago.

Please refer my article Lemuria Home of Tamils.

There are three concepts regarding this landmass.


Its outer portion MU and


Lemuria and Kumarikandam seem to have slightly different landmass,while there is agreement that  MU formed the periphery of the land of Tamils.

Detailed research was carried out by James Churchward.

You may read my articles on Kumarikandam,Lemuria and MU.

Though there are references in ancient Tamil Texts,they are few.

A text of Yoga and Advaitha,which predates Patanjali,Thirumandhiram by Thirumoolar,A Siddha , is presumed to be over 3000 years old.

Thirumandhiram has 3000 poems,which deal with Spirituality,Yoga ,Shiva and Advaitha.

Thirumandhiram is subjected to scientific research in the US.

A poem refers to Meru.

It refers Meru as a Mountain a Mountain whics was located at the point where the Equator,and the Zero degrees of Longitude and Latitude converge and it was devoured by the Ocean.

I checked the information with the present Geographical areas.

The result is that Mount Meru seems to have been near the Gulf of Guyana.

To be exact, the intersection of  zero degrees latitude and zero degrees longitude falls about 380 miles (611 kilometers) south of Ghana and 670 miles (1078 km) west of Gabon. This location is in the tropical waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean, specifically, the Gulf of Guinea.

The Gulf of Guinea is part of the western edge of the African tectonic plate. Most notably, according to the theory of continental drift, this may have been the location where South America and Africa were once joined.

The equator has a mark of zero degrees latitude and the prime meridian one of zero degrees longitude, but where do these two lines meet? The simple answer is that they intersect in the Gulf of Guinea, just off the western coast of Africa.’

Source. https://www.thoughtco.com/prime-meridian-and-the-equator-intersect-4070819

 It is the place where South America and Africa Continents join.

The equator is at zero degrees latitude. 
It is the starting point for measuring latitude.

The equator runs through the top of South America, through the middle of Africa and then Indonesia and north of New Guinea.

The Meru Mountain must be, based on this,should have been among middle of Africa,Indonesia and North of New Guinea.

Pico Cao grande mountain seems to fit the bill ,though it is slighly off the mark in longitude and Latitude

More exploration under the sea in the nearby areas needed.

Pico Cão Grande

The Pico Cão Grande (Portuguese for “Great Dog Peak”) is a landmark needle-shaped volcanic plug peak in São Tomé and Príncipe, in the south of São Tomé Island in Obo National Park. It rises dramatically over 370 m (1,000 ft) above the surrounding terrain and the summit is 668 m (2,175 ft) above sea level.

São Tomé Island, at 854 km2 (330 sq mi), is the largest island of São Tomé and Príncipe and is home to about 157,000 or 96% of the nation’s population. This island and smaller nearby islets make up São Tomé Province, which is divided into six districts. The main island is located 2 km (1¼ miles) north of the equator. It is about 48 kilometres (30 miles) long (North-South) by 32 kilometres (20 miles) wide (east-west). It rises to 2,024 metres (6,640 feet) at Pico de São Tomé and includes the capital citySão Tomé, on the northeast coast. The nearest city on mainland Africa is the port city of Port Gentil in Gabon located 240 kilometres (150 miles) to the east.


0.1180° N, 6.5660° E

Is this the place where Atlantis and Memuria met?

The poem runs thus,

1394. ஊரும் உலகமும் ஒக்கப் படைக்கின்ற

பேரறி வாளன் பெருமை குறித்திடின்
மேருவும் மூவுல காளி யிலங்கெழுந்
தாரணி நால்வகைச் சைவமு மாமே.

(ப. இ.) ஊர் உலகம் உடல் உறுப்பு உண்பொருள் எல்லாம் கருவியின்றிக் கலந்தியக்கும் கருத்தளவானே படைத்தருள்கின்றவன் சிவன். அவன் இயல்பாக விளங்கும் முற்றுணர்வுடைய பேரறிவாளனாவன். அவன்றன் அளவிலாப் பெருமையை நாமறிந்த அளவில் குறிப்போமானால் மேருவாகிய பொன்மலையும், மூவுலகையும் ஒருங்கு ஆளும் அவன் (சிவபெருமான்) படைத்தருளும் உலகமும், சுத்தம், மிகுசுத்தம், மார்க்கம், கடுஞ்சுத்தம் என்னும் நால்வகைச் சைவமும் ஓர் புடை ஒப்பாகச் சொல்லலாம். அசுத்தம் – மிகுசுத்தம். நால்வகைச் சைவமும் சிவபெருமானின் நின்றே தோன்றுவன. துளக்கமில்லாத சிவபெருமானின் அளத்தற்கரிய பெருமையினுக்குப் பொன்மலையொப்பாகும். எங்கும் நீக்கமற நிறைந்து நிற்கும் இயல்பினுக்கு நிலவுலகம் ஒப்பாகும். தவறாது திருவடிப்பேறாம் மெய்ப்பயன் தருதற்கு நால்வகைச் சைவம் ஒப்பாகும். சுத்தம் – உண்மை, இயற்கை, நால்வகைச் சைவம் வருமாறு: இயற்கைச் செந்நெறி, மீ இயற்கைச் செந்நெறி, மெய்யுணர்வுச் செந்நெறி, மெய்கண்டார் செந்நெறி என்பன. இவற்றை முறையே, சுத்த சைவம், அசுத்த சைவம், மார்க்க சைவம், கடுஞ்சுத்த சைவம் எனவும் கூறுப. அசுத்தம் என்பதில் ‘அ’ அப்பால் என்பதன் முதலெழுத்தாகும். எனலு மொன்று. செந்நெறி எனினும் சிவனெறி எனினும் ஒன்றே.

(அ. சி.) நால்வகைச் சைவம் – சுத்த சைவம், அசுத்த சைவம், மார்க்க சைவம், கடுஞ்சுத்த சைவம். மேரு – பூமியின் மத்திய இரேகையும் நிரட்சர ரேகையும் சேரும் இடத்தில் இருந்து கடல் கொண்டடொழிந்த மேரு மலை. சுமேரு – வட துருவம் (North pole.) குமேரு – தென் துருவம் (South pole.) இங்கே நிலைதவறாமைக்கு உவமையாக வந்தது. மூவுலகு – பரந்து விரிந்த தன்மைக்கு உவமை. சைவம் – மெய்ப்பயன் தருவதற்கு உவமை.’

Source. http://www.tamilvu.org/slet/l4100/l4100pd2.jsp?bookid=118&pno=541

Andal, Srivilliputhur.image.

Date of Andal Srivilliputhur 3004 BC?

I am checking the dates and history of India during middle ages to sort out misinformation that had crept into early Indian History.

In this article ,I am looking at the date of Andal,the only Saint Poetss in Tamil,an Azhwar among the twelve.

Why have I chosen Andal,not others?

Honest reason is I was born in Srivilliputhur and studied there.

Srivilliputhur Andal temple.image.

Srivilliputhur Andal temple.The Tower is The Emblem of aTamil Nadu.

This small town is the birth place of Andal and Srivilliputhur Andal Temple is famous as the second Divyakshetra after Srirangam for Sri Vaishnavas.( Vaikuntam is taken as the first Divyadesa,but as it is celestial it is not taken into account as a Divyadesa in Earth)

Though an Iyer, I am conversant with Vaishnava Sampradaaya as much as Iyers’ mostly because I spent my formative years at lap of Andal and I am moved by Thiruppavai as much as Abhirami Andhadi.

As to the date of Andal,the scholars (?)assign 7 or 8th Century AD.

The evidence they rely on are,

Internal evidence in Andal’s Thiruppavai mainly and her foster father Vishnuchittha’s Works.

The astronomical event described in Thiruppavai.

The internal evidence rests on the style of Andal’s Works belong to a much later period than the Sangam period.

She refers to Sangam period as Sangath Tamizhmaalai Muppadhum Thappame,’Garland of poems modeled after Sangam Tamil Style,

‘சங்கத் தமிழ்மாலை முப்பதும் தப்பாமே’ Thiruppaavai 30.

The same style is found in her foster father’s Works.

Secondly,reference is taken to another Thiruppaavai,

புள்ளின்வாய் கீண்டானை, பொல்லா அரக்கனைக்

கிள்ளிக் களைந்தானைக் கீர்த்திமை பாடிப்போய்,
பிள்ளைகள் எல்லாரும் பாவைக் களம்புக்கார்;
வெள்ளி எழுந்து, வியாழம் உறங்கிற்று;
புள்ளும் சிலம்பினகாண்; போதரிக் கண்ணினாய்!
குள்ளக் குளிரக் குடைந்து நீராடாதே,
பள்ளிக் கிடத்தியோ? பாவாய்! நீ நன்னாளால்
கள்ளம் தவிர்ந்து கலந்தேலோ ரெம்பாவாய். ‘

வெள்ளி எழுந்து, வியாழம் உறங்கிற்று;

This refers to the celetial phenomenon of Venus rising in the East and Jupiter setting in the West,in the early hours of the day.(Brahma Muhurtha between 3.45 and 4.30 am)

Based on this thecday on which the poem was composed is fixed either  on 25th November 885 AD or 24th December 886 AD.

So the datevof Andal is assigned as 8th Century AD.

Before looking at the other evidence which dates Andal at 3025 BC,let us look at some issues in the above dates.

1.The style no doubt is an important factor to determine the dates.

True,the Andal’s literary style is not Sangam Style.

But is that alone sufficient to date around 8th Century AD?

Those who assign 8th Century take reference to Vallabha Pandya who was a contemporary of Vishnu Chitta and Andal and his date is determined around 8th Century AD.

Vishnuchitta is assigned 8oo to 885 AD.

ஞானசம்பந்தர் (640-656 A.D.) (மாமல்ல I, பாண்டியன் அரிகேசரி நெடுமாறன்  சம காலத்தவர்)அப்பர் (580-660 A.D.) (மஹேந்திரன், மாமல்ல மற்றும் பாண்டியன் அரிகேசரியின் சமகாலத்தவர்)பெரியாழ்வார் (800-885 A.D.) (பாண்டியன் ஸ்ரீ மாற ஸ்ரீ வல்லப சமகாலத்தவர்), நம்மாழ்வார் (745 to 780 A.D.) போன்றோர் வாழ்ந்த காலம் பற்றிய தெளிவு கிடைக்கின்றது.

எனவே பெரியாழ்வார் ஸ்ரீ மாறன் ஸ்ரீ வல்லபன் (கி.பி. 815 – 862) என்ற பாண்டியன் காலத்தில் வாழ்ந்தவர் என்று ஐயத்திற்கு இடமின்றி ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளலாம்.  பெரியாழ்வாரே பாண்டியன் கோ நெடுமாறன் தன் சமகாலத்வர் என்று மூன்று இடங்களில் குறிப்பிட்டுள்ளார்: 

  1. பருப்பதத்து கயல் பொறித்த பாண்டியர் குலபதி. (பெரியாழ்வார் திருமொழி 5-4-7) 
  2. கொன்னவில் சுடர் வெல் கோன் நெடுமாறன் (பெரியாழ்வார் திருமொழி 4-2-7 ) 
  3. குறுகாத மன்னரை கூடு கலக்கி (பெரியாழ்வார் திருமொழி 4-2-8)

குருபம்பரை நூலிலும் பாண்டியன் ஸ்ரீ வல்லபன் பெரியாழ்வாரின் சமகாலத்தவர் என்று குறிப்பிடப்பட்டுள்ளது.’

Source.  http://akharam.blogspot.in/2015/01/blog-post.html

However as there are more kings by the same name,which one should we take?

Again the planetary alignment stated above  is not limited to the two dates mentioned above.

They had happened earlier,even during Sangam Period and will take place in future as celetial events take place with regularity,as in Agastya Star,Star Canopus for example.

The difficulty in taking celestial event as proof is not foolproof.

Please read my article on Difficulty in dating Hinduism.

Now let us look at another date assigned  to Andal based on another Text.

Sri Andal is considered the incarnation of Bhoomi Devi (Mother Earth). She was like Sri Seetha born of Mother Earth. Divya Suri Charita records that she appeared as a child in the 97 th year after the onset of Kali Yuga termed the Nala year, in the Tamil month of Adi in the Purva Phalguni asterism. Follow the link for a brief outline of Sri Andal (Godha) and her works’



I am not sure from where you are getting the idea of Andal being born in 8th century. It is laughable and this is what happens when an outsider puts out the information as he likes and publishes a book. Indeed 3025 BC is a wrong date. I re-edited it to post the correct birth date i.e 97/98th year of Kali Yuga (3102 BC) that puts the date around 3004 BC. Out of 12 alwars, the last alwar was Thirumangai Alwar who was born in 2706 B.C. Nalayira Divya Prabandhams were lost during the big 3500 year gap between Thirumangai Azhwar and Nathamuni. Andal birth date is clearly mentioned, why are you guys who have no idea of the sanatana dharma are tampering with the traditional accounts is beyond me. Should you guys push everything after the christ or something? I don’t understand. Indeed it was a mistake on my part to say 3025 BC but the correct date is around 3004 BC. Research the alwars history, the last alwar was Thirumangai. I don’t care if you bar me from editing the page, its just that wiki loses authority by pushing the dates. I am done…—-Kalyan — Preceding unsigned comment added by SriKrushna7(talk • contribs)

@SriKrushna7: Do you have a reliable source for this, per WP:V and WP:RS? Blogs, random websites and self-published sources are neither scholarly nor acceptable in wikipedia. If you read the pages in the sources cited, you will see support for 8th/9th century. @Redtigerxyz has suggested that we acknowledge the traditional hagiographies, an idea I like, per wiki’s NPOV policy. Ms Sarah Welch (talk) 17:51, 18 December 2015 (UTC)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────@ In response to your comment on my talk page, please note that the article already has the traditional ~3000 BCE date as a special note. Ms Sarah Welch (talk) 23:56, 24 February 2016 (UTC)

That small note at the bottom is an insult to the Sri Vaishnava sampradaya followers and is considered blasphemy. Your consistent vandalizing of the page with the false dates and preferring of one source over the other just because it does not sound practical for you is absurd. If I could have reported you, I would have already done that to admins and your threats of blocking me and all is absolute nonsense and why would I be blocked for asking a valid question. The date of birth of Andal comes from traditional Tamil scriptures and not by an author of the book who out of his mind sets a date! Read the book ‘Divya Suri Charita’ which actually mentions Andal date of birth (97th Kali/3005 BC to be exact) or and is the primary source of information. Lastly, I don’t know why you are editing a page which you have NO idea about, absurd to say the least. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:52, 27 February 2016 (UTC)’

Source.  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Andal#3025_BC_versus_8th.2F9th_century_dating_in_reliable_source

The bottom line is,

1.Texts are taken to vadidate dates.

But when there are more texts mentioning different dates,which one to rely on?

For westerners and Wiki,dates that place Indian History later to Christ or Western Sources.

That’s the reason why I do not edit wiki,despite their communication as I am convinced that minecwill be removed.

I quote Wiki,despite many readers asking me not to rely on it,because I choose a wiki article based on its resources.

I shall write in detail on this in my Page shortly

2.The Sangam date assigned around 3000 BC calls for revision in the light of new archeological finds at Attirampakkam,Poompuhar which set Sangam dates back by 30,000 years.

So the date of Andal at 8th Century AD could be open to question as it might be 3025 BC as the proof here is also dependant on text as in the case of 8th Century AD.

Let me check further.

Scholars may send information.

Sri Chakra 3D .image.

Perfect Sri Chakra By Adi Shankaracharya Sringeri

The Sri Chakra of Devi is perfect synchoronization of Universal Reality and the Individual Soul.

The Advaita system propounded Adi Shankaracharya,based on the Mahavakyas of the Vedas define Reality as Brahman .

It is is beyond Attributes.

It is beyond senses and a Noumenon.

It is Absolute with no reference to relate to.

The Individual Soul,Jiva is but a part of Brahman.

It is not separate,different from Brahman.

The individual soul,the world of Names and Forms are illusory in the sense that they are Relative.

The Individual Soul and the world of Names and Forms is because of Illusion.

This Illusion,at the Individual level is Avidya,Nescience,absence of Absolute Knowledge or loosely put Ignorance.

At the Universal level it is,Called Maya.
The Reality ,Brahman is the emobodiment of Being,Consciousness and Bliss.


Once ignorance,Avidya is removed the false ,Relative knowledge gives way to Absolute Knowledge,Brahma Gnana,when the Individual soul becomes aware of its original state,that of Reality,Brahman.

This,in short,is Advaita.

As it is impossible for the human mind to concentrate on mere principles,Hinduism,as a first step,recommends Personal God.

To facilitate the process of integrating the Universal Soul with the Individual soul,four tools are suggested.


2.Sounds in the form of Mantras

3.Geometrical shapes and

4.Combination of Sound and Geometrical shapes,Mantra and Yantra,which form Tantra.

One of the most effective Yantra is Sri Chakra of Devi.

For details of Sri Chakra,google sri yantra+ramanan50.

Sri Chakra and OM are interchangeable.

Adi Shankaracharya established Sri Chakra invmany places,including Kolluru and Sringeri.

The perfect Sri Chakra can be found at Sringeri,the Mutt established by Adi Shankaracharya.

The ancient temple of Sri Sharada, the presiding deity of Sringeri has a glorious history that begins with the setting up of the Dakshinamnaya Peetham by Sri Shankara Bhagavatpada. Originally it was an unpretentious shrine with the Murti of Sharada made of sandalwood, installed over the Sri Chakra that Sri Adi Shankara carved on a rock. Subsequently Sri Bharati Krishna Tirtha and Sri Vidyaranya had a temple built in the Kerala style, with timber and tiled roof. Sri Bharati Krishna Tirtha substituted the sandalwood idol with the present golden idol.

Sri Sacchidananda Shivabhinava Nrisimha Bharati raised the present structure in granite with polished granite walling round the sanctum and Sri Chandrasekhara Bharati consecrated the new temple in May 1916. Sri Abhinava Vidyatirtha made several improvements in the temple. The Mahamandapam has huge stone pillars exquisitely carved with deities like Durga, Raja Rajeshwari, Dwarapalakas and Devis which are all sculpted according to the Shilpa Sastras practised in Tamilnadu.

Sanctified by the worship of an unbroken succession of Acharyas of the highest purity, loftiest devotion and unsurpassed mantric powers, the Murti of Sri Sharada radiates grace and blessings.’

Reference and citation.


History Of India 2 Eastern India Nation Of The Ganges Bengal Odisha Assam

When we read the History of a vast country like India,with its roots stretching back to over thousands of years,we should remember the landmass and the present poltical maps have no relevance.

The Ancient Indian kingdoms were 56 and I have listed them in another article.

We have to have a rough division of the Bharatvarsha into four regions for better understanding and remember that the borders of the Kingdoms were subject to periodical changes depending on which King won and annexed the vanquished territory.

I shall soon begin a Timeline of the Kings of India,though I had written on the List of Indian Kings.

And we may bear in mind that Bharathavarsha of ancient times was not limited to the present Geographical area of India.

I have written on the Rama Empire that encompassed the world and also that of Emperor Vikramaditya.

Now in the last article I had dealt with the History of India in general ,the Dynasties from Ikshvaku to Chandragupta.

It covered,though it speaks of Bharatvarsha in totality,it concentrated more on Central and North India as we know at present.

In this article,we shall check the Eastern Part of India.

Unlike the History of Central and North India,the Eastern,Southern and Western part of India are interwoven move intricately aming themselves.

For instance,the Eastern India was closely connected to Dravida Desa,the present South India.

The Eastern and Southern people,Dravidas were classified as Dasyus,that is who did not follow the Vedas in its entirety.

And while the Central and North Indian Kings expanded more towards North and North East of India,the Western and Southern  kings expanded their Kindoms towards the east of India to Micronesia and the present Australia.

The Southern ,Dravida kings ,in addition to East ,expanded their Kingdoms towards Middle East,Africa,Greece and the Americas.

The Eastern kingdoms comprised of the present West Bengal,Bangladesh,Assam,Odisha and Northeastern State.

The Eastern Indian polity comprised of five major tribes and were predominantly Kshatriyas and I itiallythey did not accept the Brahmins and the Vedas fully and hence were called Dasyus.

AngasVangasKalingas, Pundras and Suhmas shared a common ancestry.

Some interpretations suggest Dasyu means Slave (Monier Williams)

I take the well researched interpretation of Sri.P.T.Srinivasa Iyengar,in his ‘History of Tamils’that Dasyu means who do not follow Vedas in its entirety.

Hindu scriptures such as the Mahabharata suggest that ancient Bengal was divided among various tribes or kingdoms, including the Nishadas and kingdoms known as the Janapadas: Vanga (southern Bengal), Pundra (northern Bengal), and Suhma (western Bengal) according to their respective totems. ‘

The Vanga Kingdom was the first powerful seafaring nation of South Asia, especially Bengal. They had overseas trade relations with JavaSumatra and Siam (modern-day Thailand). According to Mahavamsa, the Vanga prince Vijaya Simhaconquered Lanka (modern-day Sri Lanka) in 544 BCE and gave the name “Sinhala” to the country. Bengali people migrated to the Malay Archipelago and Siam (in modern Thailand), establishing their own colonies there.

*I do not agree with these dates;they can be pushed earlier.

The Southern ,Dravida kings ,in addition to East ,expanded their Kingdoms towards Middle East,Africa,Greece and the Americas
These kingdoms find reference in thebAtharva Veda and Greek writers refer extensively these areas.

Gangaridai (GreekΓανγαρίδαι; Latin: Gangaridae) was an ancient region corresponding to the Ganges delta region of the Indian subcontinent, which was mentioned in the records of numerous Greco-Roman writers. The term means “nation of the Ganges” in Greek and Latin. It is one of the earliest references to the Bengal region in the Indian subcontinent (now divided between Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal). According to ancient Indian records, the Vanga Kingdom and Samatata Kingdom occupied the region during the same period. The capital of the Gangaridai is thought by some archaeologists to be situated at Kotalipara in present-day Gopalganj District, Bangladesh…..

Diodorus Siculus further describes “Gandaridae”:

Among the southern countries the first under the Kaukasos is India, a kingdom remarkable for its vast extent and the largeness of its population, for it is inhabited by very many nations, among which the greatest of all is that of the Gandaridae, against whom Alexander did not undertake an expedition, being deterred by the multitude of their elephants. This region is separated from farther India by the greatest river in those parts (for it has a breadth of thirty stadia), but it adjoins the rest of India which Alexander had conquered, and which was well watered by rivers and highly renowned for its prosperous and happy condition. –Diodorus Siculus (1st century AD). Quoted from Ancient India as Described in Classical Literature, John W. McCrindle, p. 201.’

Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state.Remnants of Copper Age settlements in the Bengal region date back 4,000 years’

The Vanga Kingdom was an ancient seafaring thalassocracy during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. The boundary of the kingdom was naturally formed by the Padma and Bhagirathi rivers in the West, North and East; while the South was bounded by the Bay of Bengal. Its contemporary neighbouring states include SuhmaAngaPundravardhanaSamatata and Harikela..’

Harikela seems to have been the earliest people.

However ,Bhagadatta seems to have been the earliest king of Naraka dynasty ( sub sect ofcChandravamsa,Lunar Dynasty)

He took part in the Mahabharatha war and he is called Asura,powerful and he is referred to from Dravida Desa,South India..

The Angas were a part of these Kingdoms.

Karna was crowned as the King of Anga by Duryodhana.

The power of Angas did not last long and it ended with Bimbisara.

From Bimbisara, the History Of India seems alright except some misinformation about the middle ages.

It may be of interest to note that the Nishadas were also present in the area of Kerala and they were hunters.

Hunters,according to Tamil Classics were the first people who lived in areas in around mountains,Kurinji and Murugan is the God of Kurinji.

Interesting thread.

Shall write on this and more on the tribes/kings who ruled BengalOdisha and Assam.

Reference and citations.