Tag Archives: yoga

First Only Description of Yogi in Rig Veda, Kesin

Yogis are Realized Souls.

Yoga, according to Patanjali, is the ‘Cessation of Modification of Chitta’

Yoga has, Chittavrutthi Nirodhithaha-Patanjali Yoga Sutra.

The control and regulations of the mind and through it, The Consciousness is the goal of Yoga.

There is another earlier system of Yoga.

This is called Vaasi Yoga where, by breath control, Consciousness is directly controlled.

This was the first system by Lord Shiva and His disciple Patanjali developed a relatively easy system Asthtanga Yoga.

Shiva was the first to practice Vaasi Yoga and He is called the Adi Yogi, the First Yogi.

If one repeats Vaasi it becomes Siva.

The system of Patanjali was practised widely.

And we have Siddhas who transcend time and apart from Shiva, the early one was Thirumoolar, a Tamil Siddha, who had written a Sastra Thirumandhiram in Tamil. Thirumoolar is dated around 3000BC.

What do the Vedas say of Yoga?

To my knowledge, there is no reference to Yoga in the Vedas, except a description of a Yogi in the Rig Veda, which is dated around 5000 years ago.

Here is the Kesin Mantra of the Rig Veda which describes a Yogi.


1. HE with the long loose locks supports Agni, and moisture, heaven, and earth:
He is all sky to look upon: he with long hair is called this light.
2 The Munis, girdled with the wind, wear garments soiled of yellow hue.
They, following the wind’s swift course go where the Gods have gone before.
3 Transported with our Munihood we have pressed on into the winds:
You therefore, mortal men. behold our natural bodies and no more.
4 The Muni, made associate in the holy work of every God,
Looking upon all varied forms flies through the region of the air.
5 The Steed of Vāta, Vāyu’s friend, the Muni, by the Gods impelled,
In both the oceans hath his home, in eastern and in western sea.
6 Treading the path of sylvan beasts, Gandharvas, and Apsarases,
He with long locks, who knows the wish, is a sweet most delightful friend
7 Vāyu hath churned for him: for him he poundeth things most hard to bend,
When he with long loose locks hath drunk, with Rudra, water from the cup.

Translation by Rig Veda, tr. by Ralph T.H. Griffith, [1896], at sacred-texts.com


केश्यग्निं केशी विषं केशी बिभर्ति रोदसी । केशी विश्वं स्वर्दृशे केशीदं ज्योतिरुच्यते ॥१॥
मुनयो वातरशनाः पिशङ्गा वसते मला । वातस्यानु ध्राजिं यन्ति यद्देवासो अविक्षत ॥२॥
उन्मदिता मौनेयेन वाताँ आ तस्थिमा वयम् । शरीरेदस्माकं यूयं मर्तासो अभि पश्यथ ॥३॥
अन्तरिक्षेण पतति विश्वा रूपावचाकशत् । मुनिर्देवस्यदेवस्य सौकृत्याय सखा हितः ॥४॥
वातस्याश्वो वायोः सखाथो देवेषितो मुनिः । उभौ समुद्रावा क्षेति यश्च पूर्व उतापरः ॥५॥
अप्सरसां गन्धर्वाणां मृगाणां चरणे चरन् । केशी केतस्य विद्वान्सखा स्वादुर्मदिन्तमः ॥६॥
वायुरस्मा उपामन्थत्पिनष्टि स्मा कुनन्नमा । केशी विषस्य पात्रेण यद्रुद्रेणापिबत्सह ॥७॥

– Rigveda 10.136, 2nd millennium BCE

The Keśin were long-haired ascetic wanderers with mystical powers described in the Keśin Hymn (RV 10, 136) of the Rigveda (an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrithymns).The Keśin (“long-haired one”) are described as homeless, traveling with the wind, clad only in dust or yellow tatters, and being equally at home in the physical and the spiritual worlds. They are on friendly terms with the natural elements, the gods, enlightened beings, wild beasts, and all people. The Keśin Hymn also relates that the Keśin drink from the same magic cup as Rudra, which is poisonous to mortals.

The Kesin hymn of the Rigveda is the earliest evidence of yogis and their spiritual tradition, states Karel Warner. The Hindu scripture Rigveda uses words of admiration for Kesins.


Sri Chakra 3D .image.

Sex Music Tantra Siddhas a Study.

Hinduism is a religion that flows from Nature and its principles.

It understands the limitations of human nature and suggests ways to realize the Self through and with the help of human senses,limited though they are.

The Universe is complex ,mysterious and billions of years old.

It is not obligated to reveal its secrets to a human being,whose life span,in the Universal scale of Time is not even the wink of eyelids.

Hindu Rishis,Seers, with the help of fundamental principles of Nature devised methods to realize Self.

Broadly speaking,the human psyche has two components,Reason and Emotion.

Ideally,discipling of either of these will lead to Self Realization.

However,in most of us a combination of Reason and Emotion rules the roost,though it is emotion that decides ultimately.

Lord Nataraja.image

Lord Nataraja,King of Dance.

Huma nature is a combination of three dispositions.


Rajas,active,dynamic and restless and

Tamas,inactive,dull and morose.

It is rare to find one disposition,Guna, in isolation.

The three gunas are present in all of us in varying degrees.

And this composition changes every minute.

For details please read my article on Gunas.

And there are as many dispositions,Gunas as there are individuals.

So there is no standard procedure for all.

However,Rishis have traveled this path and left their experiences for us to have an idea.

Once an individual starts this process through a, Guru,he shall find his unique path and the Guru will help him identify the path.

So it is left to the individual to choose a path,either from the paths shown by the Rishis ,modify it to suit his disposition with the help of the Guru or follow a path intuitively felt and follow it with guidance from the Guru.

At the broader level the Bhakthi yoga,Path of Surrender to God and emotionally connecting to Him.

At the intellectual level one follows Gnana Yoga and Karma yoga.

Raja Yoga suits those of Rajo Guna.

Apart from this,there paths which have sprung from these paths.

These are the results of the Rishis following any of the four Yogas,Gnana,Karma,Bhakthi and Raja.

These systems that have arisen can be classified under two heads.

Strictly speaking there is no differentiation in respect of the result obtained;we classify them thus to understand them better.

These two principles are based on,

Motion and

Reproductive Energy .

Saint Arunagirinathar addresses Lord Subrahmanya thus in Thiruppugazh.

‘Nadha Bindu Kalaathi Namo’

The origin or the One Beyond Motion and Creation’

Bindhu can be translated loosely as Semen.

For Yogis the Semen or the Nadis associated with Semen flows upwards.

When a Soul reverts to its original state,the Semen/nadi flows upwards,

‘Urdhvaredham Viroopaaksham Viswaroopayay Namaha’-Narayna Suktham.

At some point of time when Yoga is being practiced,when a practitioner is advancing,he shall have sexually stimulating visions,especially during Sakthi Upasna and he can advance only if he overcomes the stimulation and direct the flow upwards.

A section of Tantra sastra has practices thatcare associated with Sex.

For details on Tantra,please read my articles.

The other Principle is Motion.

Motion Creates Vibtation and Vibration creates Motion.

We can not determine whether Motion precedes Vibration or it is the other way around.

Vibration is Sound.

Regulated Sound is Music.

Sources of Sound in the Human body is from three sources.


Throat’U’ and

Pelvis ‘M’

These three letters form OM,the Pranava of Hinduism,the sacred Primordial Sound.

This is the Ultimate Sound and is used in every Mantra of Hinduism.

The Universe is perpetually in motion.

When movement takes place sound emanates.

The sound that emanates from the Sun is OM. (NASA Report)

Music is one source that elevates one to higher levels of Consciousness.

So much so,a Bhakthi Yoga marga based on Music developed in South India,with the Maestros,Thyagaraja,Muthuswamy Dikhitar and Syma Sastrigal in Tamil Nadu,Purandara dasa in Karnataka and Annamacharya in Andhra.

We also have Meera,Jayadeva and Abhang style of Music in Maharashtra.

Carnatic Music of India is basically a Yoga discipline,Nada Yoga.

One can realize Brahman,Reality through Music.

Thiugh iy may offend some sensibilities, Sex also leads to Realization.

But the experience of Reality through Sex is Transient and Tamil philosophy calls it ‘chitrinbam’,limited pleasure.

Realization of Brahman is ‘Perinbam’ Higher, Limitless pleasure,Bliss.

Reason is that though Sex is the only activity whenball the senses are focussed,this focus by all senses is the object of Yoga Darshana.

The drawback in the path of Sex is that one loses the objective and is engrossed in the process.

And emotional attacment before,after and during Sex clouds the mind and bonds one to desires.

Sex act with detachment to pleasure,though one might feel it,leads to Realization.

Hindu scriptures do not consider sex as a sin.

Sex is to be indulged in with the motive of begetting good children and this one of the basic duties of a Gtuhastha Asrama.

So when a Tantric engages in Sex for sex’s sake he falls.

The Siddhas as found in Tamil classics follow the path of Gnana and Bhakthi and have Shiva as the first Siddha.

The tradition of Siddhas from the south differs slighly from the Siddhas of North India.

More to followvin the next post on the differences and the schools of Siddhas,South and North.

More Detailed Yoga Jabala Darsana Upanishad

Yoga Sutra of Patanjali,speaks of Eight Limbed Yoga,Ashtanga Yoga.

They are ,







Dharana and


Patanjali is not the founder of Yoga.

He codified the practices of Yoga.

Vedas speak of Yoga very subtly.

The obejective of Human Life is to realize the Self.

This is possible only when one can control and channelize the thoughts in the effort to control Chitta,which exists at a higher level than thoughts.

Patanjali describes ,in the first Sutra of his Yoga Sutra,

‘Yogaha,Chitta vruthi nirodhdha’

The cessation of the modification of Chitta is Yoga,Communion.

For more on this,please read my articles on Yoga Sutra.

By limiting the Thought waves, Consciousness is controlled through Breath Control.

Breath Control is described by Patanjali under Pranayama.

All the steps of Yoga are to be followed in the order described by Patanjali.

I have listed them in the order at the beginning of this article.

Performing Yoga in any other manner,like doing Pranayama or the so called Meditation without going through Yama ,Niyama etc. Is not Yoga.

It might appear to produce results, but would harm,in the long run,physically and spiritually.

Packaged Yoga to suit masses is injurious.

I have written that the effort in Yoga is to control Chitta through these steps of Patanjali.

The process of controlling Chitta direct through Breath control is callled Vaasi Yoga and Lord Shiva was the First to practice it.

The process of Vaasi Yoga is Shiva.

Read Vaasi backwards,it is,Shiva.

Please check my detailed article on this.

There is an Upanishad in the,Sama Veda dedicated to Yoga process.

This was taught bt Lord Dattatreya to Sage Sankrithi.

This is the Jabali Darshana Upanishad.

Jabala Darshana Upanishad, Translation by Sri.P.R.Ramchander.

Om ! Let my limbs and speech, Prana, eyes, ears, vitality
And all the senses grow in strength.
All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads.
May I never deny Brahman, nor Brahman deny me.
Let there be no denial at all:
Let there be no denial at least from me.
May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me,
Who am devoted to the Atman; may they reside in me.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

God Dattatreya is the reincarnation of the four armed Vishnu and he is the ruler of the world. Sankrithi is a great devotee and a sage and is an expert in yoga and also a disciple of Dattatreya. He approached his teacher (God Dattatreya) with humility and with folded hands, when his teacher was alone and requested him, “Oh God, please tell me about the science of yoga which has eight branches and five different sthanas (places) by knowing which I will attain salvation. Dattatreya told him, “Hey Sankrithi, I shall tell you about Yoga which has eight branches. The eight branches are Yama, Niyama, Aasana, Pranayama, Prathyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi.

Yama which is the first is the practice of non-violence, truth, non possession of properties of others, celibacy, mercy, honesty, patience, stability, food discipline and cleanliness. 1

Niyama is the ten aspects of penance, joy, orthodoxy, charity, worship of god, hearing of philosophy, fear for bad actions, clear intellect, chanting and austerities. 2

The nine important Asanas (sitting positions) are Swasthika (Swastika), Gomukha (cows face), Padma (lotus), Veera (valorous), Simha (lion), Badra (safe), Muktha (free), Mayura (peacock) and Sukha (pleasant). Oh sage, that position, whatever it may be but which makes you comfortable and gives you courage to undertake Yoga is called Sukhasana. People who do not have strength to take up other positions can use that. Victory in the seating position is like victory over the three worlds. Once the Asana is fixed, one should practice Pranayama.  3

Either in the top of the mountain or by the shore of the river or under a Bilwa tree in the forest, after choosing a clean place which is acceptable to the mind and after establishing a place to do tapas (Asram), sit in the Asana which is most familiar facing either east or north. Then sit with the body neck and head in a straight line, cover the face and concentrate the vision with best possible attention on the nectar flowing from the fourth state of the moon like dot at the end of the nose. Draw the air inside using the lungs, store it in the stomach, meditate on the flame of fire inside the body and then shift meditation to the root of fire with its sound and dot. Then the intelligent one will exhale and draw the Prana using Pingala (Nadi which is tawny and is on the right side of Sushumna Nadi) and meditate on the Agni Bheeja. Again he has to exhale and inhale again in the middle using the Ida (Nadi which is pleasant and is on the left side of Sushumna). One should have to live in a secret place practicing this exercise six times for 3-4 days or 3-4 weeks at dawn, noon and dusk. This would help him to clean up the Nadis. Slowly symbols will start showing up. Body will become light, the fire in the stomach will burn well and the voice would become clearer. These are the symbols of Siddhi (getting mastery). Till you see this, you have to practice. 4

Now I will tell you about Prathyahara. To use force and divert the sensory organs which normally travel according to their nature is Prathyahara. Those who know Brahma say that seeing whatever we see as the form of Brahman is Prathyahara. Prathyahara also is doing clean or unclean acts as those belonging to Brhaman. Further doing daily religious activities after dedicating them to God and similarly doing the activities which we desire is also Prathyahara. Apart from this inhaling air (oxygen) and stopping it in different places is also Prathyahara. The wise man would sit in Swasthikasana, draw his breath till it fills up from head to toe and hold it in two feet, mooladhara, stomach, middle of the heart, bottom of the neck, jaw, middle of the eyelids, forehead and at the top of the skull. Then he should leave out the belief that the body is oneself and make that thought as nirvikalpa and merge it with Paramatma. The experts in Vedanta say that this is true Prathyahara. There is nothing that cannot be attained by those who practice like this.  5

Now I will tell you about the five types of Dharana (holding steady – a stage in meditation – here we try to hold on what we are mediating upon without wavering). In the sky which is in the middle of the body, Dharana of the sky outside should be made. Similarly in the breath, Dharana of air outside should be made. In the fire in the stomach, Dharana of the fire outside should be made. In the fluid aspects of the body, Dharana of the water outside should be made. In the earthy aspects of the body, Dharana of the earth outside should be made. Sage, also it is necessary to chant the pancha bhootha mantras viz., Ham, Yam, Ram, Vam and Lam. It is said that this very great Dharana destroys all sins. In the body up to the knee is the aspect of the earth, from there till hip it is the aspect of water, up to the heart is the aspect of fire, up to middle of eyelids is the aspect of air and then up to the middle of the skull is the aspect of the sky. In the aspect of earth Brahma has to be placed, in the aspect of water Vishnu should be placed, in the aspect of fire Rudra should be placed, in the aspect of air Iswara should be placed and in the aspect of sky, the Sadashiva should be placed. Hey great sage, I will also tell you another Dharana. In the Jeevatma, that lord Shiva who rules over everything and is the personification of wisdom should be placed. To get rid of all sins, the wise man should suppress the gods like Brahma in the causative self, and place the Avyakta (that which is not clear) which is formless and which is the root cause inside the entire soul with the chanting of pranava. He should control the sensory organs by mind and should merge them with the soul. 6

I will now tell you about Dhyana (meditation) which destroys sorrow. Dhyana should be done of that Maheswara, who is the medicine for problems arising out of birth, who is the discipline and fundamental basis of the world who is of the form of Para Brahma, who has the masculine power upwards, who is of the form of the world, who is Virupaksha, and who is the head of all yogis as “I am He”. Then continue to do Dhyana of him who is beyond the reach of meditation, who is the personification of Sachidananda Brahman and who is soul in person as “I am He” for attaining salvation. In the mind of that great Purusha who practices like this, the science of Vedanta would automatically appear. There is no doubt about it.  7

Now I will tell you about Samadhi (deep meditative state)  which destroys the ills of birth and death. Samadhi is that state in which there is knowledge that Jeevatma and Paramatma are one. Atma (soul) is filled all over for ever and does not have motion or stain. Though it is one, due to the effects of illusion, it appears as different objects. Really there is no difference between these so called objects. When one sees all objects within himself and him as a part of all objects, He attains Brahman.  When one drowns himself in Samadhi and does not see different objects as different , then he attains the single aim of salvation. When he sees only the true soul and the entire world appears as an illusion to him and he is cured of all sorrow.

Thus advised by Lord Dattatreya the sage Sankrithi fully lost all his fear and attained that blissfull state, deep in himself.

Om ! Let my limbs and speech, Prana, eyes, ears, vitality
And all the senses grow in strength.
All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads.
May I never deny Brahman, nor Brahman deny me.
Let there be no denial at all:
Let there be no denial at least from me.
May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me,
Who am devoted to the Atman; may they reside in me.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

Citation. http://www.arunachala-ramana.org/upanishads/jabala_darsana_upanishad.htm

Firs Step To Clear Mind Yoga Sutra 1.36

In Yoga Sutra 1.35,Patanjali talked about shutting down mental processes to do away with confusion,indecision and worry.

In Yoga Sutras 30 to 34,Patanjali explained about the effects of a wandering Mind.

Lord Krishna speaks of this state of confusion and indecision in the Bhagavad Gita, in Chapter 2.

When the mind is confused,with constant,relentless bombarding of Stimulii,the Mind is bewildered at the mountain of information received.

Buddhi,Intellect,which is a higher Plane than Mind,when confronted with making a Value decisions like Correct or Incorrect,Right or Wrong,also dithers.

This has to be corrected as the sensations that lead to emotions distort facts and misguide the ability of the Intellect to judge and decide.

This is what Krishna says in the sloka,Chapter 2,

‘Krodhaath Bhavathi Sam mohaha

Sammohaath Smriti vipramaha,

Smriti Dhwamsaath Buddhi Naaso,

Buddhi Naasaath Pranasyathi’

Out of Attachment arises Anger,

Anger breeds and fuels Intellect dithers,

When Intellect is destroyed,incapable of making right decisions,one is destroyed.

In Yoga Sutra 1.36,Patanjali offers a way out of this.

When we perceive,we have the objects we Perceive and our Impressions of them in the Mind.

The Objects do not change from time to time.

It is our interpretation of them atca particular point of time changes.

So what needs to be changed is our perception of Objects.

This is effected by the Mind and passed on to the Buddhi,Intellect,which thereafter can make the Right Decision.

So to shut down the external Objects,Patanjali adises one to Concentrate on a source of Light.

This is first step in Concentration,called Dhyana.

Here you are aware that you are concentrating and that there is an Object being Concentrated upon.

You are aware of both.

Next step is Dharana,when you forget that there is an Object you are concentrating upon, so immersed are you in your concentration.

The next and final step is Samadhi,where you and the object mergevand there is no Duality.

Patanjali Sutra 1.36 ,with Swami Vivekananda’s commentaru below.

36. णवशोका वा ज्योणतष्मती ॥ ३६॥

vishoka va jyotishmati

Or (by the meditation on) the Effulgent One which is

beyond all sorrow.

This is another sort of concentration. Think of the lotus of the heart, with petals downwards, and ruunning through it the

Sucumna; take in the breath, and while throwing the breat out

imagine that the lotus is turned with the petals upwards, and

inside that lotus is an effulgent light. Meditate on that.

Shut Down Background Applications Mind Yoga Sutra 1.35

Patanjali, in the earlier Yoga Sutra, 1.34,informed how Concentration on the Reality help one to remove negative thoughts and confusion.

Now in Yoga Sutra talks about how concentration on One Reality brings extraordinary benefits.

Our mind is bombarded constantly with a lot of information at the same time through our sense organs.

However we pay attention only some of them.

This depends on our interest,disposition and the need of the hour.

One can observe this at any time.

However the information,Stimulii,which we have chosen to ignore,do not really go away.

They run in the background in our minds,much like the Andriod Applications that run in the background even when the screen is off.

In Android, you can force them to stop by going to your settings.

Similarly,you can shut down unwanted information from clogging your Mind by going to your Mind Settings and Activate ‘Concentrate’

Any Communication needs three factors.

The Subject,who observes,

The Object,that which is Observed, and

A Relationship between the two,the Observer and the Observed.

In jargon, it is called Subject,Object Relationship, SOR.

If there is an Object around you and you choose not to notice it, it does not enter ino your Mind.

As human mind has numerous thoughts,one has to stop them step by step.

You can not shut down every thought at a stretch.

Concentrate on One,it might be anything.

At the initial stages,you will be aware that you are observing ‘X” and the objects surrounding it.

Next as you advance,you shall be aware of the Object ‘X’ and will not be aware of the other Objects surrounding it.

The First one is Dhyana.

The second one is Dharana.

The third step is when you are not aware that you are Observing and that there is something you have been Observing(X).

This stage is Samadhi,as explained in Yoga.

The benefits that accrue because of Concentration are numerous.

It removes Confusion,Indecisiveness,makes you alert,enables to think with Clarity,view and evaluate things objectively,and tones up your mental system.

Yaga sutra 1.35 .image

Yoga Sutra in Devanagari 1.35

(vishayavati va pravritti utpanna manasah sthiti nibandhani

Those forms of concentration that bring extraordinary .




Which Yoga for Whom Patanjali Yoga Sutra 1.34

The negative thoughts and mental confusion can be eradicated by Pranayama.

Pranayama is the regulation of Life Energy.

It is present in all Life.

It is more than just breath,it is the Life Force.

It can be controlled at the level of Breath.

The whole Tantra and Yoga is an attempt to Reach out the Consciousness in Man and tune it in consonance with the Reality,which is Being,Consciousness and Bliss.

There are four ways of reaching out this Consciousness.

Yoga sutra 1.34 image

Patnajali Yoga 1.34

This Consciousness can be reached through the two components that make up humans,Emotion and Reason.

While the emotion is used to raise the level of Consciousness through Bhakti Yoga,the process of surrendering oneself to God,the Reason is used to reach out Consciousness by practicing Karma Yoga,the Path of Action and by Gnana Yoga,Path of Discrimination.

The purpose is to reach Consciousness through the available tools,Emotion and Reason.

But again as Human Beings have different dispositions/Nature,one must choose what is best for him/ her.

There are three basic categories of Natural Dispositions.

Satva,the calm,raional,

Rajas,the Dynamic,driven by ambition and Emotions and


No single disposition is present in an individual in its full measure.

The Dispositions present in Individuals is an admixture of all the three dispositions.

And these Dispositions in an individual changes at different times.

So to choose the correct method to practice Yoga,one needs an Objective assessment of the Dispositions present in an individual.

As it is difficult for one to analyse oneself objectively,one requires A Guru,Mentor ,who can identify the Disposition and suggest the best method to raise Consciousness,Bhakti,Karma or Gnana Yoga.

Once the path is chosen, one has to practice it.

The Yoga aspect of raising Consciousness is,in general,recommended for people of Rajasic Disposition,the Dynamic,who are more involved in day to day activities with passion.

Most of us belong to this category.

Now to Swami Vivekananda on this.

34. प्रच्छदन
य णवधायिाभ्यांवा प्रािस्य ॥ ३४॥
prachchhardanavidharanabhyan va prannasya

By throwing out and restraining the Breath.
The word used in Prana. Prana is not exactly breath. It is the
name for the energy that is in the universe. Whatever you
see in the universe, whatever moves or works, or has life, is a
manifestation of this Prana. the sum-total of the energy
displayed in the universe is called Prana. This Prana, before
a cycle begins, remains in an almost motionless state, and
when the cycle begins this Prana begins to manifest itself. It
is this Prana that is manifested as motion, as the nervous
motion in human beings or animals, and the same Prana is
manifesting as thought, and so on. The whole universe is a
combination of Prana and Akasa; so is the human body. Out
of Akasa you get the different materials that you feel, and
see, and out of Prana all the various forces. Now this
throwing out and restraining the Prana is what is called

Pranayama. Patanjali, the father of the Yoga Philosophy,
does not give many particular directions about Pranayama,
but later on other Yogis found out various things about this
Pranayama, and made of it a great science. With Patanjali ist
is one of the many ways, but he does not lay much stress on it.
He means that you simply throw the air out, and draw it in,
and hold it for some time, that is all, and by that, the mind will
become a little calmner. But, later on, you will find that out of
this is evolved a particular science called Pranayama. We
will hear a little of what thoese later Yogis have to say. Some
of this I have told you before, but a little repetition will serve
to fix it in your minds. First, you must remember that this
Prana is not the breath. But that which causes the motion of
the breath, that which is the vitality of the breath is the Prana.
Again, the word Prana is used of all the senses; they are all
called Prana, the mind is called Prana; and so we see that
Prana is the name of a certain force. And yet we cannot call
it force, because force is only the manifestation of it. It is that
which manifests itself as force and everything else in the way
of motion. The Chitta, the mind-stuff, is the engine which
draws in the Prana from the surroundings, and manufactures
out of this Prana the various vital forces. First of all the
forces that keep the body in preservation, and lastly thought,
will, and all other powers. By this process of breathing we can
control all the various motions in the body, and the various
nerve currents that are running through the body. First we
begin to recognise them, and then we slowly get control over
them. Now these later Yogis consider that there are three main
currents of this Prana in the human body. One they call Ida,
another Pingala, and the third Susumna. Pingala, according
to them, is on the right side of the spinal column, and the Ida

is on the left side, and in the middle of this spinal column is
the Susumna, a vacant channel. Ida and Pingala, according
to them, are the currents working in every man, and through
these currents, we are performing all the functions of life.
Susumna is present in all, as a possibility; but it works only in
the Yogi. You must remember that the Yogi changes his body;
as you go on practising your body changes; it is not the same
body that you had before the practice. That is very rational,
and can be explained, because every new thought that we
have must make, as it were, a new channel through the brain,
and that explains the tremendous conservatism of human
nature. Human nature likes to run through the ruts that are
already there, because it is easy. If we think, just for
example’s sake, that the mind is like a needle, and the brain
substance a soft lump before it, then each thought that we
have makes a street, as it were, in the brain, and this street
would close up, but that the grey matter comes and makes a
lining to keep it separate. If there were no grey matter there
would be no memory, because memory means going over
these old streets, retracing a thought as it were. Now perhaps
you have remarked that when I talk on subjects that in which I
take a few ideas that are familiar to everyone, and combine,
and recombine them, it is easy to follow, because these
channels are present in everyone’s brain, and it is only
necessary to recur to them. But whenever a new subject
comes new channels have to be made, so it is not understood
so readily. And that is why the brain (it is the brain, and not
the people themselves) refuses unconsciously to be acted
upon by new ideas. It resists. The Prana is trying to make
new channels, and the brain will not allow it. This is the secret
of conservatism. The less channels there have been in the

brain, and the less the needle of the Prana has made these
passages, the more conservative will be the brain, the more it
will struggle against new thoughts. The more thoughtful the
mane, the more complicated will be the streets in his brain,
and the more easily he will take to new ideas, and understand
them. So with every fresh idea; we make a new impression in
the brain, cut new channels though the brain-stuff, and that is
why we find that in the practice of Yoga (it being an entirely
new set of thoughts and motives) there is so much physical
resistance at first. That is why we find that the part of
religion which deals with the world side of nature can be so
widely accpeted, while the other part, the Philosophy, or the
Psychology, which deals with the inner nature of man, is so
frequently neglected. We must remember the definition of
this world of ours; it is only the Infinite Existence projected
into the plane of consciousness. A little of the Infinite is
projected into consciousness, and that we call our world. So
there is an Infinite beyond, and religion has to deal with both,
with th elittle lump we call our world, and with the Infinite
beyond. Any religion which deals alone with either one of
these two will be defective. It must deal with both. That part
of religion which deals with this part of the Infinite which has
come into this plane of consciousness, got itself caught, as it
were, in the plane of consciousness, in the case of time, space,
and causation, is quite familiar to us, because we are in that
already, and ideas about this world have been with us almost
from time immemorial. The part of religion which deals with
the Infinite beyond comes entirely new to us, and getting
ideas about it produces new channels in the brain, disturbing
the whole system, and that is why you find in the practice of
Yoga ordinary people are at first turned out of their groove. Inorder to lesson these disturbances as much as possible all these methods are devised by Patanjali, that we may practice any one of them best suited to us.

Read this.



Shiva As One to Eight Thirumandhiram Thirumoolar

Tamil version of Yoga and Shiva worship differs slightly from the Vedic Worship.

The Vaasi Yoga of Tamil is the root for Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra in the sense  that while Vaasi Yoga addresses the issue of Breath Control directly,Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra goes from the tools to achieve Breath Control.

The Siddhas are like Rishis,Realized Souls,who have revealed texts on Science and Philosophy.

Agastya,Valmiki are Siddhas,according to Tamil literature.

Though there are innumerable Siddhas,Eighteen are considered to be the foremost among them.

For more read my article on Siddhas.

Shiva is considered to be the First Siddha.

One of the great Siddhas,Thirumoolar had written a treatise called ‘Thiru Mandiram” The Auspicious Mantra,where he details the Attributes of Reality in both ways,one Beyond Attributes and the other with the Attributes  ,Nirguna and Saguna Upasna of the Vedas.

I shall write a short note on Thiru Mandhiram  and Thirumoolar in a separate article.

Now following the Tamil Grammar ,Thirumoolar begins with the Prayer,he addresses it to Lord Ganesha and follows it up with prayers to  others ,the Greatness of the  Vedas…….

Then he starts the work,each poem is called Mantra or Mandhiram in Tamil.

To get you know the depth, I am posing on a poem,which forms a part of the Prayer,called Paayiram

Here Thirumoolar describes Shiva from numbers One to Eight.

Each of the statements is pregnant with Tantra and Philosphical meaning.


Shiva as,


The One Reality,Brahman.


Sakthi and Shiva;Kinetic and Potential Energy.


Satva,Rajas and Thamo Guna,(Calm Learned;Dynamic; Docile ,Ignorant and Lazy.


Rig,Yajur,Sama and Atharva Vedas.


Five senses of Perception( Karmendriya),Eyes,Nose,Ears,Mouth and Body; the acts of these senses( Gnanendriya) Five,Seeing,Smelling,Hearing,Tasting and the Tactile sensation;Five Elements,Earth,Water,Fire,Air and Ether(Akasa); One Element Each in Karmendriya and Gnaendriya: One Underlying abstract principle behind each of the Five Elements.

Shiva ,the One who conquered the Five senses


As the Six Tastes, sweet, sour, salty, bitter, pungent and astringent.


Beyond the Seven Celestial worlds and the Seven Nether worlds,


Aware of His Eight Characteristics,Gunas and is in the world .

The Eight are,


1.Dhaya. Compassion.



Non Jealous.

4.Soucha, Clean in Thought,Words and Deeds.

5.Anaayaasa,Efforless,Easy Attitude.


7.Akaarppanya, The quality to help without being being stingy;the joyful and fighting attitude( Lord Krishna uses this term in the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita,advising him not to be a ‘Krupana)

8.Aspruha. Detachment.

The Tamil text of Thiru Mandhiram

Prayers. 1

ஒன்றவன்தானே இரண்டவன் இன்னருள்
நின்றனன் மூன்றினுள் நான்குணர்ந் தான்ஐந்து
வென்றனன்ஆறு விரிந்தனன் ஏழும்பர்ச்
சென்றனன் தானிருந் தானுணர்ந் தெட்டே






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