Moon Dial Konark Calculate To A Minute Sun Dial

Many of us are aware of Sun Dials.

Sun Dial, Konark,India.png Sun Dial, Konark,India.

Many would have visited the one at New Delhi.

But how does one calculate Time with the help of a Sun Dial?

Take the famous Sun Dial at Konark, Odisha, India.

There are eight spokes in the Wheel.

‘The sundial has 8 major spokes that divide 24 hours into 8 equal parts, which means that the time between two major spokes is 3 hours. There are 8 minor spokes as well. Each minor spoke runs exactly in the middle of 2 major spokes. This means that the minor spoke divides the 3 hours in half, so the time between a major spoke and a minor spoke is an hour and half or 90 minutes.

Now, at the edge of the wheel, you can see a lot of beads. If you observe carefully, you can see that there are 30 beads between a minor and a major spoke. So, the 90 minutes are further divided by 30 beads. This means that each bead carries a value of 3 minutes. The beads are large enough, so you can also see if the shadow falls in the center of the bead or on one of the ends of the bead. This way we can further calculate time accurately to the minute.

The sundial shows time in an anti-clockwise fashion. At the top, the major spoke stands for midnight and this spoke stands for 3 A.M and this one for 6 A.M and so on. When I place a finger or a pen at the tail of the animal in the axle, the shadow will fall on the edge of the wheel. Now, I simply note the bead where the shadow falls. Using the math we did before, I can easily tell the current time precisely down to the minute. Imagine how much time and coordination would have happened between the astronomers, engineers and sculptors to create something like this 750 years ago.

Now if you are observing closely, you would have 2 questions in your mind right now. The first question would be, what happens when the sun moves from east to west. Since the wheel is carved on a wall, the sun would not shine on this wheel at all. How can we tell time in the afternoons? Now, the Konark temple has another wheel or sundial, located on the west side of the temple as well. You can just use the other sundial that will work perfectly from afternoon, until sunset.

This is the second and the most interesting question. How do you tell time after sunset? There would be no sun, and hence no shadows from sunset till the next morning’s sunrise. After all, we have 2 sundials in the temple which work only when the sun shines. To this question, I want to point out that the Konark temple does not have just 2 wheels like this. The temple has a total of 24 wheels, all accurately carved just like the sundials. Have you heard of the Moondial? Do you know that the moondials can work just like sun dials during night time? What if the other wheels in the temple could be used as moondials?

Many people think that the other 22 wheels were carved for decorative or religious purposes and do not have an actual use. This is what people thought about the 2 sundials as well. Believe it or not, people thought that all the 24 wheels were just carved for beauty and as Hindu symbols. About 100 years ago, it became known that this was a sundial when an old yogi was seen calculating time secretly. Apparently selected people were using these wheels for generations and for 650 years no one else knew about it. They say that when they asked him about the purpose of the other 22 wheels, the yogi refused to talk and simply walked away.

And our knowledge of just these 2 sundials themselves is actually very limited. You can see how there are multiple circles of beads. You can see carvings and markings all over these sundials, and we don’t the meaning of most of them. For example, this carving on a major spoke has exactly 60 beads. Notice how in some carving you can see leaves and flowers which may mean Spring or Summer. Notice how in some carvings you can see lemurs mating, which only happens during winter. So, these sundials could have even been used as an almanac for a variety of different things. Now you can understand how limited our knowledge is about the rest of the 22 wheels.

Notice that there are clues on these wheels that people have overlooked for centuries. Notice how a woman wakes up and looks at a mirror in the morning. Notice how she is stretching, being tired and ready to go to sleep. And you can also see that she is engaging in sexual activity during night. For centuries, people have ignored these hints and thought that these were carvings of Hindu Goddesses.
This is also a perfect example of how people think ancient unexplainable carvings are just for beauty or religious purposes. If ancient people spent a lot of time creating something, there is a very good chance that it was done for a valuable, scientific purpose.

Moondials are time pieces similar to a sundial. The most basic moondial, which is identical to a sundial, is only accurate on the night of the full moon. Every night after it becomes an additional (on average)[note 1] 48 minutes slow, while every night preceding the full moon it is (again on average) 49 minutes fast, assuming there is even enough light to take a reading by. Thus, one week to either side of the full moon the moondial will read 5 hours and 36 minutes before or after the proper time.

More advanced moondials can include charts showing the exact calculations to get the correct time, as well as dials designed with latitude and longitude in mind.




World's Largest Number.png
Astrophysics, Tamils

Large Numbers Modern Maths Tamil Classics

In the highly complex world of Astronomy, where very huge distances are to be measured special numbers are needed to count.


The presence of Large numbers indicate that knowledge of such huge numbers were necessitated .


That is possible only when Knowledge of such numerals are needed.

World's Largest Number.png

World’s Largest Number.


And such a field is Astronomy.


Unless one has a very deep insight into the working of the Universe , one would not have devised the numbers and more importantly  would not have systematized them.


The largest Number used now ,


When a number represents a quantity rather than a count, SI prefixes can be used—thus “femtosecond”, not “one quadrillionth of a second”—although often powers of ten are used instead of some of the very high and very low prefixes. In some cases, specialized units are used, such as the astronomer’s parsec and light year or the particle physicist’s barn.

Nevertheless, large numbers have an intellectual fascination and are of mathematical interest, and giving them names is one of the ways in which people try to conceptualize and understand them.

One of the first examples of this is The Sand Reckoner, in which Archimedes gave a system for naming large numbers. To do this, he called the numbers up to a myriad myriad (108) “first numbers” and called 108 itself the “unit of the second numbers”. Multiples of this unit then became the second numbers, up to this unit taken a myriad myriad times, 108·108=1016. This became the “unit of the third numbers”, whose multiples were the third numbers, and so on. Archimedes continued naming numbers in this way up to a myriad myriad times the unit of the 108-th numbers, i.e., (10^8)^{(10^8)}=10^{8\cdot 10^8}, and embedded this construction within another copy of itself to produce names for numbers up to \left((10^8)^{(10^8)}\right)^{(10^8)}=10^{8\cdot 10^{16}}. Archimedes then estimated the number of grains of sand that would be required to fill the known Universe, and found that it was no more than “one thousand myriad of the eighth numbers” (1063)….


The Largest Standard Dictionary Number, on date, is, Centillion ,10303.


Tamil Classics name, 1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 = MAHAYUGAM = Ten Undecillion = 10 37.


This is 10 steps later to Decillion.


That is adding the power.


The basic computation in a Language that is over 5000 Year old….?


Shall be posting on minute measurements in Tamil and on Large and smallest numbers in Vedic System.







Panchang.Hindu Almanac.jpg

What is Karana In Panchanga ?

You may notice we recite in Apara Karma,


‘Yogascha karananchaiva Sarvam Vishnu Mayam Jagat’



Everything ,including the Yoga and Karana is filled with Vishnu /is Vishnu.


Karanas of the Day.(Thithi)

Karanas of the Day.
Half of Thithi.


Karanas are a part of Hindu Almanac, and is half the Thithi,like Prathamai,Astami…



The first 7 of these Karanas are movable (Chara) i.e. it cannot be predetermined as to on which dates, these are going to occur, but the last 4 Karanas are fixed (Sthira), and hence can be predetermined.


VISHTIKARANA is also called ‘Bhadra’ and commencing any work during this time is prohibited. Bhadra is marked very clearly in every panchanga..


. A karana is the time required for the angular distance between the sun and the moon to increase in steps of 6° starting from 0°. There are eleven karanas in total. Of the eleven karanas, four are fixed and occurs only once in a cycle. The remaining 7 karanas repeat eight times to cover the remaining 56 steps.

Click the following Link to calculate the Karana for any day.




* I shall be posting on how the five components of the day influence one’s life

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Astrophysics, Hinduism

Parallel Multi Universe In Hinduism Astronomy

Hinduism is the first religion o have formed  a Cyclic Theroy of Time, that is Time runs in cycles,


The Four Yugas, Aeons, Krutha, Tretha,Dwapara and Kali repeat themselves without end.


One approach to establishing the Multi verses is from the angle of the Atomic structure.

Vishnu with Multi Verse.jpg

Vishnu with Multi Verse.


Please refer my posts under Multiverses.


The other is to find it at the Macro level.


The description of the Universe in the Hindu Puranas are quite detailed and they explain that there are many worlds with beings, that they intermingled, fought with each other.


Please refer my post Aliens in Ramayana, Mahabharata,Hinduism.


The description of the Constellations and their shifting movements  as explained in the Hindu system is validated by modern Astronomy.


Our Pole Star shifts and so all the other stars with respect to our Sun.


The Universe contains billions of Stars and they their Planetary Systems.


Just as our Stars shift position in relation to our Sun, the billion Stars of the Universe shift.


The term Adhitya refers to Sun in Hinduism.


There are twelve Adhityas and Vishnu one among them.


He , as I explained in my post ‘Vishnu once in 6480 years, Astronomy Precession  Equinox,’ emerges once in 6480 years with the changing Great Year, Yuga.


The Devi Mahatmiya describes that the Devi takes the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra around the Universe and shows them numerous Brahmas, Visnus and Shivas at work, before reaching Chintamani Gruha of the Devi.


Please read my post on Chintamani Gruha.


Now these countless Suns, having their own planets follow their own Laws, some  physical laws are the same as ours,


People existing there travel among them, including the Earth.


As the Physical laws there are different so is the definition of Life.


The composition of Life there may be different from ours, they mayor need not have the basis Hydrogen,helium or Carbon as the building block of Life.


May be they might not need Amino Acids.


I am providing an excerpt.


The idea of a physical multiverse came later to physics than it did to religion and philosophy. The Hindu religion has ancient concepts that are similar. The term itself was, apparently, first applied by a psychologist, rather than a physicist.

Concepts of a multiverse are evident in the cyclical infinite worlds of ancient Hindu cosmology. In this viewpoint, our world is one of an infinite number of distinct worlds, each governed by its own gods on their own cycles of creation and destruction.

The word multiverse was originated by American psychologist William James in 1895 (the word “moral” is excluded from some citations of this passage):

“Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a [moral] multiverse, as one might call it, and not a [moral] universe.”

The phrase rose in prominence throughout the 20th century, when it was used regularly in science fiction and fantasy, notably in the work of author Michael Moorcock (though some sources attribute the word to the earlier work of author and philosopher John Cowper Powys in the 1950s). It is now a common phrase within these genres.

According to MIT cosmologist Max Tegmark, there are four levels of parallel universes:

  • Level 1: An infinite universe that, by the laws of probability, must contain another copy of Earth somewhere

  • Level 2: Other distant regions of space with different physical parameters, but the same basic laws

  • Level 3: Other universes where each possibility that can exist does exist, as described by the many worlds interpretation (MWI) of quantum physics

  • Level 4: Entirely distinct universes that may not even be connected to ours in any meaningful way and very likely have entirely different fundamental physical laws

Tegmark’s approach is one of the few attempts to comprehensively categorize the concepts of parallel universes in a scientific (or, as some see it, pseudoscientific) context. The full text of Tegmark’s 2003 paper on this topic is available at his MIT website, for those who don’t believe that these concepts are scientific. (They may not be scientific, but at least they’re unscientific musings by a scientist.)






How To Find Siddha Amirtha Marana Yoga

Hindus, in determining auspicious time, take into account, apart from Day,Stars,Thithis(waxing and waning of the Moon),Yoga Karana.


These five, Day, Star, Thithi,Yoga( not the Yoga of Patanjali, here Yoga indicates auspicious/conducive period) and Karana form the basis of Hindu Almanac, called Panchanga(Five limbs).


Kolam/Rangoli .jpg

Kolam/Rangoli indicate auspiciousness


Apart from the inauspicious time of each day,Rahu Kalam and Yama Kanda(some do not take Yama Kanda  as inauspicious as this time being inauspicious for Yama the God of death, and by reverse Logic is auspicious for the Living)


Not much is known about Yogas, Siddha ,Amirth and Marana.


It would help one to read about Time calculation of the Hindus,


Please check my posts on How to find an auspicious day and Time, Hindus Calculation.


One can cross check the Yoga daily by understanding what it is about.



The period between sunrise and sunset each day is divided into eight pe- riods. Each period, or kala, lasts approximately one and one-half hours, depending on the total duration of sunlight. Three of the eight kalas are considered most im- portant—Rahu Kala, Yama Kala and Gulika Kala—known collectively as the trini samayam. Rahu Kala is considered malefic for commencing new undertakings. Yama is also an interfering current, but is less influential than Rahu. Yama Kala is considered an auspicious time for antyesti (funeral) rites. Gulika is the most auspi- cious time of the day for commencing new activities.

Each kala occurs at approximately the same time on each particular day of the week. Thus, Gulika Kala occurs at approximately 7AM every Friday. If you’ve ever wondered why Monday mornings are so infamous, note that Rahu Kala is generally between 7:30 and 9AM every Monday. The trini samayam are listed at the top of column three for each day.


Yogas are Twenty Seven.



The resultant of the waves propagated by the planets and the stars on the human psyche are indicated in four degrees. In the Vedic Calendar, this esoteric yoga is listed in bold type in the left column of each day’s designations.


AMRITA YOGA—CREATIVE WORK: Very good for creative types of work and auspicious undertakings.

SIDDHA YOGA—CREATIVE WORK: Good for creative types of work and auspicious undertakings.

MARANA YOGA—ROUTINE WORK: Should be avoided for new under- takings and beginning travel. Routine work only.

PRABALARSHTA YOGA—ROUTINE WORK: Should be absolutely avoided for new undertakings and beginning travel. Routine work only.


How to find the Yogas.

” Siddha Yoga:

This is formed due to the combination of the Tithi and vara

There are 5 categories of Tithis:

Nanda  : Pratipad,  Shasthi, Ekadasi
Bhadra : Dvitiya,   Saptami, Dvadasi
Jaya   : Tritiya,   Astami,  Trayodasi
Rikta  : Chaturthi, Navami,  Chaturdasi
Purna  : Panchami,  Dasami,  Purnima, Amavasya

The 5 categories of Tithis are governed by 5 elements of nature which are given below. When a tithi falls on a weekday (Vara) governed by the same element as that of the tithi a very auspicious time is formed which goes by the name of Siddha Yoga.

Following combination of Tithis and the Varas constitute the siddha yoga:

Nanda  : Friday    :Venus   : Jala    Tattva
Bhadra : Wednesday :Mercury : Prithvi Tattva
Jaya   : Tuesday   :Mars    : Agni    Tattva
Rikta  : Saturday  :Saturn  : Vayu    Tattva
Purna  : Thursday  :Jupiter : Akash   Tattva

* * * * * * * *
II Sarvartha Siddha Yoga

Certain combination of Nakshatras and Weekdays go by the name of Sarvartha Siddhi yoga. Activities done during this yoga usually concludes with Positive results.

Monday    : Sravana, Rohini      , Mrigashiras, Pushya    , Anuradha
Tuesday   : Aswini , U.Bhadrapada, Krittika   , Ashlesha
Wednesday : Rohini , Anurada     , Hasta      , Krttika   , Mrgashiras
Thursday  : Revati , Anuradha    , Aswini     , Punarvasu , Pusya
Friday    : Revati , Anuradha    , Aswini     , Punarvasu , Sravana
Saturday  : Sravana, Rohini      , Swati
Sunday    : Hasta  , Mula        , U.Ashadha  , U.Phalguni, U.Bhadra, Aswini, Pushya

* * * * * * * *
Amrita Siddhi Yoga:
This yoga is formed due to combination of Vara and Nakshatra

Sunday  : Hasta
Monday  : Mrgashiras
Tuesday : Aswini
Mercury : Anuradha
Thursday: Pusya
Friday  : Revati
Saturday: Rohini

Though this is a auspicious combination, following events should be avoided:

Thursday- Pushya: Marriage
Tuesday - Aswini: Grha Pravesha
Saturday- Rohini: Travel

* * * * * * * *
Dvipushkar Yoga:

Following combination of Tithi, Vara and Nakshatra is called Dvipushkar Yoga:

Dvitiya  , Saptami, Dvadasi
Sunday   , Tuesday, Saturday
Dhanistha, Chitra , Mrgashiras

The events repeat again at least once if they happen in this yoga. Hence good events should happen in this yoga such as purchase of property etc. and unfortunate events such as diseases and death should not happen.

* * * * * * * *
Tripushkar Yoga:

Following combination of Tithi, Vara and Nakshatra is called Tripushkar Yoga:

Sunday,   Tuesday,   Saturday
Dvitiya,  Saptami,   Dvadasi
Krittika, Punarvasu, Uttaraphagulni, Vishaka, Uttarashadha, Uttarabhadrapada

The events repeat again at least twice if they happen in this yoga. Hence good events should happen in this yoga such as purchase of property etc. and unfortunate events such as diseases and death should not happen.

* * * * * * * *
(Inauspicious combinations)
* * * * * * * *
Mrtyu Yoga:
This yoga is formed due to combination of Vara and Tithi

Tuesday   , Sunday :: Pratipad , Shasthi, Ekadasi
Monday    , Friday :: Saptami  , Dvadasi
Wednesday          :: Tritiya  , Ashtami, Trayodasi
Thursday           :: Chaturthi, Navami , Chaturdasi
Saturday           :: Panchami , Dasami , Purnima

Adham Yoga:
This yoga is also formed due to combination of Vara and Tithi

Sunday   : Saptami, Dvadasi
Monday   : Ekadasi
Tuesday  : Dasami
Wednesday: Pratipad, Navami
Thursday : Ashtami
Friday   : Saptami
Saturday : Shasti

Dagdha Yoga:
This yoga is formed due to combination of Vara and Nakshatra

Sunday   : Bharani
Monday   : Chitra
Tuesday  : Uttarashadha
Wednesday: Dhanishtha
Thursday : Uttaraphalguni
Friday   : Jyestha
Saturday : Revati

Yamaghata Yoga:
This yoga is also formed due to combination of Vara and Nakshatra

Sunday   : Magha
Monday   : Vishakha
Tuesday  : Ardra
Wednesday: Moola
Thursday : Krittika
Friday   : Rohini
Saturday : Hasta




* Corrections welcome.