In the highly complex world of Astronomy, where very huge distances are to be measured special numbers are needed to count.
The presence of Large numbers indicate that knowledge of such huge numbers were necessitated .
That is possible only when Knowledge of such numerals are needed.
And such a field is Astronomy.
Unless one has a very deep insight into the working of the Universe , one would not have devised the numbers and more importantly would not have systematized them.
The largest Number used now ,
When a number represents a quantity rather than a count, SI prefixes can be used—thus “femtosecond”, not “one quadrillionth of a second”—although often powers of ten are used instead of some of the very high and very low prefixes. In some cases, specialized units are used, such as the astronomer’s parsec and light year or the particle physicist’s barn.
Nevertheless, large numbers have an intellectual fascination and are of mathematical interest, and giving them names is one of the ways in which people try to conceptualize and understand them.
One of the first examples of this is The Sand Reckoner, in which Archimedes gave a system for naming large numbers. To do this, he called the numbers up to a myriad myriad (108) “first numbers” and called 108 itself the “unit of the second numbers”. Multiples of this unit then became the second numbers, up to this unit taken a myriad myriad times, 108·108=1016. This became the “unit of the third numbers”, whose multiples were the third numbers, and so on. Archimedes continued naming numbers in this way up to a myriad myriad times the unit of the 108-th numbers, i.e., and embedded this construction within another copy of itself to produce names for numbers up to Archimedes then estimated the number of grains of sand that would be required to fill the known Universe, and found that it was no more than “one thousand myriad of the eighth numbers” (1063)….
The Largest Standard Dictionary Number, on date, is, Centillion ,10303.
Tamil Classics name, 1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 = MAHAYUGAM = Ten Undecillion = 10 37.
This is 10 steps later to Decillion.
That is adding the power.
The basic computation in a Language that is over 5000 Year old….?
Shall be posting on minute measurements in Tamil and on Large and smallest numbers in Vedic System.
The first 7 of these Karanas are movable (Chara) i.e. it cannot be predetermined as to on which dates, these are going to occur, but the last 4 Karanas are fixed (Sthira), and hence can be predetermined.
VISHTIKARANA is also called ‘Bhadra’ and commencing any work during this time is prohibited. Bhadra is marked very clearly in every panchanga..
. A karana is the time required for the angular distance between the sun and the moon to increase in steps of 6° starting from 0°. There are eleven karanas in total. Of the eleven karanas, four are fixed and occurs only once in a cycle. The remaining 7 karanas repeat eight times to cover the remaining 56 steps.
Click the following Link to calculate the Karana for any day.
Hinduism is the first religion o have formed a Cyclic Theroy of Time, that is Time runs in cycles,
The Four Yugas, Aeons, Krutha, Tretha,Dwapara and Kali repeat themselves without end.
One approach to establishing the Multi verses is from the angle of the Atomic structure.
Please refer my posts under Multiverses.
The other is to find it at the Macro level.
The description of the Universe in the Hindu Puranas are quite detailed and they explain that there are many worlds with beings, that they intermingled, fought with each other.
Please refer my post Aliens in Ramayana, Mahabharata,Hinduism.
The description of the Constellations and their shifting movements as explained in the Hindu system is validated by modern Astronomy.
Our Pole Star shifts and so all the other stars with respect to our Sun.
The Universe contains billions of Stars and they their Planetary Systems.
Just as our Stars shift position in relation to our Sun, the billion Stars of the Universe shift.
The term Adhitya refers to Sun in Hinduism.
There are twelve Adhityas and Vishnu one among them.
He , as I explained in my post ‘Vishnu once in 6480 years, Astronomy Precession Equinox,’ emerges once in 6480 years with the changing Great Year, Yuga.
The Devi Mahatmiya describes that the Devi takes the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra around the Universe and shows them numerous Brahmas, Visnus and Shivas at work, before reaching Chintamani Gruha of the Devi.
Please read my post on Chintamani Gruha.
Now these countless Suns, having their own planets follow their own Laws, some physical laws are the same as ours,
People existing there travel among them, including the Earth.
As the Physical laws there are different so is the definition of Life.
The composition of Life there may be different from ours, they mayor need not have the basis Hydrogen,helium or Carbon as the building block of Life.
May be they might not need Amino Acids.
I am providing an excerpt.
The idea of a physical multiverse came later to physics than it did to religion and philosophy. The Hindu religion has ancient concepts that are similar. The term itself was, apparently, first applied by a psychologist, rather than a physicist.
Concepts of a multiverse are evident in the cyclical infinite worlds of ancient Hindu cosmology. In this viewpoint, our world is one of an infinite number of distinct worlds, each governed by its own gods on their own cycles of creation and destruction.
The word multiverse was originated by American psychologist William James in 1895 (the word “moral” is excluded from some citations of this passage):
“Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a [moral] multiverse, as one might call it, and not a [moral] universe.”
The phrase rose in prominence throughout the 20th century, when it was used regularly in science fiction and fantasy, notably in the work of author Michael Moorcock (though some sources attribute the word to the earlier work of author and philosopher John Cowper Powys in the 1950s). It is now a common phrase within these genres.
According to MIT cosmologist Max Tegmark, there are four levels of parallel universes:
Level 1: An infinite universe that, by the laws of probability, must contain another copy of Earth somewhere
Level 2: Other distant regions of space with different physical parameters, but the same basic laws
Level 3: Other universes where each possibility that can exist does exist, as described by the many worlds interpretation (MWI) of quantum physics
Level 4: Entirely distinct universes that may not even be connected to ours in any meaningful way and very likely have entirely different fundamental physical laws
Tegmark’s approach is one of the few attempts to comprehensively categorize the concepts of parallel universes in a scientific (or, as some see it, pseudoscientific) context. The full text of Tegmark’s 2003 paper on this topic is available at his MIT website, for those who don’t believe that these concepts are scientific. (They may not be scientific, but at least they’re unscientific musings by a scientist.)
Hindus, in determining auspicious time, take into account, apart from Day,Stars,Thithis(waxing and waning of the Moon),Yoga Karana.
These five, Day, Star, Thithi,Yoga( not the Yoga of Patanjali, here Yoga indicates auspicious/conducive period) and Karana form the basis of Hindu Almanac, called Panchanga(Five limbs).
Apart from the inauspicious time of each day,Rahu Kalam and Yama Kanda(some do not take Yama Kanda as inauspicious as this time being inauspicious for Yama the God of death, and by reverse Logic is auspicious for the Living)
Not much is known about Yogas, Siddha ,Amirth and Marana.
It would help one to read about Time calculation of the Hindus,
Please check my posts on How to find an auspicious day and Time, Hindus Calculation.
One can cross check the Yoga daily by understanding what it is about.
EIGHT DAYTIME PERIODS—THE KALAS
The period between sunrise and sunset each day is divided into eight pe- riods. Each period, or kala, lasts approximately one and one-half hours, depending on the total duration of sunlight. Three of the eight kalas are considered most im- portant—Rahu Kala, Yama Kala and Gulika Kala—known collectively as the trini samayam. Rahu Kala is considered malefic for commencing new undertakings. Yama is also an interfering current, but is less influential than Rahu. Yama Kala is considered an auspicious time for antyesti (funeral) rites. Gulika is the most auspi- cious time of the day for commencing new activities.
Each kala occurs at approximately the same time on each particular day of the week. Thus, Gulika Kala occurs at approximately 7AM every Friday. If you’ve ever wondered why Monday mornings are so infamous, note that Rahu Kala is generally between 7:30 and 9AM every Monday. The trini samayam are listed at the top of column three for each day.
Yogas are Twenty Seven.
ROUTINE OR CREATIVE WORK DAYS—AMRITADI YOGAS
The resultant of the waves propagated by the planets and the stars on the human psyche are indicated in four degrees. In the Vedic Calendar, this esoteric yoga is listed in bold type in the left column of each day’s designations.
AMRITA YOGA—CREATIVE WORK: Very good for creative types of work and auspicious undertakings.
SIDDHA YOGA—CREATIVE WORK: Good for creative types of work and auspicious undertakings.
MARANA YOGA—ROUTINE WORK: Should be avoided for new under- takings and beginning travel. Routine work only.
PRABALARSHTA YOGA—ROUTINE WORK: Should be absolutely avoided for new undertakings and beginning travel. Routine work only.
How to find the Yogas.
” Siddha Yoga:
This is formed due to the combination of the Tithi and vara
The 5 categories of Tithis are governed by 5 elements of nature which are given below. When a tithi falls on a weekday (Vara) governed by the same element as that of the tithi a very auspicious time is formed which goes by the name of Siddha Yoga.
Following combination of Tithis and the Varas constitute the siddha yoga:
The events repeat again at least once if they happen in this yoga. Hence good events should happen in this yoga such as purchase of property etc. and unfortunate events such as diseases and death should not happen.
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Following combination of Tithi, Vara and Nakshatra is called Tripushkar Yoga:
The events repeat again at least twice if they happen in this yoga. Hence good events should happen in this yoga such as purchase of property etc. and unfortunate events such as diseases and death should not happen.
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This yoga is formed due to combination of Vara and Tithi