While India has been traditionally following either the Solar or Lunar Calendars, in the West,there has been confusion galore.
In India,though two primary Calendars,Solar and Lunar, for religious purposes to fix the Nakshatra ,the Solar Calendar is followed because the Sun was recognised as a Star by ancient Hindus and for Thithi,which deals with the movement of the Moon is followed.
As mentioned at the beginning of this article, there is also a Vikrama Calendar,Vikrama Samvatsara.
The curious fact is that England, Wales and Scotland were following the Vikrama Samvatsara till 1752 when they changed it.
Yet another proof of India having once ruled England is the fact that until 1752 A.D. the English New Year began on March 25.
That is the exact time of the year when the Indian New Year begins.
In 1752 by an act of Parliament England arbitrarily changed over to January 1 as the New Year Day.
As March 25 marks the beginning of the Indian Vikram Samvat it is plausible that England was part of Vikramaditya’s Indian empire.
Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian in Catholic countries.
This change was also implemented in Protestant and Orthodox countries some time later.
In England and Wales, Ireland, and the British colonies, the change of the start of the year and the changeover from the Julian calendar occurred in 1752 under the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750.
From the 12th century to 1752, the civil or legal year in England began on 25 March (Lady Day) so for example the execution of Charles I was recorded at the time in Parliament as happening on 30 January 1648 (Old Style).
Vikram Samvat or Bikram Samvat is a calendar era used in a Hindu calendar.
It uses lunar months and solar sidereal year.
The new year begins with the first day after the new moon, in the month of Chaitra, Chaitra Shuddha 1 or Chaitra Shukla Paksha Prathama; which usually falls in March–April in the Gregorian calendar.
The Vikrama Samvat is said to have been founded by the legendary Indian king Vikramaditya, variously considered to be a partly historical figure or a purely mythical character.
The Mahabharata War took place towards the closing years of the Dwapara yuga.
Kali yuga is reported to have begun after the departure of Lord Krishna and after Yuga Sandhi.
Yuga Sandhi is the Interregnum is the period between two yugas.
When did Kali Yuga begin?
Indians follow an almanac system based on the movement of the Sun and Moon.
Time is divided into finest parts and large numbers are also discussed..
This Almanac is called Panchanga s it takes into account five factors,Pancha means Five.
The Five are,
Thithi, waxing and waning of the Moon,
Nakshatra, Stars and their Movements,
Yoga, a specific time of the day which indicates auspiciousness or otherwise and
Karana, yet another parameter of time to calculate auspiciousness.
The Panchanga is used by the Hindus daily to find out the auspicious dates.,movement of the Moon.
The Panchanga is read at the beginning of a year.
Panchanga predicts, among other things like natural calamities, general world status, weather.
And it predicts the Eclipses so accurately which tallies with modern scientific calculations.
Based on the Panchanga , the date when Kali Yuga began is arrived at.
This is how it has been done.
The description is detailed to year-month-days of each and every king who ruled. By adding the total number of years of the four dynasties from Yudhishthir to Vikramaditya, it comes to 3,178 years which is 3141 Kali era or 39 AD, which represents the date when Vikramaditya left this earth planet.
According to the Bhavishya Puran and Rajtarangini, Vikramaditya lived between 102 BC and 15 AD; and according to the above details his period ends by 39 AD. There is only a difference of 24 years in the date-wise record of 70 kings who ruled Hastinapur for 3,085 years. A discrepancy of 24 years in 3,000 years of record could be a copying or printing mistake, and is thus negligible when we are dealing with a longer span of years. In this way the predicted period of the dynasties of Magadh and the historic records of the dynasties of Hastinapur correspond with each other and justify their correctness, and vice versa.
This is only a section of the magazine. It gives full date-wise detail of each and every king who ruled Hastinapur from Yudhishthir up to Vikramaditya. This is one of the rarest records that survived through this magazine.
The beginning of kaliyug, 3102 BC.
We have taken the beginning of kaliyug as the fixed point to determine the chronological dates of the events, kings, Divine dignitaries and the important personalities of our history. It is a common understanding that kaliyug started about 5,000 years ago (in round figures) and we never had any problems in the past in accepting this fact. But only after the arrival of the English people in India, all sorts of baseless criticisms started regarding our history and religion that were promoted and fostered by them. We had hundreds of such evidences regarding the date of Mahabharat war and the beginning of kaliyug in our history books that were destroyed by the British, still we have more than enough material to fully establish this fact.
(a) We still follow the ancient astrological tradition. There is a most prestigious, 48 page detailed date-wise journal (panchang) with all the astrological facts and figures called “Vishva Panchangam,” established in 1925 and published by Kashi Hindu Vishvavidyalaya (Benares Hindu University), Varanasi. It gives all the three eras: Kali era, Vikram era and (Shalivahan) Shak era.
It is as thus:
It says on page 3 that 5,100 years have already elapsed before 2056 Vikram year which is 1999 AD. It means that the existing Kali era is 5101 in 1999 AD, which comes to (5101 – 1999) 3102 BC.
(b) Another panchang of India called “Shree Saraswati Panchangam” published from Navalgarh, Rajasthan, also gives all the calculations and says that 5,100 years of kaliyug had already elapsed before 1999.
(c) The “Vishva Vijay Panchangam” of Solan, Himachal Pradesh, says,
It means that 5,100 years of kaliyug had already elapsed before 1999 and 426,900 years of kaliyugare still left. Kaliyug is of 432,000 years (so, kaliyug started in 3102 BC).
Thus, the best team of the scholars of astrology all over India give the same figures of 3102 BC and publish it in the panchang (journal) every year.
These astrological journals are run by a group of the most learned astrologers of India, and thus it is mindlessness if any astrologer or scholar unnecessarily tries to argue about their accuracy.
Alberuni. “Alberuni’s India,” first Indian print 1964 (S. Chand & Co., New Delhi) Volume I. In the second part of this book on page 4 Alberuni writes, “…the time which has elapsed since the beginning of kaliyug before our gauge-year, 4132 years, and between the wars of Bharat and our gauge-year there have elapsed 3479 years.” In the Annotations (p. 358) of the same book Alberuni tells about his gauge-year, which is: “A.D. 1031, 25th February, a Thursday.”
There is a difference of 968 years between 1031 AD and 1999 AD. Thus, adding 968 years to 4,132 years comes to 5,100 years, the period that has already elapsed since the beginning of kaliyugand up till today (1999), and this is exactly what is mentioned in the astrological journals of India.
Alberuni also mentions about Vikram era (57 BC) and also the Shalivahan Shak era which starts 135 years after the Vikram era.
Aryabhatt. The greatest astronomer and mathematician, Aryabhatt, was born in 476 AD. His work in astronomy is an asset to the scholars. He gave an accurate figure for pi ( ) 3.1416. He finished his book “Aryabhattiya” in 499 AD in which he gives the exact year of the beginning ofkaliyug. He writes,
“When the three yugas (satyug, tretayug and dwaparyug) have elapsed and 60 x 60 (3,600) years ofkaliyug have already passed, I am now 23 years old.” It means that in the 3,601st year of Kali era he was 23 years old. Aryabhatt was born in 476 AD. Thus, the beginning of kaliyug comes to 3,601 – (476 + 23) = 3102 BC.
‘According to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kaliyuga is an extremely rare planetary alignment, which is depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 B.C is slightly off. The actual date for this alignment is February 7 of 3104 B.C.'(wiki Kali yuga)
To understand Hindu History one should have an eye for facts, allegories, Facts and allegories combined together and allegorical stories to instill morality.
However one can easily identify the last mentioned by the statement in the body of the story or towards the end it to be a Moral story.But the Puranas, Vedas and the Ithihasas, Ramayana and Mahabharata belong to another genre .
Adi Sesha Supporting the Earth.
Puranas and Ithihasas record facts as has been proved.
Vedas belong to a category of Knowledge that is intuitively grasped and it is not through the senses we possess.
We can verify even this if we follow the laid down rules.
The Puranas contain facts as well as Higher Physical truths.
Some of these Truths enunciated in the Puranas are called as Lower Knowledge.
One such is the much overlooked Adi Sesha on whom Lord Vishnu reclines.
People are aware that Adi Sesha is the Bed on which Lord Vishnu reclines and he was born as Lakshmana in Ramayana and Balarama in Mahabharata times.
The importance of Sesha can be understood by the fact that Lord Vishnu was born as a Younger brother to Balarama, an Avatar of Sesha, whom Lord Vishnu served diligently.
This is the expression of gratitude to Sesha by Lord Rama to Krishna hen he said to Lakshmana,
‘You have served me diligently sacrificing everything in your Life in order to serve me.
I shall repay it by serving as diligently to you in the next Avatar.
Lord Krishna executed His Machiavellian Schemes in the Mahabharata, be it the slaying of Drona,Fixing of the Muhurat for the Mahabharata war by switching the Full Moon Day(Bodhayana Amavasya), killing of Bhishma by placing Sikandi in front of Bhishma,The taking away of the fruits of Karna’s Good deeds by taking them away from Karna in the Battlefield,hiding the Sun to enable Arjuna to kill Jayathratha,of advising Bhima by slapping his thighs to indicate that Bhima as to hit Duryodhana below Duryodhana’s Thighs, the list is endless…
in the absence of His elder brother Balarama , an Avatar of Adi Sesha.
If Lord Krishna listened to in the Mahabharata at all it as only Balarama and no body else.
Such was his devotion to Balarama.
Apart from the incidents narrated thus about the respect shown to Balarama,is there any deeper meaning behind the importance given to Balarama by Lord Krishna?
From the scientific angle?
To me , it seems so.
Krishna represents, among other things the embodiment of the Universe, as He displayed it to Arjuna in Kurukshetra in His Viswaroopa.
Krishna, an Avatar of Vishnu is beyond Time and Space and in fact He is Time and Space.
Vishnu has three aspects,the fact many of us are unaware.
Please read my post on Three Visnus.
In Gaudīya Vaishnavism, a school of VaishnaVaishnavism, the Sātvata-tantra describes three different forms, or aspects, of Vishnu as Mahā Vishnu, Garbhodakaśāyī Vishnu andKsirodakaśāyī Vishnu (Paramātmā), with each form having a different role in the maintenance of the Universe and its inhabitants:
“For material creation, Lord Krishna’s plenary expansion assumes three Vishnus. The first one, Mahā Viṣṇu, creates the total material energy, known as the mahat-tattva. The second, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, enters into all the universes to create diversities in each of them. The third, Kṣīrodakaśāyī Vishnu, is diffused as the all-pervading Supersoul in all the universes in heart of every living being and is known as Paramātmā. He is present even within the atoms. Real object of meditation in Yoga is a Paramātmā. Anyone who knows them can be liberated from material entanglement.”(Satvata Tantra)
Now to Adisesha,
Shesha is said to hold all the planets of the universe on his hoods and to constantly sing the glories of the god Vishnu from all his mouths. He is sometimes referred to as Ananta Shesha, which translates as endless-Shesha or Adishesha “first Shesha”. It is said that when Adishesa uncoils, time moves forward and creation takes place and when he coils back, the universe ceases to exist.
Please refer my posts on this.
I have also written on the Singularity in Blackholes,describes the Brahman described in the Vedas.
Time runs backwards,
Ina Blackole, all events appear to be at a Standstill, though it is not.
There is a Singularity in a Black hole which one can not perceive.
In the centre of a black hole is a gravitational singularity, a one-dimensionalpoint which contains infinite mass in an infinitely small space, where gravitybecome infinite and space-time curves infinitely, and where the laws of physics as we know them cease to operate. As the eminent American physicist Kip Thorne describes it, it is “the point where all laws of physics break down”.
There is a reference in the Ramayana that Hanuman entered into a Black hole/wormhole in the Vindhya Mountains during His search of Sita.
And Lakshmana wentdown the Sarayau River to Patala Loka.
Balarama entered Patala Loka as a white serpent,( basic Light) .
‘In Ramayana, Lakshmana went to the Sarayu river, ended life by engaging in meditation and stopping his breathing. It is said his soul went to Patala Loka’
Adishesha lies on the Garbhodaka Ocean. This universe lies inside Hiranyagarbh which also has 14 planetary systems. Beneath the 14 planetary system is the cosmic ocean known as Garbhodaka ocean.
According to SB 5.23.9, the last planetary system is Patala. Further 30,000 yojanas(ancient distance measurement unit) below, Adishesha lies on Garbhodaka ocean but doesn’t hold any planetary systems.
According to SB 2.7.1
Only under certain conditions do the planets float as weightless balls in the air, and as soon as these conditions are disturbed, the planets may fall down in the Garbhodaka Ocean, which covers half the universe. The other half is the spherical dome within which the innumerable planetary systems exist. The floating of the planets in the weightless air is due to the inner constitution of the globes, and the modernized drilling of the earth to exploit oil from within is a sort of disturbance by the modern demons and can result in a greatly harmful reaction to the floating condition of the earth.’
Hinduism describes 14 Lokas belonging to This Universe and there are many more and these are explained in the Devi Mahatmiyam and in the Puranas that speak of Devi.
The point that there are unobservable Universes is agreed upon by Quantum and they admit to 10 such places.
Hinduism mentions 14.
I had written on these issues .
So, in the present context, The Time Principle is enumerated in the form of Lakshmana and Balaram where they had gone into the Garbhodaka Ocean which is the outer limit of our present Universe, though unobservable and all these rest on Garbhohaka Vishnu.
Please read my posts on Quantum in order to know more on this topic.
But how does one calculate Time with the help of a Sun Dial?
Take the famous Sun Dial at Konark, Odisha, India.
There are eight spokes in the Wheel.
‘The sundial has 8 major spokes that divide 24 hours into 8 equal parts, which means that the time between two major spokes is 3 hours. There are 8 minor spokes as well. Each minor spoke runs exactly in the middle of 2 major spokes. This means that the minor spoke divides the 3 hours in half, so the time between a major spoke and a minor spoke is an hour and half or 90 minutes.
Now, at the edge of the wheel, you can see a lot of beads. If you observe carefully, you can see that there are 30 beads between a minor and a major spoke. So, the 90 minutes are further divided by 30 beads. This means that each bead carries a value of 3 minutes. The beads are large enough, so you can also see if the shadow falls in the center of the bead or on one of the ends of the bead. This way we can further calculate time accurately to the minute.
The sundial shows time in an anti-clockwise fashion. At the top, the major spoke stands for midnight and this spoke stands for 3 A.M and this one for 6 A.M and so on. When I place a finger or a pen at the tail of the animal in the axle, the shadow will fall on the edge of the wheel. Now, I simply note the bead where the shadow falls. Using the math we did before, I can easily tell the current time precisely down to the minute. Imagine how much time and coordination would have happened between the astronomers, engineers and sculptors to create something like this 750 years ago.
Now if you are observing closely, you would have 2 questions in your mind right now. The first question would be, what happens when the sun moves from east to west. Since the wheel is carved on a wall, the sun would not shine on this wheel at all. How can we tell time in the afternoons? Now, the Konark temple has another wheel or sundial, located on the west side of the temple as well. You can just use the other sundial that will work perfectly from afternoon, until sunset.
This is the second and the most interesting question. How do you tell time after sunset? There would be no sun, and hence no shadows from sunset till the next morning’s sunrise. After all, we have 2 sundials in the temple which work only when the sun shines. To this question, I want to point out that the Konark temple does not have just 2 wheels like this. The temple has a total of 24 wheels, all accurately carved just like the sundials. Have you heard of the Moondial? Do you know that the moondials can work just like sun dials during night time? What if the other wheels in the temple could be used as moondials?
Many people think that the other 22 wheels were carved for decorative or religious purposes and do not have an actual use. This is what people thought about the 2 sundials as well. Believe it or not, people thought that all the 24 wheels were just carved for beauty and as Hindu symbols. About 100 years ago, it became known that this was a sundial when an old yogi was seen calculating time secretly. Apparently selected people were using these wheels for generations and for 650 years no one else knew about it. They say that when they asked him about the purpose of the other 22 wheels, the yogi refused to talk and simply walked away.
And our knowledge of just these 2 sundials themselves is actually very limited. You can see how there are multiple circles of beads. You can see carvings and markings all over these sundials, and we don’t the meaning of most of them. For example, this carving on a major spoke has exactly 60 beads. Notice how in some carving you can see leaves and flowers which may mean Spring or Summer. Notice how in some carvings you can see lemurs mating, which only happens during winter. So, these sundials could have even been used as an almanac for a variety of different things. Now you can understand how limited our knowledge is about the rest of the 22 wheels.
Notice that there are clues on these wheels that people have overlooked for centuries. Notice how a woman wakes up and looks at a mirror in the morning. Notice how she is stretching, being tired and ready to go to sleep. And you can also see that she is engaging in sexual activity during night. For centuries, people have ignored these hints and thought that these were carvings of Hindu Goddesses.
This is also a perfect example of how people think ancient unexplainable carvings are just for beauty or religious purposes. If ancient people spent a lot of time creating something, there is a very good chance that it was done for a valuable, scientific purpose.
Moondials are time pieces similar to a sundial. The most basic moondial, which is identical to a sundial, is only accurate on the night of the full moon. Every night after it becomes an additional (on average)[note 1] 48 minutes slow, while every night preceding the full moon it is (again on average)49 minutes fast, assuming there is even enough light to take a reading by. Thus, one week to either side of the full moon the moondial will read 5 hours and 36 minutes before or after the proper time.
More advanced moondials can include charts showing the exact calculations to get the correct time, as well as dials designed with latitude and longitude in mind.
In the highly complex world of Astronomy, where very huge distances are to be measured special numbers are needed to count.
The presence of Large numbers indicate that knowledge of such huge numbers were necessitated .
That is possible only when Knowledge of such numerals are needed.
And such a field is Astronomy.
Unless one has a very deep insight into the working of the Universe , one would not have devised the numbers and more importantly would not have systematized them.
The largest Number used now ,
When a number represents a quantity rather than a count, SI prefixes can be used—thus “femtosecond”, not “one quadrillionth of a second”—although often powers of ten are used instead of some of the very high and very low prefixes. In some cases, specialized units are used, such as the astronomer’s parsec and light year or the particle physicist’s barn.
Nevertheless, large numbers have an intellectual fascination and are of mathematical interest, and giving them names is one of the ways in which people try to conceptualize and understand them.
One of the first examples of this is The Sand Reckoner, in which Archimedes gave a system for naming large numbers. To do this, he called the numbers up to a myriad myriad (108) “first numbers” and called 108 itself the “unit of the second numbers”. Multiples of this unit then became the second numbers, up to this unit taken a myriad myriad times, 108·108=1016. This became the “unit of the third numbers”, whose multiples were the third numbers, and so on. Archimedes continued naming numbers in this way up to a myriad myriad times the unit of the 108-th numbers, i.e., and embedded this construction within another copy of itself to produce names for numbers up to Archimedes then estimated the number of grains of sand that would be required to fill the known Universe, and found that it was no more than “one thousand myriad of the eighth numbers” (1063)….
The Largest Standard Dictionary Number, on date, is, Centillion ,10303.
Tamil Classics name, 1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 = MAHAYUGAM = Ten Undecillion = 10 37.
This is 10 steps later to Decillion.
That is adding the power.
The basic computation in a Language that is over 5000 Year old….?
Shall be posting on minute measurements in Tamil and on Large and smallest numbers in Vedic System.