Chennai Madras Is Not Tamil


There are some self styled Tamil Arvalars,Tamil Lovers, who declare themselves to be the saviors of Tamil language and  Tamils.

They shall shout from roof tops that they are Tamils and others are Aryans, who have migrated to Tamil Nadu.

They shall ridicule other languages including Sanskrit and Sanatana Dharma.

They have their names in Sanskrit, Karunanidhi, Dayalu,Dayanidhi,Kalanidhi, and worse they shall name their child as Stalin!

A pure Tamil Name, the last one indeed!

What they write in Tamil will not stand the scrutiny of Tamil Grammar Tholkappiyam.

Yet they call themselves as the leaders of Tamils and speak other languages at Home and send their children to English medium schools..

What they have achieved by this misinformation about  Tamil, Tamils, India and Sanatana Dharma is to fill up their coffers and in the process  mislead a generation and invited the hatred and ridicule of others in India.

So much so, even research articles on Tamil and Tamil languages indicating their rich ancient culture and their unswerving commitment to Sanatana dharma is looked at with derision.

Includes the work of this writer,

I am vilified as a Brahmin who hates Tamil and by the people who speak other languages as a Tamil Fanatic.

I am neither.

I am trying to reconstruct Indian History, which has been doctored.

I present facts as I come by.

And do not hesitate the other view if the evidence is authentic.

Now to these jokers who pretend to be Tamil Saviours and who declare themselves to know Tamil,

They changed the name of Madras as they felt is not Tamil.

And named it as Chennai in pure Tamil!

And Chennai is not a Tamil word!

The nativity of ‘Madras’ of being Tamil origin and ‘Chennai’ of being Telugu origin, has been clearly proven and documented after various researches done by renowned scholars and historians.

The name Madras originated even before the British presence was established in India. The name Madras is said to have originated from a Portuguese phrase ” mae de Deus ” which means “mother of god”, due to Portuguese influence on the port city. According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George.However, it is uncertain whether the name was in use before the arrival of Europeans.The British military mapmakers believed Madras was originally Mundir-raj or MundirajMadras might have also been derived from the word Madhuras (Sanskrit: मधुरस) meaning “juice of honey” or “sugarcane” in Sanskrit. A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions the port of Maadarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram.

There are two different theories for the origin of the name Chennai. The first theory is that it was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire from whom the British acquired the town in 1639.The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company The second theory states that it was named after the Chenna Kesava Perumal Temple; the temple regarded as the face of the city.

In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu officially changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name. However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city, as well as for places named after the city such as University of Madras, IIT Madras, Madras Institute of Technology, Madras Medical College, Madras Christian College.

Reference and citation.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chennai#Etymology

TCS Chennai view Featured Image Credit.http://colorlibrary.blogspot.in/2012/08/photographs-of-largest-corporate-it.html

 

Chennai Madras Founded Before Mahabharata?


True History of India, when one unravels it from the lies labelled as History of India by outsiders, is amazing and at times shocking.

I had written about the lies on India being a superstitious and barbaric country ,Hinduism just 5000 years old Tamil being dated around 3000 BC, Alexander defeating Porus……

I have also written extensively about the spread of Sanatana Dharma through out the world, with verified sources from Archaeology,Astronomy, History, apart from verifying artifacts by Carbon and Infrared dating, and with the help of tectonic movements of the earth’s plates.

I am struck by one thought.
image

Though there is evidence from the puranas that the Dravida desa, located in the south of the Vindhyas, rulers from The Chera, Chola ,Pandya and the ancestors of the Rashtrakootas were in constant touch with the rulers in  the North of India, hardly  a few major places/cities have found references in modern history.

That is the major cities of India in south, Madras, now called Chennai, Bangalore(now called Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Cochin/Thiruvanathapuram do not seem to have as much ancient history as that of, say, Madurai,Musiri,Bhadrachalam!

While lesser known cities of today, which were prominent during early ages, are dated and referenced back to Purana and Ithihasa periods, hisory of important modern cities like Bangalore , Madras are not traced back to such lengths of time.
While Madras history’ as quoted in this post towards its closing’, stops with Pallavas and vague references to the Cholas, Bangalore has clear references upto Nayakas kingdom.
This despite an Tamil site being found, it dates back to Million years-read my post on this,in Pallavaram, a suburb of Madras and a 7500 year old Shiva temple in Bangalore!( check my article on this).
How come there is such a gap in the history of these cities?
Records do not show that they were destroyed during this period.
In the case of Madras, while references abound in Tamil literature, supported by archaeological finds that a Chera king fed both the Pandava and Kaurava armies during the Mahabharata war, Vasudeva Krishna married a Pandyan princess,killed a Pandyan king, he had a dauther througj her and he had her married to a Pandyan Prince and gave away 100 Yadava family as A Dowry during her marriage;Balarama met Parashurama in Kerala and woshiped Subrahmanya in Tamil Nadu;Arjuna married a Pandyan princess;
Sahadeva and Arjuna came on pilgrimage to the south;
Tamil Kings were invited to the Swayamvara of Damayanti, which anti dates even Ramayana;
These kings were present in the Swayamvara of Sita and Draupadi.
So references to these kings and the lands they ruled over is proven with historical finds and references in literature.
But the cities , Bangalore and Madras, can not be dated beyond , say about 7 to 800 years.
If these cities have artifacts /sitesdating back to 7000 yeras in the case of Bangalore and a million years in the case of Madras, it is reasonable to conclude,with no records of these cities having been destroyed,that history has been lost in respect of these cities.
A little digging reveals astounding fact in the case of Madras.
The etymology of the term Madras looks unconvincing.
This name dates back only to a few hundred years.
But Drona Parva mentions Rukmartha as to be from Madras.
The region is marked as being in Sind/ Punjab and Madri the second wife of Pandu of Kuru Dynasty and mother of Nakula and Sahadeva beling to this area.
But the migration of the Madri Tribe to the south is mentioned.
The reference to Kankas , Kiratas ,Andhras ,Chunchus
evoke interest.
Kankas might refer to the ancestors of Ganga Dynasty,
Andhras to the people in to days Andra Pradesh and also Chunchus refer to a tribe of Andhra who exist even today. The name Chunchulakshmi is common in Andhra.
Kiratas,hunters refer to Kerala and Nishadas also refer to them.
‘ The Yavanas, the Kiratas, the Gandharvas, the Chinas, the Savaras, the Barbaras, the Sakas, the Tusharas, the Kankas, the Pathavas, the Andhras, the Madrakas, thePaundras, the Pulindas, the Ramathas, the Kamvojas were mentioned together as tribes beyond the kingdoms of Aryavarta. The Aryavarta-kings had doubts on dealing with them. (12,64)
There is a statement that Krishna brought elephants from Madra.
Punjab/Sind does/ did not have elephants.

‘ elephants were mentioned as brought from the country of Madra by Vasudeva Krishna. These were given as present to the Pandavas on the occasion of their marriage with Draupadi (1,201). It is not clear how elephant could naturally exist in Madra (Punjab province of Pakistan). However a training center to make them war-elephants could exist there’

They were brought to North from Kerala from Vedic Times.
This is recorded in the Vedas and puranas.
It is probable that a group of Madra tribe migrated to South and settled in a place and it was named Madras later.
It is worth noting here that Sage Agastya brought Yadava tribes to Karnataka and the Tamil Nadu when Dwaraka sank.
The Tamil kings Velirs beling to this tribe.
And The Yadavas settled in the present Karnataka.
Please read my posts on these.

 

 

 

Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, and pre-historic communities resided in the settlement.

The region around Chennai has served as an important administrative, military, and economic centre for many centuries. During 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named Thiruvalluvar lived in the town of Mylapore (a neighbourhood of present Chennai). From the 1st–12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas.

The Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign ofMahendravarman . They also defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period. Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have also been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period.

The Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai.

On 22 August 1639, which is referred to as Madras Day, the English East India Company under Francis Day bought a small strip of land stretching 3 miles on the Coromandel Coast. They got a license to build a fort and a castle in the contracted region. The ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, the Nayaka of Chandragiri, granted the English permission to build a factory and warehouse for their trading enterprises. The region was then primarily a fishing village known as “Madraspatnam”.A year later, the English built Fort St. George, the first major English settlement in India, which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city and urban Chennai, grew around this Fort.Post independence the fort housed the Tamil Nadu Assembly until the new Secretariat building was opened in 2010, but shortly afterwards it was again moved back to Fort St. George, due to a change in the Government.

In 1746, Fort St. George and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais, the Governor of Mauritius, who plundered the town and its outlying villages.’

Madra Kingdom was a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. Its capital was Sagala, modern Sialkot (in the Punjab province of Pakistan). TheKuru king Pandu’s second wife was from Madra kingdom and was called Madri. The Pandava twins, Nakula and Sahadeva, were her sons. Madri’s brother Shalya was the king of Madra. Though affectionate to the Pandavas, he was tricked to give support to Duryodhana and fought against the Pandavas during the Kurukshetra War. He was killed by Yudhishthira, the eldest Pandava. Other than the Madra kingdom (Eastern Madra or Purva Madra) with Sagala as its capital, it is believed that there was a Western Madra (Apara Madra) and a Northern Madra (Uttara Madra).

 

The Yavanas, the Kiratas, the Gandharvas, the Chinas, the Savaras, the Barbaras, the Sakas, the Tusharas, the Kankas, the Pathavas, the Andhras, the Madrakas, thePaundras, the Pulindas, the Ramathas, the Kamvojas were mentioned together as tribes beyond the kingdoms of Aryavarta. The Aryavarta-kings had doubts on dealing with them. (12,64)

The Andrakas, Guhas, Pulindas, Savaras, Chuchukas, Madrakas, the Yamas, Kamvojas, Gandharas, Kiratas and Barbaras were mentioned as unknown tribes. In the Krita age, they were nowhere on earth (meaning Ancient India). It is from the Treta age that they have had their origin and began to multiply. When the terrible period came, joining Treta and the Dwapara, the Kshatriyas, approaching one another, engaged themselves in battle (12,206).

The Madra tribe and Salwa tribe had a common origin as hinted by a myth at (1,121). Here the origin of these two tribes were attributed to a king in the race of Puru, known by the name of Vyushitaswa. His wife was Bhadra, the daughter of Kakshivat (Kakshivat was the son of Gautama-Dirghatamas, begotten upon the servant-maid of the queen of a king named Vali who ruled in the outskirts of Magadha. (See also Anga and Magadha). Seven sons were born to Bhadra, after the death of Vyushitaswa. Later they all became kings. Three of them became the three kings of Salwa and four of them became the four kings of Madra.

King Aswapati[

Aswapati was the father of Savitri the famous princess of Madra, who became the lover (and later, wife) of the famous Salwa prince Satyavan. Aswapati’s wife was from a minor tribe known as Malava. She was known as Malavi (3,291). The sons of Aswapati and Malavi, later became the powerful Malava kings. They spread their kingdom as far as Avanti(Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh). Thus the royal line of Malavas originated from the Madra (Punjab province of Pakistan) king Aswapati (3,297).

  • Madrabhujingas were mentioned as a kingdom of ancient India (Bharata Varsha) (6,9)
  • Karna is mentioned as subjugating the Madras, along with the Gandharas, the Matsyas, the Trigartas, the Tanganas, the Khasas, the Pancalas, the Videhas, the Kulindas, the Kasi-kosalas, the Suhmas, the Angas, the Nishadhas, the Pundras, the Kichakas, the Vatsas, the Kalingas, the Taralas, the Asmakas, and the Rishikas (8,8)
  • Trained elephants were mentioned as brought from the country of Madra by Vasudeva Krishna. These were given as present to the Pandavas on the occasion of their marriage with Draupadi (1,201). It is not clear how elephant could naturally exist in Madra (Punjab province of Pakistan). However a training center to make them war-elephants could exist there.
  • From the Nishadas sprang up the Madranabha caste whose members are seen to ride on cars drawn by asses. (13,48).
  • Madra kings were equated to a clan of Asuras called Krodhaveshas.

 

‘Sanjaya said, ‘Engaged in taking the lives of brave warriors, Arjuna’s son then resembled the Destroyer himself, when the latter takes the lives of all creatures on the arrival of the Universal Dissolution. Possessed of prowess resembling that of Sakra himself, the mighty son of Sakra’s son, viz., Abhimanyu, agitating the Katirava army looked exceedingly resplendent. Penetrating into the Katirava host, O king, that destroyer of foremost Kshatriyas resembling Yama himself, seized Satvasravas, like an infuriated tiger seizing a deer. Beholding Satyasrayas, seized by him, many mighty car-warriors, taking up diverse kinds of weapons, rushed upon him. Indeed, those bulls among Kshatriyas, from a spirit of rivalry, rushed at the son of Arjuna from desire of slaying him, all exclaiming, ‘I shall go first, I shall go first!’ As a whale in the sea obtaining a shoal of small fish seizes them with the greatest ease, even so did Abhimanyu receive that whole division of the rushing Kshatriyas. Like rivers that never go back when they approach the sea, none amongst those unretreating Kshatriyas turned back when they approached Abhimanyu. That army then reeled like a boat tossed on the ocean when overtaken by a mighty tempest, (with its crew) afflicted with panic caused by the violence of the wind .

Then the mighty Rukmaratha, son of the ruler of the Madras, for assuring the frightened troops, fearlessly said, ‘Ye heroes, ye need not fear! When I am here, what is Abhimanyu?

Without doubt, I will seize this one a living captive’. Having said these words, the valiant prince, borne on his beautiful and well-equipped car, rushed at Abhimanyu. Piercing Abhimanyu with three shafts in the chest, three in the right arm, and three other sharp shafts in the left arm, he uttered a loud roar. Phalguni’s son, however, cutting off his bow, his right and left arms, and his head adorned with beautiful eyes and eye-brows quickly felled them on the earth. Beholding Rukmaratha, the honoured son of Salya, slain by the illustrious son of Subhadra, that Rukmaratha viz., who had vowed to consume his foe or take him alive, many princely.( Mahabharata  SECTION XLIII)

http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m07/m07042.htm )

 

Citations.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chennai#History

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madra_Kingdom#Origin_of_Madra_tribe

 

 

 

 

Which Is Older Kannada Or Tamil


When one tries to trace the real history of India, one has to tread carefully and doubly careful in the use of terms about the various ancient Kingdoms and languages of India.

Unlike the other countries of the world our history goes back to Millions of years.

Sathavahanas Dynasty.jpg Sathavahana Dynasty LLocation. Image credit. “SatavahanaMap”. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SatavahanaMap.jpg#/media/File:SatavahanaMap.jpg

While unravelling them,based on Archeology, references in the Indian Epics,Puranas and Indian literature, one finds it nearly impossible to determine which preced the other, say for instance Tami or Kannada.

I have, in my article, Karnataka 2 Million years Old Rama’s Brother in law in Karnataka, I had inadvertently slipped a word that,

‘before the advent of the Sathavahanas, Karnataka was ruled by North Indian Kings and Tamil Kings”

I received a comment,, which I am reproducing below.

“Well Mr. Ramanan, with due regards to your article, there is no history to suggest that Karnataka was ruled by Tamil rulers, before Satavahanas. Although the two languages owe a lot to Brahmi script and according to latest findings, Kannada speaking population was widely spread in south, central, and deccan India. Professor Iravatham mahadevan’s recent findings show that Tamil borrowed from old Kannada and not the other way round.
The impact of kingdoms of Karnataka origin have been felt over other parts of India also. The Chindaka Nagas of central India, Gangas of Kalinga (Odisha),[1] Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta,[2] Chalukyas of Vengi,[3] Yadava Dynasty of Devagiri were all of Kannada origin[4] who later took to encouraging local languages. The Senas of Bengal, the Solankis of Gujarat etc.’

In such a situation, I should have simple left saying nothing at all.

For the atmosphere in India has been so vitiated on the basis of langauge and territories that even a slight mention, raises one’s hackles.

The Divide and Rule Policy started by the British about 300 years ago still lingers , currently being fueled by the politicians who have no idea of our Past History and our traditions.

Having written about the early histories of Tamil in detail and a couple of Posts on the antiquity of Kannada,I would like to tread carefully, though evidence is available on these subjects.

When I take up the ancient history of the other areas, bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Central India, there might me surprises in store.

I will be refrained in my choice of description as my site might be used to wrangle over which langauge or Kings were  more ancient.

The purpose of my Blog is to bring out the history and achievements of Sanatana Dharma, which has been distorted and misinformation had been spread about it.

By writing on the subjects I have mentioned here, I might be sidetracked.

One thing is certain.

We have a hoary past with Sanskrit and Sanatana Dharma as the Pillars.

Other languages like Tamil, Kannada have a hand in it, not to forget Telugu,the Godavari Valley has a rich ,ancient History.

While much evidence has been found on Tamil, about its antiquity relatively it is less in the other languages.

Another point is that the Tamil Kingdom was located in Lemuria.

They seem to have developed a culture on their own, they were also followers of Sanatana Dharma.

History of Karanataka and Tamil are gleaned only from respective literaray works of these languages.

For Karnataka, the past before Chandra Gupta Maurya is hazy, while Tamil has literary references in the form of Sangam literature.

Karnataka was not called as such, thanks to linguistic division of states, and it was under the Mauryan Empire.

And Chanra Gupra Mauraya breathed his last near Sravanabelagola in 230 BC.

However after the death of Chandra Gupta, Karnataka resisted the Mauryan domination.

The Tamils were allies of Chandra Gupta .

The Sathavahanas , the first recorded Dynasty,rose after Chandra Gupta.

Interesting point is that the Sathavahanas were ruling from Amravathi, , AP, now Capital of Andhra!

‘The Sātavāhana Empire was an Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar(Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra.The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE. The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of the Mauryan Empire.’

The Sātavāhanas were vassals to the Mauryan dynasty until the decline of the latter. They are known for their patronage ofHinduism. The Sātavāhanas were early issuers of Indian state coinage struck with images of their rulers. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the southern tip of India.

They had to compete with the Shungas and then the Kanvas of Magadha to establish their rule. Later, they played a crucial role to protect a huge part of India against foreign invaders like the Sakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas. In particular their struggles with theWestern Kshatrapas went on for a long time. The great rulers of the Satavahana Dynasty Gautamiputra Satakarni and Sri Yajna Sātakarni were able to defeat the foreign invaders like the Western Kshatrapas and stop their expansion. In the 3rd century CE the empire was split into smaller states. According to ancient Sangam literature the Satavahana rulers were allied with the Tamilrulers of the Chera dynasty, Chola dynasty and Pandyan Dynasty to defeat the foreign invaders like the Scythians…

‘The name Karnataka is derived from “Karunadu” which means Loftyland (High plateau), derived from the community’s location on the Deccan Plain. The name can also mean “Land of black soil” (Kari – Black; Nadu – Area or Region) in Kannada. The history of Karnataka goes back to epics “Ramayana” and “Mahabharatha”. The capital of “vaali” and “Sugriva” of the epic, Ramayana, is said to be Hampi. Karnataka finds its mention in Mahabharatha in the form of “Karnata Desha”. In olden times the region was also called “Kuntala Rajya”.[1] Karnataka was also part of the Dakshinapatha (southern region) which finds its mention in many Indian epics. Vatapi, associated with sage Agastya is obviously Badami in Bijapur district.[2] Karnataka is situated on the western edge of theDeccan plateau and has for its neighbours Maharashtra and Goa on the north, Andhra Pradesh on east, Tamil Nadu and Kerala on the south. On the west it opens out on the Arabian sea.’

In the case of Tamils, Tamil Kings were referred to during the Damayanthi Swayamvara, Sita and Draupadi Swayamvara apart from the fact that Lord Krishna married  Pandyan Princess, had a daughter Pandiah, Parashuarama, Arjuna and Sahadeva had been visiting Tamil areas.

Lord Krishna was an attendee to the Tamil Sangam.

Please refer my post on these subjects.

‘The Pandyas were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties (Chola and Chera being the other two) who ruled the Tamil country from pre-historic times until the end of the 15th century. They ruled initially from Korkai, a sea port on the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. Pandyas are mentioned inSangam Literature (c. 100 – 200 CE) as well as by Greek and Roman sources during this period.

Archeological finds.

A Million year old site belonging to advanced Tamil Civilization has been found in Chennai.

We also have a ver ancient site belonging to Prehistoric times in Karnataka.

And we have the Tamil Brahmi script found in Harappa. and Indus Valley.

 

‘Kaar Nadu means…Kaar, in Tamil, means regions rich with rainfall collecting mountains and associated regions and Nadu means country…Tamil word is used to refer a region with a particular geographic location…I have asked to my Kannada friends to find the meaning in Kannada language – they have few explanations which are vague for example, some Kannada language speakers think Kar (black) coloured soil region is referred as Kaarnataka – if that is true Karnataka should be less than 20% of the land it has now, because only 15% of the region has black soil in the pesent day state of Karnataka. In ancient Tamil kingdoms the land and the people were classified based on Geography that relate to their specific rich lifestyle and occupation. There are several ancient Tamil literature referring to Tulu naadu, kodagu nadu and kaaarnadu.
The discovery of a Neolithic stone celt, a hand-held axe, with the Indus script on it at Sembian-Kandiyur in Tamil Nadu is, according to Iravatham Mahadevan, “a major discovery because for the first time a text in the Indus script has been found in the State on a datable artefact, which is a polished neolithic celt.” He added: “This confirms that the Neolithic people of Tamil Nadu shared the same language family of the Harappan group, which can only be Dravidian. The discovery provides the first evidence that the Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Dravidian language.” Mr. Mahadevan, an eminent expert on the subject, estimated the date of the artefact with the Indus script between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C’

  • A broken storage jar with inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi script in Quseir-al-Qadim, (Leukos Limen) Egypt, 1st century BCE. Two earlier Tamil Brahmi inscription discoveries at the same site, 1st century CE.]The inscriped text is “பானை ஒறி” (paanai oRi) which means ‘pot suspended in a rope net’.
  • An inscribed amphora fragment in Tamil at the ancient PtolemicRoman settlement of Berenice Troglodytica, Egypt, 1st century BCE- 1st century CE.
  • Tamil-Brahmi inscription on pottery found in Phu Khao Thong,Thailand, 2nd century CE. Touchstone (uraikal) engraved in Tamil in the Tamil-Brahmi script at Khuan Luk Pat, 3rd-4th century CE.
  • Potsherds with Tamil Brahmi inscriptions found in Poonagari, Jaffna, 2nd century BCE.
  • Black and red ware potsherd with Tamil Brahmi inscriptions in Ucchapanai, Kandarodai, Jaffna, 3rd century BCE.
  • Tamil Brahmi inscriptions on a pot rim at Pattanam, central Kerala, 2nd century CE.
  • Four Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions, 3rd century CE, found on Edakal cave, Ambukuthi hill, Kerala. One contained the word ‘Chera’ (‘kadummipudha chera’), the earliest inscriptional evidence of the dynasty Chera.
  • Potsherd with Tamil-Brahmi script found in Oman. The script reads “nantai kiran” and it can be dated to the 1st century CE.
  • A fragment of black and red ware flat dish inscribed in Tamil in theTamil Brahmi script excavated at the earliest layer in southern eastern town of Tissamaharama in Sri Lanka. It is dated to approximately 200 BC by German scholars who undertook the excavation.
  • Tamil Brahmi script dating to 500 BC found at Kodumanal, Chennimalai near Erode
  • Tamil-Brahmi script dating to 500 BC found at Porunthal site is located 12 km South West of Palani
  • Tamil-Brahmi script found on Tirupparankundram hill, Madurai it read as “Muu-na-ka-ra” and “Muu-ca-ka-ti, 1st century BCE.
  • Fifth ‘hero’ stone found with Tamil Brahmi inscriptions at Porpanakkottai
  • Tamil-Brahmi script dating back to the 3rd century BCE near Thenur, Madurai. Script is written in gold bar.
  • Tamil-Brahmi script dated to the 3rd century AD found preserved in laterite in Karadukka in Kasaragod district, Kerala

Which is Old, Kannada or Tamil

Pre-old Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, theSatavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years.The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada.

A possibly more definite reference to Kannada is found in the ‘Charition mime’ of the 1st or 2nd century AD. The farce, written by an unknown author was discovered in the early 20th century at Oxyrynchus in Egypt. The play is concerned with a Greek lady named Charition who has been stranded on the coast of a country bordering the Indian Ocean. The king of this region, and his countrymen, sometimes use their own language, and the sentences they spoke include Koncha madhu patrakke haki (lit having poured a little wine into the cup separately) and paanam beretti katti madhuvam ber ettuvenu (lit having taken up the cup separately and having covered it, I shall take wine separately). The language employed in the papyrus indicates that the play is set in one of the numerous small ports on the western coast of India, between Karwar andMangalore’

  • 150,000-100,000 BCE – Evidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology in north Tamil Nadu.
  • c. 30,000 BCE-Paleolithic industries in north Tamil Nadu
  • c. 80003000 BCE-Pre-pottery microlithic industries
  • c. 30001000 BCE-Neolithic and fine microlithic industries

Pre-Sangam period

  • c. 1000300 BCE-Megalithic age
  • c. 600 BCE-Tamil-Brahmi prevalent as the Tamil script
  • c. 300 BCE- Greek ethnographer Megasthenes visits Pandyan capitol Madurai.,
  • c. 250 BCE-Asoka’s inscription recording the four kingdoms (Chera, Cholas, Pandya and Satyaputra) of the ancient Tamil country
  • c. 200 BCE-Elara, a Tamil prince and contemporary of Dutte Gamini, rules Lanka

Sangam age

  • c. 200 BCE-200 CE-Sangam age during which books of Sangam Literature are created
  • c. 150 BCE-Kharavela of Kalinga records his conquest of a federation of Tamil kings in his Hathigumpha inscription [10]
  • c. 13– Greek historian Nicolaus of Damascus met an ambassador sent by Pandyan King to Caesar Augustus, Strabo XV.1-73.
  • c. 1-100 – The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea gives a detailed description of early Chera and Pandya kingdom and mentions Tamil country as ‘Damirica’
  • c. 77 and 140 Greco-Roman writers Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy mention Madurai ruled by Pandyan.
  • Considering he vast stretches of time involved, it is difficult to determine which influenced the other, Tamil or Kannada,despite fanatics claiming one way or the other.

In my opinion,as I said to Bharathitheertha Swami of Sringeri Peeta, our Father Tongue is Sanskrit mother tongue based of geographical location and it is best we enjoy these languages and follow Sanatana Dharma.

Squabbles are for the Immature.

I am yet to study Telugu and Godavari Valley.

I am sure more surprises will be in store.

Citation.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satavahana_dynasty

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_South_India

https://www.quora.com/Which-is-the-oldest-language-between-Kannada-and-Tamil-What-is-the-proof

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kannada

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronology_of_Tamil_history

Veda Shakhas Brahmin Distribution Region wise


Vedas, the basic referral text of Hindus is a highly organized one.

There are four Vedas, Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Veda.

Each Veda has four divisions,

Samhitas or Hymns.

Texts of Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism.png Texts of Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism.

Brahmanas, Rituals.

Aranyakas, to be recited in the forest and

Upanishads, containing the highest Knowledge of Reality, Brahman.

Veda has  two sub divisions.

Shukla and Krishna Yajur.

These Hymns have Sukhthas in them which are in praise of  Deities and they are also explanation of Cosmology.

Some of them are also addressed to curing diseases .

These texts have been classified by Rishis.

Each Veda has many Branches. called Shakhas.

A shakha (Sanskrit śākhā, “branch” or “limb”), is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school.[3][4] An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a śākhin.[5] The term is also used in Hindu philosophy to refer to an adherent of a particular orthodox system.

A related term caraṇa, (“conduct of life” or “behavior”) is also used to refer to such a Vedic school:[7] “although the words caraṇa andśākhā are sometimes used synonymously, yet caraṇa properly applies to the sect or collection of persons united in one school, andśākhā to the traditional text followed, as in the phrase śākhām adhite, (“he recites a particular version of the Veda”)”.[4] The schools have different points of view, described as “difference of (Vedic) school” (śākhābhedaḥ). Each school would learn a specific VedicSaṃhita (one of the “four Vedas” properly so-called), as well as its associated Brahmana, Aranyakas, Shrautasutras, Grhyasutrasand Upanishads.

The traditional source of information on the shakhas of each Veda is the Caraṇa-vyūha, of which two, mostly similar, versions exist: the 49th pariśiṣṭa of the Atharvaveda, ascribed to Shaunaka, and the 5thpariśiṣṭa of the Śukla (White) Yajurveda, ascribed to Kātyāyana. These have lists of the numbers of recensions that were believed to have once existed as well as those still extant at the time the works were compiled. Only a small number of recensions have survived.

Rig Veda

Śaunaka‘s Caraṇa-vyuha lists five shakhas for the Rig Veda, the Śākala, Bāṣkala, Aśvalāyana, Śaṅkhāyana, and Māṇḍukāyana of which only the Śākala and Bāṣkala are now extant. The Bashkala recension of the Rigveda has the Khilani which are not present in the Shakala text but is preserved in one Kashmir manuscript (now at Pune). The Shakala has the Aitareya-Brahmana, The Bashkala has the Kausitaki-Brahmana.

There is, however, Sutra literature from the Aśvalāyana shakha, both a shrauta sutra and a grhya sutra, both surviving with a commentary (vrtti) by Gargya Naranaya. Gargya Naranaya’s commentary was based on the longer commentary or bhashya by Devasvamin, written in the 11th century.

Yajur Veda

Śaunaka‘s Caraṇa-vyuha lists forty-two or forty-four out of eighty-six shakhas for the Yajur Veda, but that only five of these are now extant, with a sixth partially extant. For the Yajur Veda the five (partially in six) shakhas are the (Vajasaneyi Madhandina, Kanva; Taittiriya, Maitrayani, Caraka-Katha, Kapisthala-Katha).

The Yajurvedin shakhas are divided in Shukla (White) and Krishna (Black) schools. The White recensions have separate Brahmanas, while the Black ones have their(much earlier) Brahmanas interspersed between the Mantras.

  • Shukla Yajurveda: Vājasaneyi Samhita Madhyandina (VSM), Vājasaneyi Samhita Kānva (VSK): Shatapatha Brahmana (ShBM, ShBK)
  • Krishna Yajurveda: Taittirīya Saṃhita (TS) with an additional Brahmana, Taittiriya Brahmana (TB), Maitrayani Saṃhita (MS), Caraka-Katha Saṃhita (KS), Kapiṣṭhala-Katha Saṃhita (KapS).
  • Citation.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakha#Krishna

for more on Vedas check my Posts by Googling Vedas ramanan50.

Shukla

Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Madhyandina (VSM) Currently recited by all over North Indian Brahmins and by Deshastha Brahmins Madhyandina Shatapatha (SBM) survives as Shatapatha XIV.1-8, with accents. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad= SBM XIV. 3-8, with accents, Ishavasya Upanishad = VSM 40
Kanva (VSK) Currently recited by Utkala Brahmins, Kannada Brahmins, Karhade Brahmins and few Iyers Kanva Shatapatha (SBK)(different from madhyandina) survives as book XVII of SBK Brihadaranyaka Upanishad=SBK,with accents, Ishavasya Upanishad = VSK 40
Katyayana

Krishna

Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Taittiriya TS,Present all over South India and in Konkan Taittiriya Brahmana (TB) and Vadhula Br. (part of Vadhula Srautrasutra) Taittiriya Aranyaka (TA) Taittiriya Upanishad (TU)
Maitrayani MS,Recited by few Brahmins in Nasik virtually same as the Upanishad Maitrayaniya Upanishad
Caraka-Katha Katha Aranyaka (almost the entire text from a solitary manuscript) Kathaka Upanishad, Katha-Shiksha Upanishad
Kapishthala KapS (fragmentary manuscript, only first sections accented), edited (without accents) by Raghu Vira.

Sama Veda

Śaunaka‘s Caraṇa-vyuha lists twelve shakhas for the Sama Veda out of a thousand that are said to have once existed, but that of these only one or perhaps two are still extant. The two Samaveda recensions are the Jaiminiya and Kauthuma.

The Kauthuma shakha has the PB, SadvB, the Jaiminiya shakha has the Jaiminiya Brahmana.

Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Kauthuma edited,Recited by all over North and in South India[citation needed] edited (8 Brahmanas in all), no accents None. The Samhita itself has the ‘Aranyaka’. Chandogya Upanishad
Ranayaniya Manuscripts of Samhita exist.Recited byGokarna[disambiguation needed],and Deshastha Brahmins[citation needed] Same as Kauthuma with minor differences. None. The Samhita itself has the ‘Aranyaka’. Same as Kauthuma.
Jaiminiya/Talavakara Samhita edited.Recited by Nambudiris and choliyal of Tamil nadu[citation needed] Two distinct styles of Saman recitation, partially recorded and published.[citation needed] Brahmana published (without accents) – Jaiminiya Brahmana, Arsheya Brahmana Tamil Nadu version of Talavakara Aranyaka (=Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana) published[citation needed] Kena Upanishad
Shatyayana

Atharva Veda

Only one shakha of an original nine is now extant for the Atharvaveda. The nine sakhas were Paippalada, Tauda, Mauda, Shaunakiya, Jajala, Jalada, Brahmavada, Devadarsa and Chaarana-Vaidya.

The Shaunaka is the only shakha of the Atharvaveda for which both printed texts and an active oral tradition are known to still exist.

For the Atharvaveda, both the Shaunakiya and the Paippalada traditions contain textual corruptions, and the original text of the Atharvaveda may only be approximated from comparison between the two.

Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Shaunaka AVS, edited and recited by all over North India and South India Fragmentary Gopatha Brahmana (extant and published), no accents. Mundaka Upanishad (?) published.
Paippalada AVP; recited by Utkala Brahmins as samhita patha only. otherwise, two manuscripts survive: Kashmiri (mostly edited) and Oriya (partly edited, by Dipak Bhattacharya and others, unaccented) lost,similar to that of Gopatha Brahmana Prashna Upanishad, Sharabha Upanishad etc. – all edited.[citation needed]

Nataraja Chidambaram Represents Orion Super Nova Explosion 1054 AD


The details that have been taken into account to construct a Temple in India of the olden days is amazing.

These details reveal not only the depth of Devotin to the Deity/ies,but also the deep knowledge they had of the universe and its principles.

Lord Nataraja.jpeg
Lord Nataraja.

The designs of these temples are narrated in the Agama sastra.

Please refer my Posts on this.

The Building of the halls, breaking them up into Praharas(outer Corridor),Mandapas(halls),Artha Mandapas( halls of half the measurement of the Mantapas),Pillared Halls, Sabha Mantapas and the Sanctum, Garbha Gruha…..

all these follow either geological or magnetic , electromagnetic, astronomical principles or all of these put together.

I shall be writing on these aspects of some great temples of India.

I shall start with the Thillai Natarja temple, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.

More than the well-known Temples, it is the less known temples which have astounding characteristics.

I have written on some of these.

For the present Let me concentrate on Nataraja, Chidambaram.

Nataraja,a form of Shiva, temple in Chidambaram is one of the Pancha Bhutha Sthalas(,Earth, Water, Fire,Air and Ether)

representing the Ether.

There is Empty Space in the enclosure adjacent to Nataraja idol in the temple.

Aarthi is performed to this Space after an Aarthi is offered to Nataraja.

This empty Space reflects the Abstract principle Brahman, the Reality.

Researches  have been conducted on this temple on various aspects, its construction, Roof, Pillars, Magnetic Radiation,

Natarja’s Big Toe is presumed to represent the center of the universe.

It is also stated that Lord Nataraja ‘s big toe is the Centre Point of World ‘s Magnetic Equator.

Chidambaram ,Kanchipuram and Sri Kalahasti lie in a straight line at 79* 41 East Longitude.

Curious as these happen to be among the Panchabhuta Sthalas, Places of Five Elements, Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether.

The temple for water is in Thiruvanaikaval, fire is inThiruvannamalai , air is in Kalahasti ,  earth is  in  Kanchipuram  and The temple for space/sky is in Chidambaram.

Earth is nestled between Sky/Ether/Space, Aakasa( Chidambaram) and Air,Vayu(Kalahasti).

Earth is surrounded by Space and Air.

Ans Vishnu’s Nabhi, Navel of Vishnu has been validated as the  Center of Our Galaxy.

Read here.

The Southern Cross and Canopus tally with Trishanku Swarga and Agasthya Star respectively.

Hence I did not want to dismiss the point that Chidambaram being the Centre of earth’s /universe’s Magnetic field.”

Research into the Idol of Lord Nataraja  scholars indicate and confirm that the Idll’s design represents the Crab super Nova Explosion of 1054 AD!

‘Although the Nataraja metal icon with right leg extended was regarded as a tenth century Chola innovation, this study suggested that two fine Nataraja bronzes previously classified as Chola better fitted the metallurgical profile of Pallava bronzes of about 800 AD (Srinivasan 2001, 2004). The likely worship of Nataraja by the Pallava period at Chidambaram with ideas of cosmic creation and destruction is suggested in Manikkavachakar’s Tiruvachakam, which says, ‘Let us praise the Dancer (kuttan) who in good Tillai’s hall dances with fire, who sports (vilaiyatu), creating, destroying, this heaven and earth and all else’ [Dehejia (2002: 103)]. For me, it has been rather lovely and apt, that what had not really been discerned by conventional art history had been revealed through the dance of science and its patterns of elemental and isotopic particles. …

There seem to be astronomical connotations to the rituals associated with Nataraja worship at the Chidambaram temple. Arudra/Ardra darisanam is a ten-day annual festival in December related to the moon being full in the lunar asterism of the naksatra ardra (the reddish star Betelguese or Alpha Orionis), associated with the wrathful aspect of Siva. The constellation of Orion and surrounding stars is bathed in the soft glow of the full moon when it is high in the sky at Chidambaram. A thousand years ago, devoid of the present smog and light flares, the stars must have been even brighter in the tropical night sky.

Another annual festival at Chidambaram, the Brahmotsavam of Ani Thirumanjanam, which is related to the lunar asterism of Uttara Nakshatra around June-July, seems to have begun in the mid-eleventh century from inscription. The Indian zodiac of 360 degrees is divided into 27 parts based on the moon’s sidereal period such that a nakshatra denotes the longitudinal position of the moon within 13 degrees 20 minutes. Thus, by using astronomical software, Dr. Raghavan could ascertain that in 1054 AD the moon would have been full in Uttara Nakshatra on 11 July. This is uncannily close to the date that Chinese astronomers recorded the crab supernova explosion of 4 July! Although this is a preliminary finding, it could suggest a perceived metaphoric link between an observed cosmic phenomenon and notions of cosmic dance.

Indeed, a drawing from a Tamil manuscript sourced by Raja Deekshitar of Chidambaram shows how the Nataraja icon itself was probably traditionally visualized within the stars around Orion. In an exciting collaborative study with Dr. Raghavan, we took some photographs of Nataraja images dated from archaeometallurgical fingerprinting and plotted star charts for the constellation Orion of that corresponding era onto them. As reported in Orientations (Srinivasan, 2006), the star positions were found to a fair extent to correlate with iconometric design as noted in an image in the British Museum attributed from archaeometallurgical fingerprinting to the Pallava period (c. 800 AD). Moreover, the star chart for 1054 AD fitted well the iconometric design of a Nataraja image from Kankoduvanitham archaeometallurgically fingerprinted to the mid-eleventh century AD. Here, the hypothetical position of the crab supernova which exploded in 1054 AD lies near the top left of the head, close to the crescent moon. Chinese records suggest that the crab supernova came into view with a morning crescent moon near it and was visible for 23 days, being four times as bright as Venus. Even American Indians are believed to have made cave paintings of a supernova with a crescent moon. Could it be that the iconometric design of this icon had indeed taken into account the observation of
the supernova explosion?

Crab Nebula Explosin 1054 AD.jpg Crab Nebula Explosin 1054 AD

At any rate, the above studies suggest scope for further investigation into the history of astronomy. No less than celebrated astronomer Carl Sagan suggested that the Nataraja imagery conveyed ‘a premonition of modern astronomical ideas’

Citation.

http://www.narthaki.com/info/articles/art217.html