Konarak Sun Temple Built By Kulothunga Chola I Descendant


The inmate  relationship between Sanatana Dharma and Tamils is striking.

One has been misled into believing that The Tamils had ancestry that was inimical to Hinduism, Sanatana Dharma.

How wrong could this be!,

I have written through  many articles including the one that Lord Rama’s ancestor was a Dravidian and he migrated to Ayodhya due a Tsunami in the South of India.

The ancestry of the two Tamil Dynasties goes back to Solar and Lunar Dynasties, That of Rama and Kauravas.

Please read my articles on this.

Sun Temple,Konarak.Image.jpg
Sun Temple,Konarak,Odisha,India. Image credit.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konark_Sun_Temple#/media/File:Konark_Temple_Panorama2.jpg
Konarak Su Dial.Image.jpg
Koanarak SunDial. The wheels of the chariot are also symbolic and have been interpreted as the ‘Wheel of Life’. They portray the cycle of creation, preservation and achievement of realisation. The diameter of each of the wheels is about nine(2.73 metres) feet and each of them has a set eight equal parts. They are elaborately carved all over. The thicker ones are all carved with circular medallions at their centres on the widest part of the face. The axels of the wheels project by about one foot from the surface, having similar decorations at their ends. The rims are carved with designs of foliages with various birds and animals, whereas the medallions in the spokes are carved with the figures of women in various luxurious poses, mostly of erotic nature. These wheels may also possibly represent the twelve Zodiacs. (src: shreekhetra) – See more at: http://eodisha.org/amazing-odisha-accuracy-sundial-konark-sun-temple-built-1250-d-people-still-use-today-time-konark-sundial-suntemple-india/#sthash.YVHmT0Wb.dpuf

I am researching on the third Tamil King Dynasty, the Cheras and shall write shortly.

The Tamil Kings, Cholas and Pandyas were great Devotees of Shiva, Vishnu and Karthikeya, called as Murugan in Tamil Nadu.

A Chola King had built 101 Shiva Temples along the banks of River Kaveri.

The Big Temple at Thanjavur ,an architectural marvel was built by Rajaraja Chozhan

The special type of Vimanas of the temples in India is the contribution og the Tamils to Sanatana Dharma.

One of the great Temples of India, The Sun Temple at Konarak was built by a descendant of Kulothunga Chola I.

“Kulothunga Chola I was the grandson of Emperor Rajendra Chola I .As a Chola prince he conquered the Sri Vijaya provinceKedah on behalf of his maternal uncle Emperor Virarajendra Chola in the 11th century. As a Chola Prince he also conqueredBastar in modern Chhattisgarh

Scroll down for Konarak Video

Konark Sun Temple was built in Orissa by Chola prince who was daughter of Rajaraja and wife of Vimaladitya.

The Melakkadambur Shiva temple, built in the form of a chariot during the age of Kulottunga Chola I (1075-1120), is the earliest of this kind, and is still in a well preserved state. It is believed that this temple set the pace for the ratha (chariot) vimana temples in India, as a distant descendant of Kulottunga I on the female line, and thefamous Eastern Ganga ruler Narasimha Deva, built the Sun Temple at Konark in the form of a chariot in the 13th century. Kulottunga Chola is also credited with having built the Suryanaar temple near Kumbhakonam. Temples dedicated to the Sun are not a common feature in the Tamil speaking region of the Indian subcontinent..

Legend has it that Samba, the king of Krishna and Jambavati entered the bathing chamber of Krishna’s wifes, and was cursed by Krishna with leprosy. It was decreed that he would be relieved of the curse by worshipping the sun God on the sea coast north east of Puri. Accordingly Samba reached Konaditya Kshetra and discovered an image of Surya seated on the lotus, worshipped him and was relieved of his curse.

It is said that the temple was not completed as conceived because the foundation was not strong enough to bear the weight of the heavy dome. Local beleif has it that it was constructed in entirety, however its magnetic dome caused ships to crash near the seashore, and that the dome was removed and destroyed and that the image of the Sun God was taken to Puri.

The Temple: The Konark temple is widely known not only for its architectural grandeur but also for the intricacy and profusion of sculptural work. The entire temple has been conceived as a chariot of the sun god with 24 wheels, each about 10 feet in diameter, with a set of spokes and elaborate carvings. Seven horses drag the temple. Two lions guard the entrance, crushing elephants. A flight of steps lead to the main entrance.

The nata mandir in front of the Jagamohana is also intricately carved.  Around the base of the temple, and up the walls and roof, are carvings in the erotic style.  There are images of animals, foliage, men, warriors on horses and other interesting patterns. There are three images of the Sun God, positioned to catch the rays of the sun at dawn, noon and sunset.

The Melakkadambur Shiva temple, built in the form of a chariot during  the age of Kulottunga Chola I (1075-1120),  is the earliest of this kind, and is still in a well preserved state.  It is believed that this temple set the pace for the ratha (chariot) vimana temples in India, as a distant descendant of Kulottunga I on the female line, and thefamous Eastern Ganga ruler Narasimha Deva, built the Sun Temple at Konark in the form of a chariot in the 13th century. Kulottunga Chola is also credited with having built the Suryanaar temple near Kumbhakonam. Temples dedicated to the Sun are not a common feature in the Tamil speaking region of the Indian

The Konarak temple.

Konark is also known as Konaditya. The name Konark is derived form the words Kona – Corner and Arka – Sun; it is situated on the north eastern corner of Puri or the Chakrakshetra. Konark is also known as Arkakshetra.

The entire temple is made in the form of a chariot, which symbolizes the carrier of the Sun God. This chariot comprises of 12 magnificent wheels and is drawn by seven fine horses.

At the entrance of the temple, there are two huge sculptures that show two lions, which are crushing a huge elephant. The Konark Sun Temple, India, also includes a temple known as the Nata Mandir. There are exemplary floral and geometric carvings that adorn the precincts of the Konark Sun Temple, India. The temple continues to amaze the tourists who visit the temple each year. This temple, which worships the Sun God, has been appropriately designed to match the power and aura of the Sun.

The ruins of this temple were excavated in late 19th century. The tower over the Garbagriha is missing, however the Jagmohana is intact.

Citation.

http://veda.wikidot.com/info:konarak-sun-temple

http://eodisha.org/amazing-odisha-accuracy-sundial-konark-sun-temple-built-1250-d-people-still-use-today-time-konark-sundial-suntemple-india/

Tamils Ancestors Of Chinese,Shiva Chief God


I have written that the Chinese are reported to have descended from the son of Pururava.

Shiva Linga, Ganesha Worship in China.Image.jpg
Shiva Linga, Ganesha Worship in China.

Mahabharata refers to this.

The word/race of Chins as rulers of eastern and northern kingdoms is mentioned in Mahabharata too (composed around 3100 BCE).
Cinas of yellow color, are said to ‘look like a forest of Karnikaras”.
In the Arthashashtra of Chanakya, China is mentioned as well. It is theorized that the name China is based upon the name of the kingdom, Ch’in, which was established by Shih Huang Ti in year 221 BC.
However, the name China comes from an ancient Sanskrit name for “the regions to the East”.
The Chin Indians did not only name a great country but also created the Chinese nation.

Regardless of the origins of the Chinese, the evidence reveals that ancient Chinese culture was Vedic in nature.’

Chinese origins may be traced to two tribes .

One from Kashmir.

And another is from South India,what is now called as Tamil Nadu.

Shiva Nandi Carving in China.Image.jpg
Shiva Nandi Carving in China.

The original Chin race of India dwelling in Kashmir, and several parts of South India colonized Shensi, a province of Central China and subsequently subjugated all other petty kingdoms and thus became the emperors of perhaps the one of the largest empires of the world.
The name China and the Chinese were after the Chins of India and hence the scholars are unanimous about the Indian origin of the name of China.

A Chinese source states that in 720 AD the Pallava King Narasimhavarman II constructed a temple (in Tamil Nadu, India) on account of the empire of China, and another text cites the existence of three Hindu temples in southern China where ‘Brahmans’ resided during the 8th century.

Shiva Carving in Quanzhou .Image.jpg
Shiva Carving in Quanzhou .

The temple in Quanzhou is now in ruins, but over 300 carvings are still within the city.
Many are currently on display in the Quanzhou museum, and some have become a part of Buddhist temple—Kaiyuan Temple.Behind its main hall “Mahavira Hall”, there are some columns decorated by some Hinduism carvings. The carvings are dispersed across five primary sites in Quanzhou and the neighboring areas.
They were made in the South Indian style, and share close similarities with 13th-century temples constructed in the Kaveri Delta region in Tamil Nadu.
Nearly all the carvings were carved with greenish-gray granite, which was widely available in the nearby hills and used in the region’s local architecture.
Poorly written/formatted tamil wordings on these carvings prove that those were done by a non-native tamilian in China.

“First, I would like to make it clear that the probable language of the Kushana was Tamil. According to Dravidian literature, the Kushana were called Kosars=Yakshas=Yueh chih/ Kushana. This literature maintains that when they entered India they either already spoke Tamil, or adopted the language upon settlement in India.

The Kushana and the Yueh chih were one and the same. In addition to
North Indian documents the Kushana-Yueh chih association are also
discussed in Dravidian literature. V Kanakasabhai, The Tamils Eighteen
hundred years ago, note that in the Sanskrit literature the Yueh chih were called Yakshas, Pali chroniclers called them Yakkos and Kosars< Kushana.”

They allegedely arrived in India during the 2nd century BC. He makes it clear that the Yueh chih/ Kushana as noted on their coins worshipped Siva as seen on the coins of Kanishka. This is why we have a coin of a Kushana king from Taxila, dated to AD 76 that declares that the king was maharaja rajatiraja devaputra Kushana “Great King, King of kings, Son of God, the Kushana”.

Vedic Presence in China.

The Vedic tradition has undoubtedly been best preserved in India yet the universality of Vedic culture is such that none can claim to be the sole inheritors or originators of the Vedic traditions.
These traditions are part of the basic fabric of nature and the universe and can be accessed by anyone anywhere at any time.

The same ‘eternal’ vedic tradition known as Santana Dharma is at the very core of Chinese civilization.
For example, Imperial Tang dynasty (618–907 AD) used the Hindu/Vedic calendar a long side with the Chinese calendar.
Amongst the Gods, the Lord of Death and the Underworld known in Vedas as Yama is called ‘Yanmo Wang’ within the Chinese tradition.

Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang (ruled 712–56) called upon the Indian monk Vajrabodhi (671–741) to perform ‘Tantric’ rites to avert a drought in the year 726 AD.
In the Fujiyan province, in the Xinmen area of Quanzhou, there are the remains of a Siva Temple.
It still has a Siva lingam over five meters tall.
An ancient stone that still stands today; it has been widely identified as a Siva Linga.
Chinese records reveal that it was cut in half in the year 1011 AD and then rebuilt in the 1400s.
Even as late as 1950, childless mothers would go to it to invoke the blessings of the deity for motherhood.

In Hsuan-wu, Lo-yang district there is a pillar with Sanskrit writings from top to bottom and right to left. Besides Buddhism, Saivism was also popular in Yunan as is manifest from the prevalence of the cult of Mahakala there.
This ancient Indian colony in the south of China was a strong link in the Sino-Indian cultural relationship.

Shiva Temple may have already been in existence, which is highly likely, and it is only the Deity of Lord Shiva that was new.
Shiva temple had originally been built in 685 AD during the Tang Dynasty but was rebuilt by the Tamil Hindu community in the city in the late 13th century who dedicated it to Lord Siva.
There is direct evidence of that there were indeed Hindu temples in China as early as the 6th century AD.

Citation.

http://booksfact.com/religions/siva-worshipped-in-ancient-china.html

http://bafsudralam.blogspot.in/2010_12_01_archive.html

Poompuhar Find Sets Tamil,Hinduism By Atleast 20000 Years


Recently I wrote an article stating that 11000 Years Old Tamil Port Poompuhar confirms Manu Migration.

Reaction to this post has been amazing and I have been asked to elaborate further as this is a very serious issue concerning the Dates of Tamil and Sanatana Dharma.

Poompuhar remains underwater.jpg.
Poompuhar remains underwater.

I am normally regarded as being Parochial to Hinduism Sanatana Dharma and called as one who is against Tamil.

I am neither,I simply produce evidence as they are.

The Tamil sites who have been calling me names have now been sending mails to me requesting to publish more articles on the antiquity of Tamil!

This after my recent articles on Tamil and Sanskrit.

Well I shall continue to write facts as they are available, relying more on Indian Literature ,Epigraphy, Linguistics rather than some big fancy Names of self-styled Indologists.

Now on the find of the material being dated 11000 Years  sets the Tamil History and the Sanatana Dharma back at least by 20,000 years.

But the Tamil Sangams are dated at

 

“that the first two of which were held in cities since “taken by the sea”, and the third of which was held during the 5th century BC in the present-day city of Madurai.'(wiki).

Silappadikaram  has been dated to likely belong to the beginning of Common era.

The incidence of Kovalan Madhavi and Kannagi took place in the same period as the poet who wrote the Tamil Epic was the brother of the Chera King Cheran Senguttuvan.

However the recent finding placed these dates to 11000 years back!

So it is logical to arrive at the conclusion that the Silappadikaram Town was in existence around 11000 CE and for a rich language as Tamil to develop, from a dialect, colloquial form and then to literary ,it requires  minimum  5000 Years.

And Tamil quotes Ithihasas ,Ramayana and Mahabharata and the Vedas.

That should place these Ithihasas earlier .

Hence based on this evidence available now, Tamil should be at least 16000 years old and the Sanskrit Puranas earlier.

Please read my Post Million Year Old Tamil quotes Vedas and they quote Tamil.

But we are assigning Tamil Sangam at 5 BC and Rig veda at 5000 BC!

Sundaland Image.bmp
Sundaland.

 

 

 

The date of Poompuhar artifact was arrived at and verified by  Glenn Milne Sea Level changes.

The place is called Poompuhar. It lies on southeast India’s Coromandel coast facing the Bay of Bengal between modern Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. Its immediate offshore area has been the subject of marine archaeological investigations by India’s National Institute of Oceanography since the 1980’s — and numerous non-controversial finds of man-made structures dated between the third century AD and the third century BC have been made in the “inter-tidal zone” close to shore at depths down to 6 feet (approximately 2 metres).

These finds of structures in shallow water (some so shallow that they are exposed at low tide) have been quite widely written-up in the archaeological literature. But for some reason other discoveries that the NIO has made in deeper water off Poompuhar have attracted no attention at all. Most notably these other discoveries include a second completely separate group of structures fully three miles from the Poompuhar shore in water that is more than 70 feet (23 metres) deep. The lack of interest is surprising because to anyone with even minimal knowledge of post-glacial sea-level rise their depth of submergence is – or should be – highly anomalous. Indeed according to Glenn Milne’s sea-level data the land on which these structures were built last stood above water at the end of the Ice Age more than 11,000 years ago.

Is it a coincidence that there are ancient Tamil flood myths that speak of a great kingdom that once existed in this area called Kumari Kandam that was swallowed up by the sea? Amazingly the myths put a date of 11,600 years ago on these events — the same timeframe given by Plato for the end of Atlantis in another ocean.

Like the cities in the Gulf of Cambay the underwater structures three miles offshore of Poompuhar were first identified by an instrument called sidescan sonar that profiles the seabed. One structure in particular was singled out for investigation and was explored by divers from India’s National Institute of Oceanography in 1991 and 1993. Although they were not at that time aware of the implications of its depth of submergence — i.e. that it is at least 11,500 years old — the 1991 study confirms that it is man-made and describes it as:

a horse-shoe-shaped object, its height being one to two metres. A few stone blocks were found in the one-metre wide arm. The distance between the two arms in 20 metres. Whether the object is a shrine or some other man-made structure now at 23 metres [70 feet] depth remains to be examined in the next field season.

The 1993 study refines the measurements:

The structure of U-shape was located at a water depth of 23 metres which is about 5 kilometres off shore. The total peripheral length of the object is 85 metres while the distance between the two arms is 13 metres and the maximum height is 2 metres Divers observed growth of thick marine organism on the structure, but in some sections a few courses of masonry were noted.

Graham Hancock is an advocate of this theory and I subscribe to this as this has more science to back it up.

 

The Glenn Milne Theory of Sea Level Change places a landmass Sundaland.

 

Sundaland was a cluster of islands in South consisted of Malay peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo and other surrounding areas.

The recent developments in sea level research done by Glenn Milne and Graham Hancock have shown that these islands were not islands but were connected as a huge land mass some 22,000 years ago.

‘The sea level was lower than now by approximately 150 meters thereby offering a good expanse of land for mankind to thrive. This region is a centre of attraction for researchers because this is the “closest area” for early man from east Africa who moved out eastward around one lakh years ago…

 

Exposed Land Mass of Sundaland.image.png
Exposed Land Mass of Sundaland

The light shades around the continents show the extent of exposed landmass at an earlier time when sea level was low due to Ice Age. The red circle shows the ‘Sundaland’ which now looks fractured into islands. The migration of man as revealed in genetic studies show that mankind stayed on for thousands of years  somewhere in the Indian Ocean. Currently Indian Ocean, south off India shows no sign of landmass. But with the discovery of Sundaland, there is increased interest in finding out whether it offered habitation for early man.

How this Landmass was destroyed,By A Volcano.

A New study provides “incontrovertible evidence” that the volcanic super-eruption of Toba on the island of Sumatra about 73,000 years ago deforested much of central India, some 3,000 miles from the epicenter, researchers report.a The volcano ejected an estimated 800 cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere, leaving a crater (now the world’s largest volcanic lake) that is 100 kilometers long and 35 kilometers wide. Ash from the event has been found in India, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea.

Citations.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091123142739.htm

http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.in/2011/11/sundaland-was-location-of-tripura.html

http://www.grahamhancock.com/archive/underworld/underworld1.php?p=4

 

Tamil Kings In Mahabharata


Tamil and Sanatana Dharma are so intermingled that one finds numerous references to The Tamils and  Tamil Kings in the Rig Veda, Ramayana, Mahabharata and other Puranas.

Ramayana mahabharata Dynasty Chart. image.png
Ramayana Mahabhrata Dynastie. Click to Enlarge.

I have written quite a few articles on this.

The Chola Kings trace their ancestry to the Solar Dynasty.

Chera King Udiyan Cheralaathan fed both the Kaurava and Pandya armies.

Krishna killed a Pandyan King(5:48)

Chera and Chola Kings were defeated by Krishna (7:11)

King Sarangathdwaja wanted to attack Dwaraka to avenge his father’s Death, the Pandya King,  after obtaining weapons from Bhisma, Drona, Balarama and Kripa.

However wiser counsel prevailed and he dropped the idea.

Later he fought alongside the side of the Pandavas against Drona(7:23).

He was rate as an Athiratha by Bhishma( (5,172)

When the mighty Pandya, that foremost of all wielder of weapons, has been slain in battle by the Pandavas, what can it be but destiny?(9:2)

Pandya, who dwelt on the coast-land near the sea, came accompanied by troops of various kinds to Yudhishthira, the king of kings (5:19). There hath come Pandya. Remarkably heroic and endued with prowess and energy that have no parallel, he is devoted to the Pandava cause. (5:22).

Pandya was  in the Rajasuya ceremony of Pandava King Yudhisthira.

 

The Kings of Chera and Pandya, brought numberless jars of gold filled with fragrant sandal juice from the hills of Malaya, and loads of sandal and aloe wood from the Dardduras hills, and many gems of great brilliancy and fine cloths inlaid with gold.

Singhalas gave those best of sea-born gems called the lapis lazuli, and heaps of pearls also, and hundreds of coverlets for elephants (2:51).(2:36,43).

Draupadi Swayamvara.

Pandya King took part in the  event Panchala princess Draupadi’s Swayamvara (MBh 1:189)

 

 

 

Shiva Family Member Pandya King 3 BC Led Elephants Mahabharata


The study of the epigraph found in Tamil Nadu give out a mine of information , not only of the Tamil Kings,Tamil Culture, but of the Sanatana dharma itself.

One of the oldest epigraphy found at Chinnamanur, Tamil Nadu , the epigraph speak of the deeds of the early Pandya Kings.

These Kings ruled between thrid Century BC to 1345.

They refer to the Pandyan Kings s having descended from the Lunar Dynasty.

Chinnamanur epigraph.jpg
Chinnamanur Pplates, Tamil Nadu speaks of Tamil kings and Sanatana Dharma.

* The image states , in Tamil, that the Pandya Kings /Poets conclave Tamil Sangam had established a separate shrine for the Poets in Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple and the Mahabharata was translated in Tamil

They had two fishes as their emblem.

Of fighting with Indra,

Sage Agastya as their family Preceptor.

Lord Shiva ss their Family member,

Defeating Arjuna,

These copper plates are in two languages.

A Portion in Grantha Sanskrit and another Tamil’s earlier form Vattezuthu.

Brahmi script is also found.

‘These are two of the four sets of Pandya copper plate grants discovered so far and are herein published for the first time.  The Velvikudi grant of Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan has been edited by me in the Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XVII, pp. 291 to 309 and the Madras Museum Plates of Jatilavarman, by the late Rai Bahadur V. Venkayya in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXII, pp. 57 to 75.  These four, studied together, furnish a genealogy of the Pandyas from the early king Kadungon, who is said to have flourished at the close of the first Sangam of Tamil poets, down to Rajasimha-Pandya the contemporary of the Chola king Parantaka I, who reigned at the commencement of the 10th century A.D.

One of the Pandya kings is said to have occupied the throne of Indra (v. 4) and another to have shared it with that god, and still another, to have caused the Ten-Headed (i.e., Ravana of Lanka) to sue for peace (v. 5).  One was a conqueror of the epic hero Arjuna (v. 7).  Verse 8 refers to a king who cut off his own head in order to protect that of his master and also to a certain Sundara-Pandya who had mastered all the sciences.  Many kings of this family had performed Vedic sacrifices Rajasuya andAsvamedha (v. 9)….

The Tamil portion which begins with line 76 also praises the Pandya kings who belonged to the lunar race and bore the crest of the double fish, had Agastya as their family preceptor and counted the god (Siva) as one of the their family members.

Other deeds.

(1) churning the ocean for nectar ;

(2) bathing in the waters of the four oceans in a single day ;

(3) going round the earth ;

(4) sending embassy to the gods on many occasions;

(5) taking away the necklace of Pakasasana (Indra) ;

(6) mastering the Tamil language of the south ;

(7) driving away the sea by throwing a javelin ;

(8) giving a thousand golden hills (Meru) in charity ;

(9) founding the town of Madura and erecting a wall round it ;

(10) studying Tamil and Sanskrit (vada-moli) as even to excel Pandits ;

(11) leading elephants in the Bharata war against the Maharathas ;

(12) relieving Vijaya (Arjuna) from the curse of vasu ;..

13) engraving the victorious symbols of the fish, the tiger, and the bow on the top of the Northern mountain, i.e., the Himalayas ;

(14) getting huge giants to work for them in building many tanks ;

(15) cutting off the heads of two kings in the battles fought at Chitramayari and Talaiyalanganam ;

(16) getting the Mahabharata translated into Tamil ; and

(17) establishing the Tamil Sangam in the town of Madurai.

Reference.

http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/south_indian_inscriptions/volume_3/copper_plates_at_tirukkalar.html

The three Pandya kings Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan alias Kuvavan Maran, his son Ilangovadiyaraiyan alias Maran Paramesvaran, and his son Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan alias Suvaran Maran mentioned in the Sendalai pillar inscriptions of about the 8th century A.D. do not appear in this genealogy.  Theyevidently belonged to a subordinate branch of the family and were perhaps kings of the southern Tanjai country, ruling almost independently of the imperial Pandyas at Madras and sometimes fighting with them.  See Ep. Ind., Vol. XIII, pp. 136 and 137.

[2]  Spelt Chinnamanur in the Alphabetical list of villages  in the Madras Presidency.

[3]  Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 317 f.

[4]  See Ind. Ant., Vol. XXII, p. 59 and foot-note 4.

[5]  The Tamil portion gives many more of such attributes to the Pandya ancestors; see below p. 443.

[6]  Valmiki-Ramayana, Uttarakanda, chapter 34.

[7]  Valmiki-Ramayana, Uttarakanda, chapter 34.

[8]  Dr. Krishnaswami Ayyangar suggest, however, that Vilveli here may probably be synonymous with Pallava, since Tirumangai-alvar in his Periya-Tirumoli makes Villagan synonymous with Pallava.  But it must be noted that Vilveli is different from Villavan.

[9]  Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, pp.  298 and 295.