Kerala Caculus Precedes Western Calculus

I am trying to instill a sense of pride in our heritage by posting articles on various astounding facts in out texts, our stupendous Temples Astronomy.

It is for the specialists to delve deep into the Texts and reveal what they contain.

Unfortunately those who know Sanskrit are not generally aware of advanced modern Scientific Theories and those familiar with modern concepts do not know Sanskrit.

My request is that both the groups must get familiar with what they do not know or get together to highlight the highly advanced scientific nature of Hindu Thought.

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Before I write on what Kerala Calculus is, I feel it is necessary to remind us Indians of the fact that our continued ignorance, indifference reluctance to learn our highly scientific texts have resulted in the Myth of Aryan Invasion Theory by the Eurocentric colonialists gained currency and it has taken a lot of efforts to deny the theory which attempted to deny India its glorious past.

There are other insidious attempts too.

That the scientificancient texts are vague, they do not really talk about science and people use it, after the modern science discovers something,Indians say that the facts were mentioned in the Hindu Texts.

And another ingenious attempt to deny India its rich scientific heritage is by stating that the data referred to in the tests were not used by the ancient Indians !

The only way one can counter these arguments is for us to study the original texts and bring into light the scientific thoughts found in our Texts.

I am trying to instill a sense of pride in our heritage by posting articles on various astounding facts in out texts, our stupendous Temples Astronomy.

It is for the specialists to delve deep into the Texts and reveal what they contain.

Unfortunately those who know Sanskrit are not generally aware of advanced modern Scientific Theories and those familiar with modern concepts do not know Sanskrit.

My request is that both the groups must get familiar with what they do not know or get together to highlight the highly advanced scientific nature of Hindu Thought.

I shall continue to post articles giving general directions.

Now to Calculus.

Calculus is the mathematical study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. It has two major branches, differential calculus (concerning rates of change and slopes of curves),and integral calculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under and between curves); these two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Both branches make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a well-defined limit. Generally, modern calculus is considered to have been developed in the 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. Today, calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering and economics and can solve many problems that algebra alone cannot.

Calculus is a part of modern mathematics education. A course in calculus is a gateway to other, more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits, broadly called mathematical analysis. Calculus has historically been called “the calculus of infinitesimals”, or “infinitesimal calculus”. The word “calculus” comes from Latin (calculus) and refers to a small stone used for counting. More generally, calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus, calculus of variations, lambda calculus, and process calculus.”

The Kerala Calculus.

The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, India, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar. The school flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries and the original discoveries of the school seems to have ended with Narayana Bhattathiri (1559–1632). In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts. Their most important results—series expansion for trigonometric functions—were described in Sanskrit verse in a book by Neelakanta called Tantrasangraha, and again in a commentary on this work, called Tantrasangraha-vakhya, of unknown authorship. The theorems were stated without proof, but proofs for the series for sine, cosine, and inverse tangent were provided a century later in the work Yuktibhasa (c. 1500 – c. 1610), written in Malayalam, by Jyesthadeva, and also in a commentary on Tantrasangraha.

Their work, completed two centuries before the invention of calculus in Europe, provided what is now considered the first example of a power series (apart from geometric series). However, they did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration, nor is there any direct evidence of their results being transmitted outside Kerala ..

 

The Kerala school has made a number of contributions to the fields of infinite series and calculus. These include the following (infinite) geometric series:

 \frac{1}{1-x} = 1 + x + x^2 + x^3 + \dots  for |x|<1

This formula, however, was already known in the work of the 10th century Iraqi mathematician Alhazen (the Latinized form of the name Ibn al-Haytham) (965-1039).[8]

The Kerala school made intuitive use of mathematical induction, though the inductive hypothesis was not yet formulated or employed in proofs. They used this to discover a semi-rigorous proof of the result:

1^p+ 2^p + \cdots + n^p \approx \frac{n^{p+1}}{p+1} for large n. This result was also known to Alhazen.

They applied ideas from (what was to become) differential and integral calculus to obtain (Taylor-Maclaurin) infinite series for \sin x, \cos x, and  \arctan x.TheTantrasangraha-vakhya gives the series in verse, which when translated to mathematical notation, can be written as:

r\arctan(\frac{y}{x}) = \frac{1}{1}\cdot\frac{ry}{x} -\frac{1}{3}\cdot\frac{ry^3}{x^3} + \frac{1}{5}\cdot\frac{ry^5}{x^5} - \cdots , where y/x \leq 1.
r\sin \frac{x}{r} = x - x\cdot\frac{x^2}{(2^2+2)r^2} + x\cdot \frac{x^2}{(2^2+2)r^2}\cdot\frac{x^2}{(4^2+4)r^2} - \cdot
 r(1 - \cos \frac{x}{r}) = r\cdot \frac{x^2}{(2^2-2)r^2} - r\cdot \frac{x^2}{(2^2-2)r^2}\cdot \frac{x^2}{(4^2-4)r^2} + \cdots , where, for  r = 1 , the series reduce to the standard power series for these trigonometric functions, for example:

\sin x = x - \frac{x^3}{3!} + \frac{x^5}{5!} - \frac{x^7}{7!} + \cdots and
\cos x = 1 - \frac{x^2}{2!} + \frac{x^4}{4!} - \frac{x^6}{6!} + \cdots (The Kerala school did not use the “factorial” symbolism.)

The Kerala school made use of the rectification (computation of length) of the arc of a circle to give a proof of these results. (The later method of Leibniz, using quadrature (i.e.computation of area under the arc of the circle), was not yet developed.) They also made use of the series expansion of \arctan x to obtain an infinite series expression (later known as Gregory series) for \pi:

\frac{\pi}{4} = 1 - \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{5} - \frac{1}{7} + \ldots

Their rational approximation of the error for the finite sum of their series are of particular interest. For example, the error, f_i(n+1), (for n odd, and i = 1, 2, 3) for the series:

\frac{\pi}{4} \approx 1 - \frac{1}{3}+ \frac{1}{5} - \cdots (-1)^{(n-1)/2}\frac{1}{n} + (-1)^{(n+1)/2}f_i(n+1)

where f_1(n) = \frac{1}{2n}, \ f_2(n) = \frac{n/2}{n^2+1}, \ f_3(n) = \frac{(n/2)^2+1}{(n^2+5)n/2}.
They manipulated the terms, using the partial fraction expansion of :\frac{1}{n^3-n} to obtain a more rapidly converging series for \pi:[1]

\frac{\pi}{4} = \frac{3}{4} + \frac{1}{3^3-3} - \frac{1}{5^3-5} + \frac{1}{7^3-7} - \cdots

They used the improved series to derive a rational expression, 104348/33215 for \pi correct up to nine decimal places, i.e. 3.141592653 . They made use of an intuitive notion of a limit to compute these results. The Kerala school mathematicians also gave a semi-rigorous method of differentiation of some trigonometric functions, though the notion of a function, or of exponential or logarithmic functions, was not yet formulated.

The works of the Kerala school were first written up for the Western world by Englishman C. M. Whish in 1835, though there exists another work, namely Kala Sankalita by J. Warren from 1825 which briefly mentions the discovery of infinite series by Kerala astronomers. According to Whish, the Kerala mathematicians had “laid the foundation for a complete system of fluxions” and these works abounded “with fluxional forms and series to be found in no work of foreign countries.” However, Whish’s results were almost completely neglected, until over a century later, when the discoveries of the Kerala school were investigated again by C. Rajagopal and his associates. Their work includes commentaries on the proofs of the arctan series in Yuktibhasa given in two papers, a commentary on the Yuktibhasa’s proof of the sine and cosine series and two papers that provide the Sanskrit verses of the Tantrasangrahavakhya for the series for arctan, sin, and cosine (with English translation and commentary)..

The following notes by westerners would justify what I had written at the beginning of the Post.

  1. (Bressoud 2002, p. 12) Quote: “There is no evidence that the Indian work on series was known beyond India, or even outside Kerala, until the nineteenth century. Gold and Pingree assert [4] that by the time these series were rediscovered in Europe, they had, for all practical purposes, been lost to India. The expansions of the sine, cosine, and arc tangent had been passed down through several generations of disciples, but they remained sterile observations for which no one could find much use.”
  2. Jump up^ Plofker 2001, p. 293 Quote: “It is not unusual to encounter in discussions of Indian mathematics such assertions as that “the concept of differentiation was understood [in India] from the time of Manjula (… in the 10th century)” [Joseph 1991, 300], or that “we may consider Madhava to have been the founder of mathematical analysis” (Joseph 1991, 293), or that Bhaskara II may claim to be “the precursor of Newton and Leibniz in the discovery of the principle of the differential calculus” (Bag 1979, 294). … The points of resemblance, particularly between early European calculus and the Keralese work on power series, have even inspired suggestions of a possible transmission of mathematical ideas from the Malabar coast in or after the 15th century to the Latin scholarly world (e.g., in (Bag 1979, 285)). … It should be borne in mind, however, that such an emphasis on the similarity of Sanskrit (or Malayalam) and Latin mathematics risks diminishing our ability fully to see and comprehend the former. To speak of the Indian “discovery of the principle of the differential calculus” somewhat obscures the fact that Indian techniques for expressing changes in the Sine by means of the Cosine or vice versa, as in the examples we have seen, remained within that specific trigonometric context. The differential “principle” was not generalized to arbitrary functions—in fact, the explicit notion of an arbitrary function, not to mention that of its derivative or an algorithm for taking the derivative, is irrelevant here”
  3. Jump up^ Pingree 1992, p. 562 Quote: “One example I can give you relates to the Indian Mādhava’s demonstration, in about 1400 A.D., of the infinite power series of trigonometrical functions using geometrical and algebraic arguments. When this was first described in English by Charles Whish, in the 1830s, it was heralded as the Indians’ discovery of the calculus. This claim and Mādhava’s achievements were ignored by Western historians, presumably at first because they could not admit that an Indian discovered the calculus, but later because no one read anymore the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, in which Whish’s article was published. The matter resurfaced in the 1950s, and now we have the Sanskrit texts properly edited, and we understand the clever way that Mādhava derived the series without the calculus; but many historians still find it impossible to conceive of the problem and its solution in terms of anything other than the calculus and proclaim that the calculus is what Mādhava found. In this case the elegance and brilliance of Mādhava’s mathematics are being distorted as they are buried under the current mathematical solution to a problem to which he discovered an alternate and powerful solution.”

Reference and citation.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerala_school_of_astronomy_and_mathematics

Three Million Scientific Papers Wrong Statistical Method Wrong

Now a Testing tool used by Psychology is found to be wrong and so are the three million scientific papers based on these tools.

Worse is that this has happened in Applied Psychology


I have been, in this blog, maintaining that Science at best is workable hypothesis for the time being and there is no certainty about it.

And the Scientists hide under the cloak of Axioms, which you are not allowed to question.

They say it is self-evident.

Science is built on faulty logic.

That a certain result shall follow a given set of cause/s/events under similar conditions.

What people forget or do not dare to question is that all the conditions in any scientific testing or experiments are not in our control , we do not know how reliable they are and we are not guaranteed the circumstances shall remain repeatedly the same.

That Nature shall behave uniformly is a fallacy not supported by Logic.

We can not say Nature shall behave uniformly for we have not examined all the cases of Nature and it is impossible to know this.

We assume it shall.

p Value Imaginary.Image.jpg
Many researchers have labored under the misbelief that the p-value gives the probability that their study’s results are just pure random chance. Credit: Lenilucho/Wikipedia

Secondly Science is certain of Causal relationship ,that is an effect has a Cause and a Cause  must  produce a result.

Logically a Cause may have more than One effect and one effect may have more than one Cause.

Therefore this is also faulty.

(Indian Philosophy addresses this problem by Parinama Vada and Vivatha Vada)

And the scientists also assumes many tools for verification of data,those that are purely imaginary and have no factual basis.

Now a Testing tool used by Psychology is found to be wrong and so are the three million scientific papers based on these tools.

Worse is that this has happened in Applied Psychology

How the patients were ever cured based on these scientific papers only GOK!

Psychology researchers have recently found themselves engaged in a bout of statistical soul-searching. In apparently the first such move ever for a scientific journal the editors of Basic and Applied Social Psychologyannounced in a February editorial that researchers who submit studies for publication would not be allowed to use a common suite of statistical methods, including a controversial measure called the p-value.

These methods, referred to as null hypothesis significance testing, or NHST, are deeply embedded into the modern scientific research process, and some researchers have been left wondering where to turn. “The p-value is the most widely known statistic,” says biostatistician Jeff Leek of Johns Hopkins University. Leek has estimated that the p-value has been used at least three million scientific papers. Significance testing is so popular that, as the journal editorial itself acknowledges, there are no widely accepted alternative ways to quantify the uncertainty in research results—and uncertainty is crucial for estimating how well a study’s results generalize to the broader population.

Unfortunately, p-values are also widely misunderstood, often believed to furnish more information than they do. Many researchers have labored under the misbelief that the p-value gives the probability that their study’s results are just pure random chance. But statisticians say the p-value’s information is much more non-specific, and can interpreted only in the context of hypothetical alternative scenarios: The p-value summarizes how often results at least as extreme as those observed would show up if the study were repeated an infinite number of times when in fact only pure random chance were at work.

This means that the p-value is a statement about imaginary data in hypothetical study replications, not a statement about actual conclusions in any given study. Instead of being a “scientific lie detector” that can get at the truth of a particular scientific finding, the p-value is more of an “alternative reality machine” that lets researchers compare their results with what random chance would hypothetically produce. “What p-values do is address the wrong questions, and this has caused widespread confusion,” says psychologist Eric-Jan Wagenmakers at the University of Amsterdam

..

Ostensibly, p-values allow researchers to draw nuanced, objective scientific conclusions as long as it is part of a careful process of experimental design and analysis. But critics have complained that in practice the p-value in the context of significance testing has been bastardized into a sort of crude spam filter for scientific findings: If the p-value on a potentially interesting result is smaller than 0.05, the result is deemed “statistically significant” and passed on for publication, according to the recipe; anything with larger p-values is destined for the trash bin.

Quitting p-values cold turkey was a drastic step. “The null hypothesis significance testing procedure is logically invalid, and so it seems sensible to eliminate it from science,” says psychologist David Trafimow of New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, editor of the journal.’

In plain English the p value is imaginary and has no basis.

I can foresee a host of scientists coming out against this post using fancy jargon, while the questions raised by me remain unanswered/will remain so.

Long Live Science!

News Source,

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/scientists-perturbed-by-loss-of-stat-tool-to-sift-research-fudge-from-fact/

Chidambaram Geomagnetic Centre of Earth Universe? Study

I found that Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory (EGRL), the regional centre of IIG, is at Thirunelveli because,


I came across articles that Chidambaram ,Tamil Nadu India is the Geo Magnetic Centre of the Earth/Universe and / center of Geo magnetic equator.

Of the branches of Physics we know very little about Magnetism.

Magnetic field study is evolving and most of them are at a theoretical stage.

As there are references to Chidambaram being the center of the Earth’s?Universe’s Magnetic Field I researched.

Chidambaram Temple aerial View.image.jpg
Chidambaram Temple aerial View.

It is also stated that Lord Nataraja ‘s big toe is the Centre Point of World ‘s Magnetic Equator.

Chidambaram ,Kanchipuram and Sri Kalahasti lie in a straight line at 79* 41 East Longitude.

Curious as these happen to be among the Panchabhuta Sthalas, Places of Five Elements, Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether.

The temple for water is in Thiruvanaikaval, fire is in Thiruvannamalai , air is in Kalahasti ,  earth is  in  Kanchipuram  and The temple for space/sky is in Chidambaram.

Earth is nestled between Sky/Ether/Space, Aakasa( Chidambaram) and Air,Vayu(Kalahasti).

Earth is surrounded by Space and Air.

Ans Vishnu’s Nabhi, Navel of Vishnu has been validated as the  Center of Our Galaxy.

Read here.

The Southern Cross and Canopus tally with Trishanku Swarga and Agasthya Star respectively.

Hence I did not want to dismiss the point that Chidambaram being the Centre of earth’s /universe’s Magnetic field.

World Magnetic Chart.image.jpg
US/UK world Magnetic Chart Epoch 2010

A magnetic field is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field.[nb 1] The term is used for two distinct but closely related fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (symbol: A·m−1 or A/m) in the SI. B is measured in teslas (symbol:T) and newtons per meter per ampere (symbol: N·m−1·A−1 or N/(m·A)) in the SI. B is most commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.

Magnetic fields can be produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property, their spin.[1][2] In special relativity, electric and magnetic fields are two interrelated aspects of a single object, called the electromagnetic tensor; the split of this tensor into electric and magnetic fields depends on the relative velocity of the observer and charge. In quantum physics, the electromagnetic field is quantized and electromagnetic interactions result from the exchange of photons…(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_field)

Magnetic Equator.

Magnetic dip results from the tendency of a magnet to align itself with lines of force. As the Earth’s magnetic lines of force are not parallel to the surface, the north end of a compass needle will point downward in the northern hemisphere (positive dip) or upward in the southern hemisphere (negative dip). The range of dip is from −90 degrees (at the South Magnetic Pole) to +90 degrees (at the North Magnetic Pole). Contour lines along which the dip measured at the Earth’s surface is equal are referred to as isoclinic lines. The locus of the points having zero dip is called the magnetic equator or aclinic line.’

And Shiva personifies Motion and Rhythm as expressed in His Cosmic Dance.

Can there be any link?

I found that Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory (EGRL), the regional centre of IIG, is at Thirunelveli  because,

‘ Situated close to the magnetic equator (the dip angle being 1.75oN) (8.7oN, 77.8oE geographic) over an area of more than 35 acres near the village, Krishnapuram, the Centre was intended to house multi-disciplinary experiments for the measurements of electric and magnetic fields originating in the near-Earth environment.’

Now the coordinates of Thirunelveli is 8.73°N 77.7°E, 2 * dfference from Chidambaram  at  79* 41 East Longitude.

I surmise that there is some truth in the statement that Chidambaram being the Centre of Magnetic Field.

This needs verification.

To who assert Magnetic Fields do not have Equator..

I am reproducing a study on this subject.

Note that there is an an Anamoly in SE Asia .

One might remeber that the present location of the South and for that matter the Indian Sub Continent was further down south about 255 Millin years ago.

And the present Chidambaram might have been located there.

I am investigating.

‘Southeastern Asia region. This means the magnetic field is unexpectedly strong there compared to the magnetic fields measured over the rest of the earth’s surface. The following diagram shows these anomalies. Blue indicates weaker magnetic field strength; the darkest blue regions identify the SAA. Orange indicates stronger magnetic field strength; the maximum field strength along the magnetic equator lies in the greenish area over SE Asia—this is the area of the SE Asian anomaly.

EarthMagneticField

Citation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_dip

http://bhavanajagat.com/tag/chidambara-rahasyam/

http://iigm.res.in/index.php/centres-observatories/190-egrl

Rig Yajur Atharva Vedas Hymns Explain Electricity.Text

More texts form other ancient sources speak of Airplanes,Gravity propelled Machines, Anti Matter.

Here I am quoting the relevant texts on electricity


I have written about the ancient Indian Texts talking on Electricity.

Vedas ,Electricity.Image.jpg
Vedas ,Electricity.

Also how the first two lines of the Purusha Suktha has been used, with the help of Magnets to Produce Electricity.

The Hindu Texts, the Vedas, Rig ,Atharva speak about the nature of electricity.

More texts form other ancient sources speak of Airplanes,Gravity propelled Machines, Anti Matter.

Here I am quoting the relevant texts on electricity.

Chapter 1: Hymn VII
Verse 2: Nav Yo Navati Puro bibhed bahvotjasaa
Ahi Cha vritrahaavadheet

Translation : Electricity , which breaks, by the energy of its arms the 99 cities, destroys the cloud, which covers the rays of the sun, the source of all energy and power.

Verse 3: Sa na Indrah Shivah sakhashwavad gomadvavama
Urudhaarev dohate

Translation : That very electric power may be our peaceful friend, providing us with the horse-power to drive our machines, light to light up our houses, and power to produce grains in the fields. Let it bring on prosperity and well-being for us by flowing into numerous currents.

Verse 4: Indra Kratuvidang sutang somang harya purushtut
Piba vrishaswa taatripim

Let electricity, so highly spoken of by many learned people, help extract the essence of medicines, thus produced by those, who are well-versed in manufacturing things. Let it keep safe and shower, on us the rain, satisfying all.

Chapter 3 :Hymn XXXI

Verse 1: Taa Vajrinam Mandinam Stomyam mad indram rathe vahato haryataa haree
Purunyasmay savanaani haryata indraaya somaa harayo dadhanwire

Translation : Those two speedily moving forces of attraction and repulsion propel the electric current, powerful like the thunderbolt, pleasant and praiseworthy, in this pleasant plane or car. Manifold are the generating powers for the refulgent electricity borne by speedy moving Somas – various kinds of liquid fuels.

Verse 2: Arang Kaamaay Haryo dadhanwire sthiraay hinvanharayo Haree tura
Arvadbhiyor Haribhijorshameeyate so asya kaamam harivantamaanashe

Translation : The above mentioned speedy forces of two kinds set in motion strong currents, capable of maintaining steady progress in the attainment of one’s objective in plenty. Whatever complex is attained by these fast moving horsepowers, is enough to achieve the beautiful objective of his, the manufacturer.

Chapter 2: Hymn XV

Verse 2: Adha te vishwamanu haasadishtaya aapo nimneva savanaa havishmatah
Yatparvate na samasheeta haryata indrasya vajrah shnathita hiranyayah

Translation : Just as all productive works of the manufacturer depend upon waters flowing down with speed, so do all the desired objects of him depend upon you (Electricity), as its powerful striking force cannot be obstructed by any cloud, or mountain in the way. It smashes all impediments, with its radiant energy.

Verse 3: Asmay Bheemaaya namasaa samadhwara usho na shubhra aa bharaa paneeyase
Yasya dhaam shravase naamendriyam jyotirkaari harito naayase

Translation : O well-versed engineer make use of this terrible electric power fit to be utilized for useful purposes by controlling it, for non-violent, brilliant light like the dawn. It has the potentiality to help hearing, control energy and spread light in all quarters.

Chapter 2: Hymn XV

Verse 6: Twam tamindra parvatam mahaamurum vajrena vajrinparvshashchakartitha
Avaasrijo nivritaah satarvaa apah satraa vishwam dadhishe kevalam sahah

Translation : Just as the thundering electricity reduces the vast cloud to nothing by its thunderbolt, so do you, O King, equipped with piercing weapons like the thunderbolt, smash into pieces the vast armies of the enemy, consisting of various units, by your striking power like the thunderbolt. Just as the waters of the cloud released by the electricity, fall down and flow over the earth, similarly the well-equipped armies of the enemy; being subdued by the might of the king are duly regulated by him. Truly do you alone, O King, hold all the power to subdue the foes.

Verse 5: Indra Idhyorah sacha sangmishal aa vachoyuja
Indro vajri Hiranyah

Translation : Electricity is well mixed up with Prana and Apana, the 2 horsepowers, yoked to power of speech. Electric power has the striking power of a deadly weapon and is full of brilliance.

Verse 1: Pra te mahe vidathe shansisham hari pra te vanve vanusho haryatam madam
Dhritam na yo haribhishcharu sechat aa tva vishantu harivparsang girah

Translation : O electricity, I fully praise thy two forces of protection and destruction in this great universe, which is a great sacrificial place or battlefield of life. I highly cherish your beautiful exhilaration, destroying the evil forces of the enemy. You shower various forms of fortunes through your blessing powers of speedy action, like waters from the clouds. Let all praises find their abode in you of charming splendor.

Verse 3: So asya vajro harito ya aayso harinirkaamo harira gabhastyoh
Dhumni sushipro harimanyusayaka indre ni roopa harita mimikshire

Translation : Here is the blue-green colored thunderbolt of iron of the king. There is also the beautiful horse of iron of high speed. Here is also the horsepower of the rays of electricity. There is also the shining arrow, capable of destroying the pride of the enemy and having a very high speed. In short many kinds of weapons have been made through electric power for the king.

Verse 4: Divi na keturadhi dhaayi haryato vivayachadvajro harito na ranghaya
Tudadahi harishipro ya aayasah sahastrashokaa abhavadharibharah

Translation : Like a radiant spot, it is well placed in the heavens, then with a high speed, the terribly destructive missile, made of iron, possessing speed of electric power, crushing the serpent natured enemy, becomes lit up with thousands of lights and loaded with destructive ray of various kinds.

Chapter 3: Hymn:XXI

Verse 7: Yudha yudhmup ghedeshi dhrishnuya pura puram samidam hansyojasa
Namya yadindra sakhya paraavati nibrahyo namuchi naam maayinam

Translation : O mighty King, you can easily get at the striking power of the enemy by your overwhelming striking force. Being well-entrenched in your sheltered place of defense, you can thoroughly break the defenses of the enemy to smithereens. Completely crush the deceitful enemy, unfit to be left alive, through your faithful ally, although stationed at a distance.

Verse 8: Tvam karnyajmut parnayam vadhistejisthayaatithigvasya vartani
Tvam shata vaddagridasyaabhintpuronaanudah parishuta rijishvana

Translation : O mighty electricity, you kill the violent enemy, equipped with speedy means of communication like cars or airships, a hindrance in the way of people who are worthy of respect, cows or land by your consuming and splendorous power. You shatter the 100 forts of the adversary who obstructs your communications or breaks your regulations and does not pay tribute to you established by straightforward negotiations.

Verse 9: Tvametam janrajyo dwidarshaabandhuna sushrvasopajagmushah
Pashisht sahastra navati nava shruto ni chakrena rathya dushpadavrinak

Translation : O electricity, you can by your circular motion like the wheel of a chariot, which is too powerful to be checked, well keep under control all these 20 basic elements, 6099 organic and inorganic bodies, by a single transmitter of high quality, with no other force to help it.

Verse 10: Tvamaavitha sushravasam tavotibhistava traambhirindra tuvrayaanam
Tvamasmay kutsamatithigvamaayum mahe raagye yoone arndhanaayah

Translation : O electricity, you keep in safety this good listening set, by your means of safety and protect the commander, with speedy mobile forces by your strong means of defense. You control the sharp weapons, equipped with the striking power of limitless time and speed for this great, youthful king.

Chapter 4: Hymn XXXVII

Verse 4: Tvam nibhinirmano devavitao bhooreeni vritraa haryashava hansi
Tvam ni dasyum chumuri dhuni chasvaapyo dabhitaye suhantu

Translation : O electrical currents of high voltage, safely carried by electric wires, you kill many enemies in the war, waged by learned persons or through the help of natural forces. To keep all the evil forces under control, you, being well-equipped with good means of destruction completely lay down to lasting sleep (death) the evil forces that rob and harass the general public.

 

The atomic energy fissions the ninety-nine elements, covering its path by the bombardments of neutrons without let or hindrance. Desirous of stalking the head, ie. The chief part of the swift power, hidden in the mass of molecular adjustments of the elements, this atomic energy approaches it in the very act of fissioning it by the above-noted bombardment. Herein, verily the scientists know the similar hidden striking force of the rays of the sun working in the orbit of the moon.” (Atharva-veda 20.41.1-3).

Rig Veda.

Rig Veda 1.119.10
“With the help of bipolar forces (Asvins), you should employ telegraphic apparatus made of good conductor of electricity. It is necessary for efficient military operations but should be used with caution.”

Yajur Veda On Electricity.

 

Through astronomy, geography, and geology, go thou to all the different countries of the world under the sun. Mayest thou attain through good preaching to statesmanship and artisanship, through medical science obtain knowledge of all medicinal plants, through hydrostatics learn the different uses of water, through electricity understand the working of ever lustrous lightening. Carry out my instructions willingly.” (Yajur-veda 6.21).

” O royal skilled engineer, construct sea-boats, propelled on water by our experts, and airplanes, moving and flying upward, after the clouds that reside in the mid-region, that fly as the boats move on the sea, that fly high over and below the watery clouds. Be thou, thereby, prosperous in this world created by the Omnipresent God, and flier in both air and lightning.”  (Yajur-veda 10.19).

http://booksfact.com/vedas/atharva-veda/electrical-energy-usage-in-atharva-veda.html

Cell Division under New Microscope Video

One of the mysteries of Life is the division of Cells.

Viewing it under Microscope is an experience.

Now a New Microscope has been developed an it can provide interesting 3 D viewing.


One of the mysteries of Life is the division of Cells.

Viewing it under Microscope is an experience.

Now a New Microscope has been developed an it can provide interesting 3 D viewing.

The microscope uses a technique called lattice light-sheet microscopy, which involves scanning a cell with ultra-thin sheets of light. This process allows scientists to collect high-resolution images while minimizing light damage to the cells. The research was described in a paper published online in the journal Science on Oct. 24.

“There are many cells you could look at forever in 3D,” Dr. Eric Betzig, a physicist, inventor, and engineer at the institute who developed the microscope, said in a written statement. “We know what the microscope can offer in terms of the imaging, but I think there are a lot of applications we haven’t even thought of yet.”

Watch the Video.

http://vimeo.com/109402304

News Source.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/10/24/microscope-cells-in-action_n_6041638.html?utm_hp_ref=mostpopular

Big Bang Theory Wrong Science

Once there was Mass, a bunch of Matter.

It became dense, so the Mass became More.

So much More that its Gravity increased to such an extent that it does not allow even Light to escape from it,

At a point of time, because of this immense density the Mass exploded, creating uneven particles.(Big Bang)

Greater the particle, greater the Mass, hence greater density and this attracted more particles.

This is the Big Bang Theory.


Once there was Mass, a bunch of Matter.

 

It became dense, so the Mass became More.

 

So much More that its Gravity increased to such an extent that it does not allow even Light to escape from it,

 

At a point of time, because of this immense density the Mass exploded, creating uneven particles.(Big Bang)

 

Greater the particle, greater the Mass, hence greater density and this attracted more particles.

 

This is the Big Bang Theory.

 

Had this been narrated by ordinary people, people would have loved to laugh at the assumptions galore and lack of facts.

 

Assumptions are made out as Axioms and you are asked to accept them without questioning.

 

Theories are developed around this nonsense and to our surprise technology using these principle works!

 

 

Reason Nature does not care nor is it bothered whether some one believes it or finds about it, for it is not obliged to divulge its secrets.

 

It goes about its job.

 

 

Fact is that Gravity works whether Ramanan believes it or not, Light waves travel whether you call it Wave, Particle.

 

It takes another non sense paper to disprove the earlier theory.

 

Now comes the paper that proves or attempts to prove that Big Bang Theory wrong.

 

It takes a swipe at Einstein’s Theory as well, which, it is said, is proved.

 

You do not expect Nature , whose Lifetime is immeasurable,to reveal its Nature, to Man whose average waking Lifetime is hardly 25 years.

 

Even if you take the aggregate of entire Human population even from earliest civilization, even then it is negligible against Nature.

 

The disapproval comes from Mathematics, which, though touted as the best Science,is based on Assumptions galore.

 

‘Let the children Play’- Nature.

 

Story:

 

  • Scientist claims she has mathematical proof black holes cannot exist
  • She said it is impossible for stars to collapse and form a singularity
  • Professor Laura Mersini-Houghton said she is still in ‘shock’ from the find
  • Previously, scientists thought stars much larger than the sun collapsed under their own gravity and formed black holes when they died
  • During this process they release a type of radiation called Hawking radiation
  • But new research claims the star would lose too much mass and wouldn’t be able to form a black hole
  • If true, the theory that the universe began as a singularity, followed by the Big Bang, could also be wrong

 

 

If most people know one thing about black holes, they probably know that nothing can escape from them, not even light.

Yet this most basic tenet about black holes has actually been disproven by the theory of quantum mechanics, explains theoretical physicist Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ, in an essay published online today (Aug. 2) in the journal Science.

Black holes, in the classical picture of physics, are incredibly dense objects where space and time are so warped that nothing can escape from their gravitational grasp. In another essay in the same issue of Science, theoretical physicist Kip Thorne of Caltech describes them as “objects made wholly and solely from curved spacetime.”

Yet this basic picture appears to con

tradict the laws of quantum mechanics, which govern the universe’s tiniest elements.

“What you get from classical general relativity, and also what everyone understands about a black hole, is that it can absorb anything that comes near, but it can’t emit anything. But quantum mechanics doesn’t allow such an object to exist,” Witten said in this week’s Science podcast.

In quantum mechanics, if a reaction is possible, the opposite reaction is also possible, Witten explained. Processes should be reversible. Thus, if a person can be swallowed by a black hole to create a slightly heavier black hole, a heavy black hole should be able to spit out a person and become a slightly lighter black hole. Yet nothing is supposed to escape from black holes.

To solve the dilemma, physicists looked to the idea of entropy, a measurement of disorder or randomness. The laws of thermodynamics state that in the macroscopic world, it’s impossible to reduce the entropy of the universe — it can only increase. If a person were to fall into a black hole, entropy would increase. If the person were to pop back out of it, the universal entropy tally would go down. For the same reason, water can spill out of a cup onto the floor, but it won’t flow from the floor into a cup.

This principle seems to explain why the process of matter falling into a black hole cannot be reversed, yet it only applies on a macroscopic level

Citation:http://www.space.com/16867-black-holes-quantum-mechanics-theory.html

 

 

 

Scientists Admit Fake Study Papers

Often I come across ‘scientific studies’ claiming outrageous and down right ridiculous statements on many disciplines,including social sciences.

One would claim that a woman’s sexual references can be predicted by her nail polish colors!

And the father of all this is Sigmund Freud, who blamed everything under the Sun for one’s behavior,especially one’s parents.

If you are aggressive, it is because of gregarious parents:if you are timid, t is because of retiring parents.

If you are a pervert, your parents are responsible.

But never You, for your actions or for what you are!

So much for these ‘Scientific studies!’

I have posted some articles on this.

Now read more news on this.


Often I come across ‘scientific studies’ claiming outrageous and down right ridiculous statements on many disciplines,including social sciences.

 

One would claim that a woman’s sexual references can be predicted by her nail polish colors!

 

And the father of all this is Sigmund Freud, who blamed everything under the Sun for one’s behavior,especially one’s parents.

 

If you are aggressive, it is because of gregarious parents:if you are timid, it is because of retiring parents.

 

If you are a pervert, your parents are responsible.

 

But never You, for your actions or for what you are!

 

So much for these ‘Scientific studies!’

 

I have posted some articles on this.

 

Now read more news on this.

Scientist admits faking Study.jpg
Scientist admits faking Study.

 

preliminary investigative report issued on Monday by Tilburg University has concluded that dozens of research papers authored and co-authored by Stapel contain fabricated data.

“We have some 30 papers in peer-reviewed journals where we are actually sure that they are fake, and there are more to come,” says Pim Levelt, chair of the committee that investigated Stapel’s work. If all of these papers are withdrawn, Stapel’s will become one of the worst cases of scientific misconduct in history.

Stapel is the researcher behind a number of eye-catching studies which, prima facie, seem to offer provocative insights into human nature. His research topics range from the effects of beauty product ads on consumer self-esteem, to how urban decay (like littered streets) promote stereotyping and discrimination — the latter being a study we reported on here at io9.

Whether these studies are included in the 30+ papers known to contain fraudulent data remains to be seen. Tilburg University has yet to provide a list of which studies contain fudged results, though Stapel’s paper on the tie between urban decay and discrimination, published in April in the journal Science, has already been flagged with an expression of concern by the journal’s publishers.

Stapel is believed to have acted alone, deceiving colleagues, collaborators, and even PhD candidates for years by providing them with fictitious data. Given Stapel’s prominence within the field of social psychology, (not to mention the sheer volume of publications already identified as tainted), it’s safe to say that the effects of his outing will be far-reaching…..

otably, none of these mention anything about science, fact-finding, or statements about converging upon truth. (Note, in the past I’ve gone so far as to suggest that even the process of citing specific papers is biased and flawed, and that we would be better off giving aggregate citations of whole swathes of the literature.)

The second article takes almost an entirely economic, cost-benefit perspective of peer-review again focused on publishing results in journals. Only toward the end does the author directly address peer-review’s purpose in science by saying:

…[T]he most important question is how accurately the peer review system predicts the longer-term judgments of the scientific community… A tentative answer to this last question is suggested by a pilot study carried out by my former colleagues atNature Neuroscience, who examined the assessments produced by Faculty of 1000 (F1000), a website that seeks to identify and rank interesting papers based on the votes of handpicked expert ‘faculty members’. For a sample of 2,500 neuroscience papers listed on F1000, there was a strong correlation between the paper’s F1000 factor and the impact factor of the journal in which it appeared. This finding, albeit preliminary, should give pause to anyone who believes that the current peer review system is fundamentally flawed or that a more distributed method of assessment would give different results.

I strongly disagree with his final conclusion here. A perfectly plausible explanation for this result would be that scientists rate papers in “better” journals higher because they’re published in journal perceived to be better. This would appear to be a source of bias and a major flaw of the current peer-review system. Rather than giving me pause as to whether the system is flawed, one could easily interpret that result asproof of the flaw.

The most common response that I encounter when speaking with others scientists about what they think peer-review is for, however, is some form of the following:

Peer-review improves the quality of published papers.

I’m about to get very meta here, but post-doc astronomer Sarah Kendrew recently wrote a piece in The Guardian titled, “Brian Cox is wrong: blogging your research is not a recipe for disaster”.

 

More than 120 computer-generated “gibberish” research papers are being removed from the archives of scientific journal publishers Springer and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) after a French computer scientist determined the papers were fakes.

The bogus research papers, it turns out, were created by an automated word generation program that can string random, seemingly sophisticated words together in plausible English syntax.

Scientific papers, especially those dealing with computer science and mathematics, as these fake papers were, feature reams of sophisticated jargon. Even legitimate papers can seem like gibberish to an unfamiliar reader.

Citation.

http://io9.com/5855733/psychologist-admits-to-faking-dozens-of-scientific-studies

 

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2011/11/02/what-is-peer-review-for/

 

http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/6217/20140301/scholarly-journals-accepted-120-fake-research-papers-generated-by-computer-program.htm

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