Why Galactic Cosmic Radiation Not Hit Astronauts?


We know thee is radiation and some thing called Galactic Cosmic radiation.

We are also told that it would endanger our health and might induce cancer .

We have been ending Astronauts into Space and there seems to be no effects of this radiation.

On the one hand Space science claims that thought there may be Radiation that might affect people in Space, but they are protected by the Earth’s Atmosphere.

If the Earth’s atmosphere can protect some one in Space , why can’t it in Earth?

And Astronauts are exposed to Space with out this protective () layer of Earth’ Atmosphere on ISS and they also carry out jobs in Space outside the ISS.

Yet some how, there seems to be no effects of radiation on the Astronauts.

Read the following interesting story on Boing Boing.

I was also curious on the effect of Space Travel on human body.

I have provided a link at the end of this post.

Very interesting, yet it left me totally confused as to what the answer to my question is!

Galactic Radiation
Galactic Radiation

“Galactic cosmic radiation — also called galactic cosmic rays — is the kind of radiation that researchers are most worried about. It’s made up particles, bits and pieces of atoms that were probably flung off from the aftermath of supernovas. The majority of this radiation, roughly 90%, is made up protons ripped from atoms of hydrogen. These particles travel around the galaxy at almost the speed of light.

And then they hit the Earth. This planet has a couple of defense mechanisms that protect us here on the ground from the impact of galactic cosmic radiation. First, Earth’s magnetic field both pushes away some of the particles and blocks others completely. Then, the particles that make it through that barrier start to encounter the atoms that make up our atmosphere.

If you drop a big tower made of Legos down the stairs it will break apart, losing more pieces every time it hits a new step. That’s a lot like what happens to galactic cosmic radiation in our atmosphere. The particles collide with atoms and break apart, forming new particles. Those new particles hit something else and also break apart. At each step, the particles lose energy. They get a little slower, a little weaker. By the time they “come to a stop” at the ground, they aren’t the galactic powerhouses they once were. It’s still radiation. But it’s much less dangerous radiation. Just like it would hurt a lot less to be hit with one Lego block, than with a whole tower of them.

All of the astronauts we’ve sent into space so far have, at least partially, benefited from Earth’s protective barriers, Francis Cucinotta told me. He’s the director of the NASA Space Radiobiology Program, the go-to guy for finding out how radiation hurts astronauts. He says, with the exception of Apollo flights to the Moon, the human presence in space has happened within the Earth’s magnetic field. The International Space Station, for instance, is above the atmosphere, but still well inside the first line of defense. Our astronauts aren’t exposed to the full force of galactic cosmic radiation.

They’re also exposed to it for a relatively limited amount of time. The longest spaceflight ever lasted a little over a year. And that matters, because the damage from radiation is cumulative. You simply can’t rack up as much risk on a six month jaunt to the ISS as you could, theoretically, on a multi-year excursion to Mars.

But what’s interesting, and concerning, is that even with those protections we do see signs of radiation damage to astronauts, Cucinotta told me.

The big thing is cataracts — changes in the lens of the eye that make it more opaque. With less light able to get into their eyes, people with cataracts lose some of their ability to see. In 2001,

http://boingboing.net/2013/01/04/how-space-radiation-hurts-astr.html

What Happens to Body in Space?

Human beings living on Earth are effected by gravity because about two-thirds of our daily activities are standing or sitting. Great amounts of body fluids such as blood pool in the lower part of the body. The human body is equipped with various mechanisms to oppose gravity to maintain sufficient blood flow to the brain.
In microgravity environment, the quantity and the distribution of body fluid alter, being free of the gravitational effect. This is the concept of “fluid shift.”

http://iss.jaxa.jp/med/index_e.html

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Japan dumps Nuclear Toxic Water into Sea-Health Effects,Video.


Bottom line is no body is sure how the radio active waste shall affect marine Life and Environment.

They just make a general assertion that the effects will be minimal with out any supporting evidence and no one has determined what the ‘Safety Limits’of radioactive materials dumped in the ocean are.

Japan, with no other options in sight is forced to dump Nuclear waste into the sea, treaties notwithstanding.

The Effects to So Sea water and the effect it will have on ground water level nobody knows.

We have created the Nuclear Monster,let us suffer from it.

Story:

Tokyo Electric Power Co. on Monday began releasing 10,000 tons of low-level radioactive water from the Fukushima No. 1 power plant into the Pacific Ocean on Monday evening to help accelerate the process of bringing the crippled complex under control.

The radical step was taken to make room for the more radioactive water that is being pumped out of the No. 2 reactor’s turbine building.

The utility also said it plans to release 1,500 tons of radioactive water being stored under the No. 5 and No. 6 reactors, which have been safely shut down.

The government said dumping the water will pose “no major health risk” and is inevitable in order to rescue the plant.

Tepco will try to minimize the environmental impact of the dump by setting up an underwater silt fence similar to an oil fence outside the seawater intake near the damaged No. 2 reactor, where toxic water is already leaking into the sea from a cracked storage pit.

http://search.japantimes.co.jp/mail/nn20110405a1.html

Related:

Radioactive Waste Dumping.

Greenpeace first encountered a vessel routinely and deliberately dumping radioactive
waste at sea, approximately 400 miles South West of Cornwall in July 1978. The area
had been specified by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), an off-shoot of the
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), as the designated
dumpsite of the western European nuclear industry. The Greenpeace ship Rainbow
Warrior found the Gem, a vessel chartered annually by the UK Atomic Energy Authority
(UKAEA) to dump so-called low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from
medical and military establishments and nuclear power plants.
Since its early days, in the late 1940s, the nuclear industry had chosen the oceans as a
convenient place to dispose of its inconvenient wastes. The USA, the then USSR, France,
the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden and other states used the sea as a radioactive
dump, both in the Pacific and the Atlantic, and they were determined to continue.

The Oslo Convention was the first regional treaty to regulate the dumping of wastes at
sea – it was negotiated in 1972 by the countries bordering the North-East Atlantic. The
nuclear industry successfully blocked efforts to include radioactive wastes within the
auspices of the convention. Consequently, while the Convention regulated the dumping
of sewage sludge, dredging spoils, and organohalogen compounds (amongst others) for
almost twenty five years, the signatory nations had no right to even comment on the
dumping of radioactive wastes. Yet, paradoxically, the OECD/NEA designated dumpsite
for radioactive wastes was inside the area covered by the Convention.
A few months later in 1972 the negotiations on the London Dumping Convention were
concluded. This was the first global treaty to regulate the dumping of wastes at sea. This
time the negotiations were less dominated by the Western European nuclear states, and,
as a result, the dumping of so-called high-level radioactive wastes was banned.

http://www.greenpeace.org/international/PageFiles/24222/OSPARhistorybft.pdf

The first reported sea disposal operation of radioactive waste was carried out by the USA in 1946 in the North-East Pacific Ocean and the latest was carried out by the Russian Federation in 1993 in the Japan Sea/East Sea. During the 48 year history of sea disposal, 14 countries have used more than 80 sites to dispose of approximately 85 PBq (1 PBq = 1015 Bq) of radioactive waste (Fig. 10).

http://www.oceansatlas.org/unatlas/about/physicalandchemicalproperties/radiosp/htm/Geographical.html

 

Distilling the Radiation Out of Tap Water,Videos.


 

 

Yes, distilling removes radiation. Even a water distiller you see all over ebay from China will do this. Your cost will be around $130-$200 dollars.

Distilling CAN take out heavy metals

There have been many lab tests in the country where they contaminate the water 5 times higher than what EPA allows for consumption.  They test this and distill water, retest and they find the residue that is left behind contains all the heavy metals, which are classed as radioactive.

Most of the heavy metals have a boiling point of 3092 degrees F, meaning the metals actually boil at that point. The boiling point of water is 212 F which is 2800 F below that. Heavy Metals are left behind as waste in the pot. Radiation is in the same family in the periodic chart as these heavy metals.

Does this mean you can take contaminated water and make it clean? Yes. The process is called thermo distillation which is heat. This can be very expensive to do for everyone’s supply but just for your own, this is very easy.

If you get an electric one, around $200, it distills a gallon of water overnight. There are distillers that can run on propane gas as well and wood fires for those who live OFF THE GRID.

http://www.bukisa.com/articles/468629_distill-the-radiation-out-of-water-by-anthony-zaca-of-rainier-distillers#ixzz1HyOyLVT4

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillation

 

 

Pets suffering from disaster,Japan Radiation.


 

A dog's life: Luna, a beagle, is tied to a tree near her makeshift house at an evacuee center in Fukushima on Thursday. AP PHOTO

 

 

“This is a big calamity for pets, along with people,” said Sugano Hoso of the Japan branch of the U.S.-based United Kennel Club. “Many are on their own, and many more are trapped in evacuated areas where people have left.”

The biggest concerns are reuniting them with their owners and getting them food, medical treatment and shelter, she said. Her group is distributing food and other supplies where it can.

Also, thousands of pets have been left behind in the evacuation zones around the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, which was wrecked by the quake and tsunami and remains a radioactive hazard. These abandoned animals are likely to face health issues.

Faced with life-or-death predicaments, many pet owners did not have the presence of mind, the ability or perhaps the desire to see to the safety of their pets.

Endo lives in the town of Minamisoma, only 25 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant. Residents have been ordered either to voluntarily evacuate or remain indoors because of the radiation risk.

Endo decided to come to the main shelter in the city of Fukushima — a gymnasium where about 1,400 people have taken refuge — about a week ago.

Tamae Morino brought her Persian-mix cat, Lady, to the shelter, although the pet stays outside.

The earthquake and tsunami, along with the sudden change of environment, have left Lady scared and agitated.

“She got sick, and is still very nervous,” Morino said. “She is an important part of our family. But they don’t allow pets into the shelter, so she has to sleep alone in the car. She seems very lonely. We are happy to have her with us, though. So many cats just vanished.”

Ryo Taira‘s pet shop and animal shelter in Arahama, near Sendai, is caring for 80 dogs and cats whose owners are unable to take them into tsunami shelters.

“Evacuees are under a stressful situation, working on reconstruction and searching for missing family members,” Taira said. “I think they cannot really have much energy to pay attention to their pets. So we want to do what we can to help reduce their stress.”

http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110328f2.html

Related:

Work to remove toxic water puddles in the reactor basements of the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant ground to a halt Sunday after its operator reported a huge spike in radioactivity — a spike that officials later said was inaccurate.

http://search.japantimes.co.jp/mail/nn20110328a1.html

 

 

New: Higher Radiation Levels Found at Japanese Reactor .

Leaked water sampled from one unit Sunday was 100,000 times more radioactive than normal background levels — though the Tokyo Electric Power Co., which operates the plant, first calculated an even higher, erroneous, figure that it didn’t correct for several hours.


Already-grave conditions at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant worsened Sunday with the highest radiation readings yet, compounding both the risks and challenges for workers trying to repair the facility’s cooling system.

Leaked water sampled from one unit Sunday was 100,000 times more radioactive than normal background levels — though the Tokyo Electric Power Co., which operates the plant, first calculated an even higher, erroneous, figure that it didn’t correct for several hours.

Tepco apologized Sunday night when it realized the mistake; it had initially reported radiation levels in the leaked water from the unit 2 reactor as being 10 million times higher than normal, which prompted an evacuation of the building.

After the levels were correctly measured, airborne radioactivity in the unit 2 turbine building still remained so high — 1,000 millisieverts per hour — that a worker there would reach his yearly occupational exposure limit in 15 minutes. A dose of 4,000 to 5,000 millisieverts absorbed fairly rapidly will eventually kill about half of those exposed.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/radiation-levels-reach-new-highs-as-conditions-worsen-for-workers/2011/03/27/AFsMLFiB_story.html

Tests also found increased levels of radioactive cesium, a substance with a longer half-life, the Japanese safety agency said.

“Because these substances originate from nuclear fission, there is a high possibility they originate from the reactor,” said Hidehiko Nishiyama, the agency’s deputy director-general, at a news conference. He said that it was likely that radiation was leaking from the pipes or the suppression chamber, and not directly from the pressure vessel, because water levels and pressure in the vessel were relatively stable.

http://current.com/shows/upstream/93108930_new-higher-radiation-levels-found-at-japanese-reactor-the-new-york-times-los-angeles-times-cnn.htm

Japan Seawater Radiation 1250 times more.


Internationally recognized symbol.
Image via Wikipedia

The level of radioactive iodine detected in seawater near the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant was 1,250 times above the maximum level allowable, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency said Saturday, suggesting contamination from the reactors is spreading.

Meanwhile, plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. turned on the lights in the control room of the No. 2 reactor the same day, and was analyzing and trying to remove pools of water containing radioactive materials in the turbine buildings of reactors 1 to 3.

The iodine-131 in the seawater was detected at 8:30 a.m. Friday, about 330 meters south of the plant’s drain outlets. Previously, the highest amount recorded was about 100 times above the permitted level.

If a person drank 500 ml of water containing the newly detected level of contamination, it would be the equivalent of 1 millisievert of radiation, or the average dosage one is exposed to annually, the NISA said.

“It is a substantial amount,” NISA spokesman Hidehiko Nishiyama told a news conference.

But he also stressed there is “no immediate risk to public health,” as the changing tides will dilute the iodine-131, and its half-life, or the amount of time it takes for it to lose half its radioactivity, is only eight days.

Nishiyama said the high concentration was perhaps caused by airborne radiation that contaminated the seawater, or contaminated water from the plant that flowed out to sea.

Tepco said early Saturday that it had detected a radiation reading of 200 millisieverts per hour in a pool of water in the No. 1 reactor’s turbine building on March 18 and failed to notify workers, but later denied that a radiation level that high was found.

“If we had warned them, we may have been able to avoid having workers (at the No. 3 reactor) exposed to radiation,” a Tepco official said.

http://search.japantimes.co.jp/mail/nn20110327a1.html

 

 

Japan Soil Radiation Measurements High.


The effects of radiation in Food chain of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is yet to be got rid of.

We are not sure how the soil in Japan might have been affected.

Follow the stories below.

How does one remove Radiation in the soil?

It is important Japan is sent aid in the form of Food for the time being rather than money till such time a way is found to irradiate the soil.

Japan-Radiation in Soil very High.

http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2011/03/japan-soil-measurements-surprisingly.html?ref=hp

Concerns about radiation in Japan have now spread to the soil surrounding the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor. One level that was reported this week was high enough to suggest people in that area should be evacuated, an expert says. But he cautions that it’s hard to draw conclusions about these spot measurements without more data.

Today, Japanese officials told the population living up to 30 kilometers from the plant that they should consider leaving the area, expanding the previous 20-kilometer radius evacuation zone. But according to news reports, the advice stems from difficulties in supplying the region with food and water, not radiation levels.

Meanwhile, on Wednesday the Japanese science ministry began to report measurements of cesium-137 in upland soil around the plant. The levels are highest from two points northeast of the plant, ranging from 8690 becquerels/kilogram to a high of 163,000 Bq/kg measured on 20 March from a point in Iitate about 40 kilometers northwest of the Fukushima plant.

The soil measurements are more significant for evacuation purposes than radioactivity in the air, says nuclear engineer Shih-Yew Chen of Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, because cesium dust stays underfoot while air is transient. Levels of cesium-137 are also more important than soil readings of iodine-131, which is short-lived and more of a concern in milk and vegetables. “It’s the cesium that would prompt an evacuation,” says Chen.

Based on a rough estimate, a person standing on soil with 163,000 Bq/kg of cesium-137 would receive about 150 millisieverts per year of radiation, says Chen. This is well above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 50 millisieverts per year for an evacuation. (Per day, it’s 0.41 millisieverts, which is equivalent to four chest x-rays.) But Chen adds, “one point [of data] doesn’t mean that much.”

The hot spot is similar to levels found in some areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the former Soviet Union. Assuming the radiation is no more than 2 centimeters deep, Chen calculates that 163,000 Bq/kg is roughly equivalent to 8 million Bq/m2. The highest cesium-137 levels in some villages near Chernobyl were 5 million Bq/m2.

Japanese food products have long been regarded as synonymous with “safety” and “security” in other parts of Asia, but their reputation is now at stake as radioactive materials far exceeding legal limits have been found in farm produce.

The detection of radioactive materials prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday to announce a ban on imports of dairy products and vegetables from the area near the crisis-hit Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.

Countries in Asia and authorities in the Russian Far East have stepped up screening of Japanese food imports for radioactive contamination, while seawater has also been contaminated near the nuclear plant.

“Japan had been promoting its food overseas by emphasizing its safety and security,” a Japanese man in Beijing who engages in trade with China said. “Actual safety may be secured by inspection, but it is difficult to restore a sense of security.”

The nuclear crisis triggered by the massive quake and tsunami occurred just after the government moved to market Japanese agricultural products such as rice, which has a reputation for being “safe and tasty,” in the Chinese market, where the popularity of Japanese foods was growing mainly among wealthy people.

In China, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine ordered local authorities Monday to inspect Japanese food imports for radiation, the Xinhua news agency said, posing a big challenge to Japan’s aim of expanding food exports there.

South Korea’s Food and Drug Administration has started similar measures, stepping up screening of foreign farm products shipped through Japan by adding dry, frozen and processed foods produced in Japan as subject to inspection.

http://search.japantimes.co.jp/mail/nn20110326f2.html

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