Astrophysics

Why Moon Is Not Bathed In Earth-shine In Solar Eclipse?


A solar eclipse is a natural event that takes place on Earth when the Moon moves in its orbit between Earth and the Sun (this is also known as an occultation). It happens at New Moon, when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction with each other. If the Moon was only slightly closer to Earth, and orbited in the same plane and its orbit was circular, we would see eclipses each month. The lunar orbit is elliptical and tilted with respect to Earth’s orbit, so we can only see up to 5 eclipses per year. Depending on the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth, the Sun can be totally blocked, or it can be partially blocked.

Solar Eclipse.Image.jpg

Solar Eclipse.

Lunar Eclipse.

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its umbra (shadow). This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned (in “syzygy”) exactly, or very closely so, with the Earth in the middle. Hence, a lunar eclipse can only occur the night of a full moon. The type and length of an eclipse depend upon the Moon’s location relative to its orbital nodes.

On a full moon night you can very clearly see everything. Of course it is not as bright as the sunshine, but everything is very clearly visible. And if you were to view the earth from space on a full moon night it would not be dark. It would be illuminated by the moonshine and all the features of the earth would be clearly visible.

As there is ‘moonshine’ there must also be ‘earthshine’. Much of the earth is covered by water which is a good reflector of sunlight. In fact the scientists say ‘earthshine’ is much brighter than ‘moonshine’. And according to our understanding the earth is enormous in comparison to the size of the moon. So if the moonshine can completely illuminate this earth on a full moon night then the earthshine can completely illuminate the moon.

The ‘earthshine’ bombarding the moon at the time of a total solar eclipse would be at least ten times brighter than the moonshine on the earth on a full moon night.

If Western astronomers are correct the solar eclipse would be the prefect time to see the moon illuminated by earthshine. The shadow created which causes the solar eclipse on earth is, according to NASA, at most 167 miles wide. So if you were sitting on the moon during a solar eclipse you would see an extremely bright earth planet with a dark circle of only 167 miles wide. This is not enough to diminish the earthshine in any significant way. So  even though the sun is behind the moon, the full force of the sunshine is hitting the earth and reflecting off those shiny blue oceans and reflecting off the land also’

On checking up I found that earth shine is not much and hence not visible.

Science talks about Albedo and distances, but that does seem to me a lot of suppositions and wishful thinking.

Earthshine is a soft, faint glow on the shadowed part of the moon caused by the reflection of sunlight from the Earth.

Specifically, Earthshine happens when the light from the sun is reflected from the Earth’s surface, to the moon, and then back to our eyes. Because of this double reflection of light, Earthshine is many, many times dimmer than the direct light of the sun on the moon. Earthshine is even more faint because the moon’s “albedo” (a specific kind of reflectivity) is less than Earth’s. Even though this dim light is only a reflection it can still illuminate some features of the moon.

Earthshine can be best seen during the crescent phases (the 1-5 day period before or after a New Moon). During this time the sun is mostly behind the moon from our perspective and bathing the Earth in a lot of direct light that is reflected onto the shadowed parts of the moon.

Moons orbiting other planets can also experience this phenomenon, generally called “planetshine”

Albedo (/ælˈbd/), or reflection coefficient, derived from Latin albedo “whiteness” (or reflected sunlight) in turn from albus “white”, is thediffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface.

It is the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it. Its dimensionless nature lets it be expressed as a percentage and is measured on a scale from zero for no reflection of a perfectly black surface to 1 for perfect reflection of a white surface.

Albedo depends on the frequency of the radiation. When quoted unqualified, it usually refers to some appropriate average across the spectrum of visible light. In general, the albedo depends on the directional distribution of incident radiation, except for Lambertian surfaces, which scatter radiation in all directions according to a cosine function and therefore have an albedo that is independent of the incident distribution. In practice, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) may be required to accurately characterize the scattering properties of a surface, but albedo is very useful as a first approximation.

The albedo is an important concept in climatology, astronomy, and calculating reflectivity of surfaces in LEED sustainable-rating systems for buildings. The average overall albedo of Earth, its planetary albedo, is 30 to 35% because of cloud cover, but widely varies locally across the surface because of different geological and environmental features.[1]

The term was introduced into optics by Johann Heinrich Lambert in his 1760 work Photometria.

Will some one clarify in simple terms?

Or is this the same as what Science calls as Axioms, not to be questioned?

Citation.

http://space-facts.com/solar-eclipse/

http://krishna.org/astronomy-debunked-solar-eclipses-are-not-caused-by-the-moon/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albedo

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Hinduism

Computer Friendly Sanskrit How NASA Mission Sanskrit


I had made  passing remarks on how Sanskrit sits at the top of world languages and it is Computer Programing Friendly.

How?

Sanskrit for NASA for Mission.jpg

Sanskrit for NASA for Mission.

 

‘Very soon the traditional Indian language Sanskrit will be a part of the space, with the United States of America (USA) mulling to use it as computer language at NASA. After the refusal of the Indian Sanskrit scholars to help them acquire command over the language, US has urged its young generation to learn Sanskrit.( source. http://www.ibtl.in/news/international/1815/nasa-to-echo-sanskrit-in-space-website-confirms-its-mission-sanskrit/)

# संस्कृत बनेगी नासा की भाषा, पढ़ने से गणित और विज्ञान की शिक्षा में आसानी
On visit to Agra, Aurobindo Foundation (Indian Culture) Puducherry Director Sampadananda Mishra told Dainik Jagran about the prospects of Sanskrit. Mishra said, “In 1985, NASA scientist Rick Briggs had invited 1,000 Sanskrit scholars from India for working at NASA. But scholars refused to allow the language to be put to foreign use.”

The NASA website also confirms its Mission Sanskrit and describes it as the best language for computers. The website clearly mentions that NASA has spent a large sum of time and money on the project during the last two decades.”

How Friendly is Sanskrit to Computer Programming.

Given below is our sample sentence.  It appears in the text राजनीतिसमुच्चय authored by आचार्य चाणक्य |

मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः । which means..

A stupid person must be avoided. He is like a two-legged animal in-front of the eyes.

Now, let’s get back to our good old Q & A format.

Q) Are you sure, the English translation you have provided is correct ? Else, why are there only 5 words in the Sanskrit version but so many words in the English version ?
A) Of course, the translation I provided is absolutely correct. But your doubt is also genuine. To know why the Sanskrit version is so economic in the usage of words, we need to first understand it’s structure.

Q) Umm hmm, go on..
A) As mentioned in the first article of the series, the words in Sanskrit represent properties.  So the 5 words used in this sentence also represent properties.
मूर्ख = (the property of being) stupid
परिहर्तव्य = (the property that makes one) avoidable (by others)
प्रत्यक्ष = (the property of being) in front of the eyes
द्विपद = (the property of) having two legs
पशु = (the property of usually being) tethered

But, in spoken language, we always refer to objects and not properties. (The object being referred to need not exist in the real world. It is sufficient if it exists in the speaker’s imagination.)  So we need a way to force the above words to represent objects rather than properties. That way of forcing a word(which represents a property) to represent an object is called vibhakti.

So, मूर्ख represents the property of being stupid, but मूर्खः (which is a vibhakti of the word मूर्ख) represents an object/person who is stupid. Here, मूर्खः is called the first vibhakti of the word मूर्ख | Similarly, परिहर्तव्यः is the first vibhakti of the word परिहर्तव्य | So, we have
परिहर्तव्यः = an object/person who must be avoided
प्रत्यक्षःan object/person located in front of the eyes
द्विपदः = a object/creature having two legs
पशुः = an object/creature who is tethered = a beast or cattle (because usually beast or cattle is tethered)

Q) Hmm, cool. So this sentence has five words which represent 5 properties. But we converted the 5 words into their first vibhaktis. So the 5 new converted words represent 5 objects having those 5 properties. Am I right ?
A) Yes, absolutely.

Q) So far we have 5 different (vibhaktified) words representing 5 different objects having 5 different properties. How does this help in making a meaningful sentence. ?
A) Here comes the climax. There is a rule of Sanskrit Grammar which states that words having the same vibhakti represent the same object and not different objects! So the 5 different (vibhaktified) words actually do not represent 5 different objects, rather they are like pointers that point to the same object because they all have the same vibhakti viz. first vibhakti!”

 

The same mechanism is explained below graphically.

Demo of Sanskrit as Computer freindly.jpg

Demo of Sanskrit as Computer freindly.

Q) Wow! So a typical word in Sanskrit is like class in Java(without methods) and the vibhaktified form of that word is like a pointer to an object of that class. Right ?
A) Yes! You got it.  And not just that. There are actually 8 kinds of vibhaktis in all. In this article, we have considered only the first of those 8 kinds of vibhaktis.

 

Artificial Intelligence.

‘There is at least one language, Sanskrit, which for the duration of almost 1,000 years was a living spoken language with a considerable literature of its own. Besides works of literary value, there was a long philosophical and grammatical tradition that has continued to exist with undiminished vigor until the present century. Among the accomplishments of the grammarians can be reckoned a method for paraphrasing Sanskrit in a manner that is identical not only in essence but in form with current work in Artificial Intelligence. This article demonstrates that a natural language can serve as an artificial language also, and that much work in AI has been reinventing a wheel millenia old.

Computer Programming with Sanskrit.jpg

Computer Programming with Sanskrit.

First, a typical Knowledge Representation Scheme (using Semantic Nets) will be laid out, followed by an outline of the method used by the ancient Indian Grammarians to analyze.

Citation.

Artificial Intelligence

Sanskrit for Computer

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Earth will be dark.jpg
Interesting and funny

Earth Will Be In Darkness NASA Hoax


There are reports that  the Earth will be in complete darkness for six days from December 16 to December 22, 2014.

 

This is being attributed to a severe Solar Storm.

 

NASA has confirmed, these reports say.

 

NASA has confirmed that the Earth will experience 6 days of almost complete darkness and will happen from the dates Tuesday the 16 – Monday the 22 in December. The world will remain, during these three days, without sunlight due to a solar storm, which will cause dust and space debris to become plentiful and thus, block 90% sunlight.

This is the head of NASA Charles Bolden who made the announcement and asked everyone to remain calm. This will be the product of a solar storm, the largest in the last 250 years for a period of 216 hours total. Reporters interviewed a few people to hear what they had to say about the situation with Michael Hearns responding “We gonna be purgin my n*gga, six days of darkness means six days of turnin up fam”.

Despite the six days of darkness soon to come, officials say that the earth will not experience any major problems, since six days of darkness is nowhere near enough to cause major damage to anything. “We will solely rely on artificial light for the six days, which is not a problem at all”, says NASA scientist Earl Godoy. Visit our website daily for more shocking news!”

 

This is Hoax.

 

The more audacious the Lie, more people believe it .

 

I recall in 1962( was it 64), there were reports, Government Media included, that the world would end on a particular day because nine planets would lie in a straight line.

 

I recollect that the Kanchi Paramacharya advising people to chant the Thevaram song,

 

‘;வேயுறு தோளிபங்கன் மிக நல்ல வீணை …’

 

and people were frantically doing that.

 

I also recollect I was disciplined by father and cursed by others for saying that this was a gimmick to promote Thevaram  and being irreverent to the Kanchi Acharya .

 

Then we had the latest Mayan Calendar joke.

 

I posted an article that this was another fraud.

 

Hindu scriptures state that we are in the 5007 year of Kali Yuga, and that it has just started.

 

It has a long way to go.

 

The news that the Earth will be in total darkness for six days is a Hoax.

 

“According to a ‘news’ report that is being distributed via social media, the Earth will experience 6 days of total darkness in December due to a solar storm. Supposedly, NASA chief Charles Bolden confirmed the event and has asked people to remain calm.

The report claims that the 6-day blackout will take place between the 16th and the 22nd of December.

 

However, not surprisingly, the report is fiction. NASA has not announced any impending blackout. No such event is set to occur in December or any other month.

The hoax report comes courtesy of the fake-news website Huzlers. Huzlers fancies itself as satirical and includes the following disclaimer at the bottom of its pages:

Huzlers.com is a combination of real shocking news and satirical entertainment to keep its visitors in a state of disbelief.

The site has been responsible for a string of nonsensical fake-news reports that have spread virally, often causing fear and consternation as they travel. Readers should not believe any of the reports published on the site.”

 

At the rate people fall for stories like this, people may believe a report that the Congress party , Sonia Gandhi,Rajiv Gandhi, Kani Mozhi, A. Raja  and Karuanidhi were not involved in corruption at all.

Citation.

http://www.huzlers.com/nasa-confirms-earth-will-experience-6-days-total-darkness-december-2014/

 

http://www.hoax-slayer.com/fake-news-nasa-6-days-darkness.shtml

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Astrophysics

Thigh Bone Human Fingers Reptile Spine In Mars


In what is believed to be a  Thigh Bone in Mars by Curiosity over has kindled the interest  in Alien Life.

 

This is the image.

 

 

Femur in Mars,jpg

Femur in Mars, Image cedit. http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/4g1nnrH8qL0/0.jpg

 

For keen alien hunters, the image above – taken by the rover’s MastCam on August 14 – is proof that large animals once roamed Mars, possibly even dinosaurs.

“Simply put this shows that there were some living things on the Mars (sic),” asserts an anonymous editorial writer atNorthern Voices Online, while the popular site UFO Blogger compares the find to previous images of a “fossilized, reptilian spine” and a “human finger”.

The regularity of these ‘finds’ is of course testament not to the once-flourishing wildlife of Mars, but to the human brain’s remarkable capacity to spot patterns in random noise.

This was a handy trait for our ancestors when identifying a potential predator among the primeval foliage, but in modern times it’s more likely to lead only to those little ‘huh’ moments when we spot a face in some inanimate object.

Of course, there is some truth to conspiracy theorists’ hopes of life on Mars, with scientists pointing out last year that the asteroid impact that killed of the dinosaurs could have flung rocks carrying organic matter to the red planet some 66 million years ago.

 

 

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/alien-thigh-bone-on-mars-excitement-from-alien-hunters-at-evidence-of-extraterrestrial-life-9685227.html

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