Krishna Dynasty Kingdoms Extended Throughout India

One comes across interesting information when one researches the Indian Texts, which have been discarded by the West and accepted by the Indian Intellectuals((?)

Yadava Kingdom.png Spread of Yadavas .Yadava Kingdom.

To me the Indian Texts are History and there is ample physical evidence to prove what has been stated in them.

They have been validated by archeology, astronomy, internal and external evidence of the west’s interpretation of Indian History.

I have written quite a few articles on the validation of Indian History, be it the Age of the Rig Veda, Rama and Krishna, Agastya, Tamil Kings, Shiva, Murugan,,the Age of Thiruvannamalai, Tirupati temples.

I have been intrigued by the worship of Aravan, son of Lord Krishna since early ages in Tamil Nadu.

There is a Temple for Aravan ,Koothaandaar Koil, near Tindivanam , about 3 hours from Chennai, where a festival is conducted years by the Third gender for Iravan.Aravan is called thus in Tamil as words starting from R is not allowed by Tamil Grammar.

And the practice of Bul fighting called Manju Virattu in Tamil from ancient times in Tamil Nadu has Krishna connection.

Bull Fighting , which is famous in Spain was started by Krishna!

And the term Eru Thazhuvudhal, that of  a jilted lover embracing death by climbing a special tree, also has Krishna connection!

I shall be writing on this in detail.

Meanwhile, I came across information that Krishna’s sons expanded their Kingdom throughout India and all the Kingdoms of India descended from either Rama or Krishna.

‘The main part that Mahabharata mentions that Arjuna established the son of Kritavarma at Mrittikavati and the great-grandson of Krishna, Vajra at Indraprastha. Some Puranas mention Vajra was established at Mathura. But these two kings did survive out of the Yadava clan. The Yadava clan was not completely wiped out but it’s influence reduced considerably.

The Abhiras were becoming strong since the Mahabharata war. Their kingdom was in the Sindhu region. The control of Purus and Yadavas reduced considerably on that region after the war. The Abhiras attacked Arjuna when he was taking back the Yadava women. The Abhiras took away some of these women. If the Mahabharata had actually happened around 3000 BC, then this entry of Abhiras in the Saraswati region could very well explain the Harappan civilization which sprung around the same time. The Gupta dynasty is claimed to have sprung from these Abhiras. The Yadava kingdoms did exist, but became less in number. The one Yadava kingdom that existed was the Devagiri kingdom in Maharashtra whose rulers claim direct descent from Krishna. There still exist people with the surname Yadav in north India who claim descent from the royal Yadavas. Apart from that, Nanda, Krishna’s foster father was also included in the Yadava clan and his descendants called Nandavanshi Yadavas still exist…..”

It can be inferred from the vamshanucharita (genealogy) sections of a number of major Puranas that, the Yadavas spread out over the Aravalli region, Gujarat, the Narmada valley, the northern Deccan and the eastern Ganges valley.[10] TheMahabharata and the Puranas mention that the Yadus or Yadavas, a confederacy comprising numerous clans were the rulers of the Mathura region.[11] The Mahabharata also refers to the exodus of the Yadavas from Mathura to Dvaraka owing to pressure from the Paurava rulers of Magadha, and probably also from the Kurus”

Yadava dynasty, rulers of a 12th–14th-century Hindu kingdom of central India in what is now the Indian state of Maharashtra. Originally a feudatory of the Eastern Chalukyas of Kalyani, the dynasty became paramount in the Deccan under Bhillama (c. 1187–91), who founded Devagiri (later Daulatabad) as his capital. Under Bhillama’s grandsonSinghana (reigned c. 1210–47) the dynasty reached its height, as the Yadava campaigned against the Hoysalas in the south, the Kakatiyas in the east, and the Paramaras and Chalukyas in the north.

The Yadavas spread to me Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

The Velir Kingdoms were , at one point of time, the Major allies of Chola Kings.







Tamil Chola Sibi Ruled From Pakistan?

The affinity of Sanskrit, Tamil Culture with Sanatana Dharma is very close.

The Tamil kings are referred to in the Vedas, Puranas, Ramayana and Mahabharata.

They predate even Lord Rama.

Tamil ings were present during the Swayamvar of Sita,

They were present during the Swayamvar of Nala and Damayanthi.

Nala was the ancestor of Lord Rama and legends have it that Nala visited Thirunaru, Pondicherry, to be relived of Shani(Saturn’s) effect.

Though there are many  anecdotes of Tamil Kings, who trace their lineage to Solar Dynasty, two stand out.

One is Manu Needhi Chola,means, one who effectively enforced the rules elaborated by Manu.

He ran his son over by his chariot,(he was riding it) because a Cow complained to him by ringing the Bell he installed to hear people’s grievances and informed him that his son ran over its calf.

Manuneedhi Chola atoned it by running his chariot over his son!

The episode is found in the Hitti Civilization-they were the forerunners of the Anatolian Civilization.

Another is Emperor Sibi.

Chakravarthy Sibi is mentioned in the Rig Veda, Ramayana and Mahabharata , apart from references in the eighteen Puranas.

Thereafter, the king when recovered from loss of consciousness and again returned to his breath, called that charioteer for the purpose of getting the report on Rama. Then, Sumantra, who joined his palms in reverence, approached the monarch who was repenting about Rama alone, filled with pain and sorrow, advanced in age, greatly anguished, sighing like a newly caught elephant and reflecting on something as a sick elephant.

 The king, having great distress, spoke to Sumantra, whose body was covered with dust, his face filled with tears, who was miserable and who approached near him (as follows):” Oh, Sumantra! Where can Rama the virtuous man abide, taking refuge at the root of a tree? What that Rama, who enjoyed very many pleasantries, can eat now? Oh, Sumantra! How can Rama the prince, who was habituated to good beds, sleep with such discomfort on a floor like an orphan? Footsoldiers, Chariots and elephants used to follow whenever Rama was marching ahead. How such a man can take shelter and stay in a forest devoid of people? How Seetha Rama and Lakshmana entered forest filled with wild animals and black snakes? How those princes with Seetha the delicate and the poor lady went on foot, after descending from the chariot? You have seen my sons entering the forest, as though divinities of Aswini had entered the Mountain-range of Mandara. You are indeed lucky. After reaching the forest, what words did Rama speak? What did Lakshmana speak? What did Seetha speak?  Tell me where Rama sat, slept and took food. By hearing these things, I shall survive, as Yayati survived in the company of saints.”

Comment: King Yayati, when doomed to fall from heaven requested Indra to cast his lot with saints. He was accordingly sent down to a spot on the earth, where four ascetics- Astaka Pratardana, Vasuman and parva King Sibi had been practicing austerities, and had discourse with them- Mahabharata, Adi Parva.

Ayodhya Kanda, Ramayana, Sarga 58

Sibi was son of King Usinara and queen Madhavi. He was a righteous king. Indra and Agni wanted to test his integrity and so they took the form of birds hawk and dove. The hawk chased the dove and it sought protection from Sibi. Sibi was ready to give the hawk anything except the dove. But the hawk (Indra) was so adamant demanded either the dove or equal measure of meat from the king. When the king cut his flesh and placed it on one pan and the dove on the other pan, it was never equal. The king himself mounted the balance to give himself for the sake of the dove. But Indra and Agni revealed themselves and blessed him. There is another story of Sibi’s eye donation in the Buddhist Jataka.

This story is sung by several poets and they are in Purananuru verses 37, 39, 43 46 and 228. Sibi’s wards were called Saibya in Sanskrit. Sangam Tamil poets Tamilized this word and called the Chozas Sembian. This word is in other Sangam books Aka Nanuru (36) and Natrinai (14)…

King Sibi weighing his Thigh Flesh.Sculpture, Borobudur King Sibi weighing his Thigh Flesh.

The story of Sibi Chakravarthy is so famous that it was sculpted in the Barhut, Nagarjunakonda ,Amaravati bas-reliefs and  Borobudur in Java,Indonesia (see Boropudur sculpture above).

Tamil epics Silappadikaram and Manimekalai gave more details about this link. Since the oldest part of Sangam Tamil literature mentions it no one can reject it. The link is confirmed with other stories as well.

Sibi ruled from the north west of India. There was a Sibi puram on the banks of river Chenab in Punjab. Sibi clan is mentioned in Rig Veda and Brahmanas. Panini referred one Sivapuram may be the same Sibipuram’

Sibi is in Nort west of India, currently in Pakistan.

There are views that Sibi ruled from there and that the Tamils were from North India.

Considering the differences between the Tamil Culture and Sanatana Dharma, thought Tamils were a part of Sanatana Dharma and the archeological evidence,Literature, the structural difference between Sanskrit , I am of the opinion that it is not so.

In the case of Sibi. it is probable that Sibi had the city of Sibi as a second capital.

Sibi (Balochi: بلوچ ) (Urdu: سِبی‎) is a city of Balochistan province of Pakistan. The city is located at 29°33’0N 67°52’60E at an altitude of 130 metres (429 feet)[1] and is headquarters of the district and tehsil of the same name.[2] According to the 2001 census of Pakistan, the population of Sibi is 52,100..



Christianity, Hinduism

Samaritans Of Israel Ailas Yadavas Pauravas Of Mahabharata

Mount Meru occupies an important part of Hinduism.

Devi Lalitha is described as sitting in the center of the Mount Sumeru, in Sri Nagara.

Sumeru Mandala Madhyastha Sriman Nagara Nayika- Lalitha Sahasranama.

The Open Secret of India, Israel and Mexico from Genesis to Revelation..jpg The Open Secret of India, Israel and Mexico from Genesis to Revelation.

I have written a few articles on the location of Mount Meru.

Meru is found in all the middle eastern literature , along with the Lotus Motif, a special feature of Devi.

Sumerian culture’s Link with Sanatana Dharma has been dealt with in detail in my earlier Posts.

We have the 786 of Islam being the OM of Hinduism.

There was Shiva Temple in Mecca.

Also in Jordan, Petro Jordan Shiva temple.

The Greeks had a fascination for Krishna and we have many legends of Krishna in Greece and there is enough evidence to suggest that the Greeks worshiped Lord Krishna.

Pillars of Hercules are reported to be a Tribute to Lord Krishna.

Then we have the Tamil connection to Hitti Empire, Mittani,Incas, Aztecs,Mayas.

I have Posts on all these ..

After the epic battle of Mahabharata, exodus from India began .

Many tribes fled from India towards the North and West.

It has come to light that one of the tribes, Ailahs fled to the middle east and the Arabs called their God as Allah, from the Sanskrit speaking tribes Ailah.

Ailas were a part of Yadavas and Pauravs who took part in the Mahabharata battle.

And this tribe did not stop here.

They proceeded further west.

And landed in Samaria.

This is in Israel’s ancient capital.

The Samarians were  mainly concentrated  Mt.Gerer.

We use the word good Samaritans to denote good work.

These Samaritans were of Indian origin.



The Open Secret of India,Israel and Mexico from Genesis to Revelations by Gene Matlock.
Check out for this book and more.

Assyria, Babylonia & Sumer




Arunachala Shiva.jpg

Manu Dravida Ancestor Precedes Daksha Dravida Sanatana Dharma

I was intrigued by the fact that the Shiva worship starts with Daksha, who is the first Human being by Brahma for each Yuga.

And Daksha Kingdom was in the North of the Vindhyas.

Daksha’s daughter married Shiva.Daksha with Veerabhadra.jpg “Painting on paper depicting ‘Virabhadra The red-hued deity is coiffed exactly like Śiva. This is an unusual rendering of Virabhadra. The face of the Ganga peeps out of the dreadlocks, while loose jatas fly around his head. On his forehead is a prominent tripundra. Side fangs protrude from his mouth and a bushy moustache grows on his upper lip. In his upper right hand is a damaru, in his upper left hand a flame, the lower right hand carries a sword and the lower left a buckler. The attributes in his upper hands are unusual, as they generally bear the bow and the arrow. He is dressed in a dhoti adorned by sashes on the sides and an angavastra is draped on his elbows. Among his ornaments is a long white garland. On his feet are toe-knob sandals. At his left stands the ram-headed Daksha, sporting tripundra marks on his forehead and arms dressed in dhoti and with the angavastra tied around his hips.” Image credit.”Virabhadra Daksha” by Unknown – http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.aspx?objectid=3058344&partid=1&output=Places%2f!!%2fOR%2f!!%2f41361%2f!%2f41361-2-20%2f!%2fPainted+in+Thanjavur%2f!%2f%2f!!%2f%2f!!!%2f&orig=%2fresearch%2fsearch_the_collection_database%2fadvanced_search.aspx&currentPage=1&numpages=10. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Virabhadra_Daksha.jpg#/media/File:Virabhadra_Daksha.jpg’

Vishnu worship seems to have been later than that of Shiva in the South, Dravida worship.

Rama’s ancestor Satyavrata Manu migrated from the South to Ayodhya, where his son Ikshvaku founded the Ikshvaku Dynasty..

If Daksha were to be the first Human being created then how do we account for Manu?

Manu seems to pre date Daksha as,

1.Daksha came later, in the beginning of the Yuga, whereas Manu is for Manvantara.

A Manu’s lifespan is 71 Mahayugas (306,720,000 years).

‘Yuga  is the name of an epoch or era within a four age cycle. According to Hindu cosmology, life in the universe is created and destroyed once every 4.1 to 8.2 billion years,] which is one full day and night for Brahma. The lifetime of Brahma himself believed to be 311 trillion and 40 billion years as per Hindu cosmology.’

Manus and Saptha Rishis are for every Manvantara..

One of the Saptha Rishis is Agastya.

‘The earliest list of the Seven Rishis is given by Jaiminiya Brahmana 2.218-221: Vashista, Bharadvaja, Jamadagni, Gautama, Atri,Visvamitra, and Agastya, followed by Brihadaranyaka Upanisad 2.2.6 with a slightly different list: Gautama and Bharadvāja, Viśvāmitra and Jamadagni, Vashiṣṭha and Kaśyapa, and Atri, Brighu. The late Gopatha Brāhmana 1.2.8 has Vashiṣṭa, Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Gautama, Bharadvāja, Gungu, Agastya, Bhrighu and Kaśyapa..’

We find Agastya in the South advising Rama in the battle field not to lose heart and chant Adhitya Hrudayam on Lord Surya to win the war against Ravana.

Then we have Lord Shiva as the Father of Tamil Language.

Of course Sanskrit is also from Shiva’s Damaru, Maheswara Sutras.(Please read m Post on this)

We find the legends of Shiva in the north from the marriage of Sati ,daughter of Daksha with Shiva.

Nothing more of Shiva is mentioned in these North Indian Legends.

Manus, Hinduism.Jpg Manus

‘In The Immortals of Meluha, Manu is said to be a prince from south India. His family, the Pandyas having ruled the mythical land of Sangamatamil for many generations. The decadence of the Kings incurred the wrath of the gods. A great deluge submerged the entire civilization. Manu having foreseen this escaped with his followers to the higher northern lands. Manu turned into an ascetic. Eventually Manu’s prayers pacified the gods and the water abated.

In the South Shiva worship has been in vogue much earlier as Adi Shiva, The Silent Teacher,Dakshina Murthy,First Yogi who initiated Agastya, who initiated Bhogar and Kriya Babaji.

The we have Lord Subrahmanya called as Murugan and His worship is quite old.

Though the Tamil Grammar, earliest of Tamil works assigns Varuna, Indra, Vishnu, Murugan(Subrahmanya), and Devi to each of the landmass , Kurinji,Marutham, Mullai, Neydhal and Palai, Shiva always remains in the background as the Chief.

He is called as the Ancient of the Ancients.

‘Munnai Pazhamprutkum Munnaip Pazham Porule’

He is also called Pirva Yaakaip Periyon’

That is Eldest though Unborn.

Sanskrit also calls Him as Ayonija, one who does not stay in the womb.

We have a lot of references to the South in the Puranas and Ithihasas about Tamils.

Bhagavatam 11.5.38-40
kritadishu praja rajan
kalav icchanti sambhavam
kalau khalu bhavishyanti
kvacit kvacin maha-raja
dravideshu ca bhurisah
tamraparni nadi yatra
kritamala payasvini
kaveri ca maha-punya
pratici ca maha-nadi
ye pibanti jalam tasam
manuja manujesvara
prayo bhakta bhagavati
vasudeve ‘malasayah
krita- adishu — of Satya and the
other earlier ages; prajah — the
inhabitants; rajan — O King; kalau —
in Kali-yuga; icchanti — they want;
sambhavam — birth; kalau — in Kali;
khalu — certainly; bhavishyanti —
there will be; narayana- parayanah —
devotees who dedicate their lives to
the service of Lord Narayana; kvacit
kvacit — here and there; maha-raja —
O great monarch; dravideshu — in
the provinces of South India; ca —
but; bhurisah — especially
plentifully; tamraparni — named
Tamraparni; nadi — the river; yatra —
where; kritamala — Kritamala;
payasvini — Payasvini; kaveri —
Kaveri; ca — and; maha- punya —
extremely pious; pratici — named
Pratici; ca — and; maha-nadi — the
Mahanadi; ye — those who; pibanti —
drink; jalam — the water; tasam — of
these; manujah — humans; manuja-
isvara — O lord of men (Nimi);
prayah — for the most part; bhaktah
— devotees; bhagavati — of the
Personality of Godhead; vasudeve —
Lord Vasudeva; amala- asayah —
having spotless hearts.
My dear King, the inhabitants of
Satya-yuga and other ages eagerly
desire to take birth in this age of
Kali, since in this age there will be
many devotees of the Supreme Lord,
Narayana. These devotees will
appear in various places but will be
especially numerous in South India.
O master of men, in the age of Kali
those persons who drink the waters
of the holy rivers of Dravida-desa,
such as the Tamraparni, Krtamala,
Payasvini, the extremely pious Kaveri
and the Pratici Mahanadi, will
almost all be purehearted devotees(
of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, Vasudeva.(http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvars)


ाः तस्याम्
दिशि सुदुर्गमाः |
कपीइशः कपि मुख्यानाम् स तेषाम्
समुदाहरत् || ४-४१-७
7. tasyaam dishi = in that, direction
of compass; su dur gamaaH = verily,
impossible, to pass – highly
impassable; ye ke cana = which of
those few; sam ut deshaaH = well,
intended, countries – some countries
that need be explained; about them;
saH kapi iishaH = he that, monkeys,
king of – Sugreeva; teSaam kapi
mukhyaanaam = to them, monkey,
prominent ones; sam udaaharat =
well, illustrated – gave a picture of.
The king of monkeys Sugreeva gave a
picture about some of the highly
impassable countries available in
southern quarter that need an
introduction to those prominent
monkeys bound south. [4-41-7]

सहस्र शिरसम् विंध्यम् नाना द्रुम
लता आयुतम् |
नर्मदाम् च नदीम् रम्याम् महोरग
निषेविताम् || ४-४१-८
ततो गोदावरीम् रम्याम् कृष्णावेणीम्
महानदीम् |
वरदाम् च महाभागाम् महोरग
निषेविताम् |
मेखलान् उत्कलाम् चैव दशार्ण
नगराणि अपि || ४-४१-९
अब्रवंतीम् अवंतीम् च सर्वम् एव अनुपश्यत
विदर्भान् ऋष्टिकान् चैव रम्यान्
माहिषकान् अपि || ४-४१-१०
8. sahasra shirasam = thousands, of
heads [crests]; naanaa druma lataa
aayutam = numerous, trees,
climbers, abounding in; vindhyam =
Vindhya Range; mahaa uraga ni
Sevitaam = great, snakes, adored by;
ramyaam narmadaam nadiim ca =
delightful one, Narmada, river, also;
tataH = then; ramyaam godaavariim
= wonderful one, River Godavari;
mahaanadiim = River Mahaanadi;
kR^iSNaaveNiim = River Krishnaveni,
or Krishna; mahaa bhaagaam =
highly, auspicious one; mahaa uraga
niSevitaam = by great, snakes,
adored by; varadaam ca = River
Varada, also; mekhalaan utkalaam
caiva = Mekhala, Utkala [in
territories,] also thus; dashaarNa
nagaraaNi api = Dashaarna, in cities,
also; abravantiim avantiim ca =
Abravanti, Avanti, also; vidarbhaan
R^iSTikaan caiva = Vidarbha,
Rishtika, also, thus; ramyaan
maahiSakaan api = charming
[kingdom,] in Maheeshaka, even;
sarvam eva anu pashyata = all
[everywhere,] thus, closely, see –
search thoroughly.
“Search the thousand crested
Vindhya mountains abounding with
numerous tress and climbers, then
the delightful Narmada river
coursing a little southerly to that
range, which is adored by great
snakes, along with wonderful River
Godavari, as well as River
Krishnaveni and Maha Nadi, and
then the greatly auspicious River
Varada which is an adoration to
great snakes. And the territories of
Mekhala, Utkala, the cities of
Dashaarna, kingdoms of Abravanti,
Avanti, and Vidarbha, also thus the
charming kingdom of Maheehaka, are
to be searched thoroughly. [4-41-10] Valmiki Ramayana Valmiki Ramayana – Kishkindha Kanda – Sarga 41

We have references to a Tamil King Perunchotru Udiyan Cheralaathan performing Tharpana for the dead in the Mahabharata War in Chera Kingdom.

He also provided food for both Kaurva and Pandava Armies during the Mahabharata war.

Vedas mention the spices , Peacocks, Special sandalwood.elephants being imported from the South.

During Draupadi Swayamvara Tamil Kings were present.

Tamil Kingas attended Rama and Sita Marriage at Mithila.

The vanaras were in Kishkinta pre dating Rama and were Shiva worshipers.

Hanuman is one and is considered to be an Amsa of Shiva, some say He is an Avatar of Shiva.

Considering all these facts and admitting these facts provided by the Vedas,Puranas,Ramayana and Mahabharata, it is quite probable that he Sanatana Dharma was in place much before what is found in the North.

Please refer my posts on Shiva’s Marriage date. Agastya Date, Ramayana Mahabharata Dates,Ram’s ancestor Satavrata Manu being a Dravida,Thiruvannamalai Billion Year Old and many more.

Inputs welcome.





The references in Sanskrit on Tamil are numerous.

I have quoted only a few.

Tamil references on Sanana Dharma, Vedas, Ramayana and Mahabharata are much more.


Working Model Of Vishnu Chakra In Melarasur Lalgudi

There are numerous weapons described in the Mahabharata.

I have posted on various weapons used in the Mahabharata Battle and the Weapons of Mass Destruction(WMD).

Vishnu's Discus.

Vishnu’s Discus.gif

These are deadly weapons and so far I have been able get information on them through the epics and other texts in Sanskrit/Tamil literature.

And of course one sees many of these weapons in Hindu Temples either as a weapon in God’s hands or as a sculpture/painting in the Prahara of a temple.

Some of these weapons were called Astras, while the others  were known as Sastras.

The Sastras are conventional weapons which can be used by anyone with proper training as one uses a Gun.

But Astras are different in that they can be used only after initiation from a Guru.

And one is expected to chant a specific Mantra.

Brahmastra, the equivalent of Hydrogen Bomb is an Astra.

There is another category of weapon which can be used both as conventional weapon and as an Astra.

This is the Chakra, (Discus)

Famous Chakra is Vishnus’ Sudharshan Chakra.

Lord Krishna also wields this.

Now a working Model of this has been found in Melarasur,near Lalgudi

The news item explains.(image below)

News on Chakram in the Indian Express.image.

News on Chakram in the Indian Express. Click on the Image To Enlarge.

‘The chakram (Devanāgarī: चक्रं; Panjabi: chakkar; Malay: cakeram) is a throwing weapon from India. It is circular in shape with a sharpened outer edge and ranges in size from approximately 12–30 centimetres (4.7–11.8 in) in diameter. It is also known as chalikar[1]‌ meaning “circle”, and was sometimes referred to in English writings as a “war-quoit”. The chakram is primarily a throwing weapon but can also be used hand-to-hand. A smaller variant called chakri was worn on the wrist. A related weapon is the chakri dang, a bamboo staff with a chakri attached at one end…

Earliest references to the chakram come from the Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana where the Sudarshana Chakra is the weapon of the god Vishnu. Chakradhaari (“chakram-wielder,” or simply “circle-man”) is a name for Krishna. The chakram was later used extensively by the Sikhs as recently as the days of Ranjit Singh. It came to be associated with Sikhs because of the Nihang practice of wearing chakram on their arms, around the neck and even tied in tiers on high turbans. The Portuguese chronicler Duarte Barbosa writes (c. 1516) of the chakram being used in the Delhi Sultanate.[2]

The people of the kingdom … are very good fighting men and good knights, armed with many kinds of weapons; they are great bowmen, and very strong men; they have very good lances, swords, daggers, steel maces, and battle-axes, with which they fight; and they have some steel wheels,which they call chakarani, two fingers broad, sharp outside like knives, and without edge inside; and the surface of these is of the size of a small plate. And they carry seven or eight of these each, put on the left arm; and they take one and put it on the finger of the right hand, and make it spin round many times, and so they hurl it at their enemies, and if they hit anyone on the arm or leg or neck, it cuts through all. And with these they carry on much fighting, and are very dexterous with them.

From its native India, variations of the chakram spread to other Asian countries. In Tibet, Malaysia, and Indonesia, the chakram was not flat but torus-like. The Mongol cavalry used a similar throwing weapon with spiked edges.[citation needed]


Chakram are traditionally made from steel or brass which is beaten into a circular shape against an anvil with an indentation for the curvature. Two ends are connected with a piece of brass and then heated, forming a complete circle before the brass is removed. Some chakram, even those used in combat, were ornately engraved, or inlaid with brass, silver or gold.

The chakram is half an inch to one inch wide and is typically between 5-12 inches in diameter. The smaller variations are known as chakriwhile the larger ones are called vada chakra which were as large as a shield.

Throwing Technic.

The chakram’s combat application is largely dependent on its size. Regular-sized (15+ cm dia.) steel chakram could be thrown 40–60 meters, while brass chakram, due to their better airfoil design, could be thrown in excess of 100 meters.[4] If properly constructed, it should be a perfect circle. Warriors trained by throwing chakram at lengths of green bamboo. In single combat, the chakram could be thrown underarm like a modern Aerobie. In battle, it was usually thrown vertically so as to avoid accidentally hitting an ally on the left or right side. A stack of chakram could be quickly thrown one at a time like shuriken. On elephant or horseback, chakram could be more easily thrown than spears or arrows. Because of its aerodynamic circular shape it is not easily deflected by wind.

The most iconic method of throwing a chakram is tajani, wherein the weapon is twirled on the index finger of an upraised hand and thrown with a timed flick of the wrist. The spin is meant to add power and range to the throw, while also avoiding the risk of cutting oneself on the sharp outer edge. An adept user can twirl the chakram while using another weapon with the other hand. The use of tajani in battle was perfected by the Nihang who employed a particular formation to protect the chakram-wielder from harm. Although variants of the chakram would make their way to neighbouring parts of the region, the tajani technique appears to have remained unique to Indian martial arts.

The smaller chakri could also be worn on the arms or wrists and used like knuckledusters. When worn on the arms the chakri could be used to break or cut the opponent’s arms while grappling. The larger vada chakra were worn around the neck and thrown or dropped down on the opponent vertically. In the turban, it could be raked across an enemy’s face or eyes while fighting.