Posts Tagged ‘Mahabharata’

Naval Depatment Of Tamils Ancient India

In Hinduism on February 28, 2015 at 22:07

As I write on the spread of Hinduism, Sanatana Dharma, I wondered about two points.

There is no doubt that the Sanatana dharma of Hindus spread far and wide throughout the world is indisputable considering the archeological finds found throughout the world indicating the presence of Sanatana Dharma.

Two questions remain.

How did people travel so far?

Secondly how did they fight the wars with the foreign invaders when it happened?

Though Puranas and Ithihasa speak of what appears to be beyond Human capacity of crossing the ocean by flying, there ae references that the ancient knew about Ships and warfare.

While one may question as to how Hanuman could fly over  the Ocean to Lanka, Valmiki in the same breath talks of ships!

When Hanuman was crossing the ocean to Lanka, he is compared to a ship tossed by winds on the high seas. Sugriva speaks of Sumatra, Java and even the Red Sea, when sending forth his monkey hosts in quest of Sita.

This only means that though the people during Ramayana knew of ships, yet Hanuman chose to fly.

Indian Ship landing 543 BC

Ships Landing of Prince Vijaya in Sri Lanka – 543 BC from Ajanta Frescos.
Ajanta painting of a later date depict horses and elephants aboard the ship which carried Prince Vijaya to Sri Lanka.
(source: India Through the ages – By K. M. Panikkar).

The Rig Veda mentions “merchants who crowd the great waters with ships”.

The Ramayana speaks of merchants who crossed the sea and bought gifts for the king of Ayodhya.

Manu legislates for safe carriage and freight by river and sea.

In some of the earliest Buddhist literature we read of voyages ‘out of sight’ of land, some lasting six months or so.

“There was also extensive intercourse of India with foreign countries, including the Mediterranean lands and the African continent, naturally led to piracy on the waters. There then arose the need for the protection of sea-borne trade, and we are told that “at the outset the merchant vessels of India carried a small body of trained archers armed with bows and arrows to repulse the attacks of the pirates, but later they employed guns, cannon and other more deadly weapons of warfare with a few wonderful and delusive contrivances.”

-William Vincent pp. 457). These are probably the beginnings of the ancient Indian navy. in The Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients In the Indian Ocean.

The navy is one of the angas (part) of the complete army. Examples of ships being used for military purposes are not lacking. When Vidura scented danger to Kunti’s five sons, he made them escape to the forest with their mother, crossing the Ganges in a boat equipped with weapons having the power of withstanding wind and wave.(Mahabharata Shanti Parva 59,41)


Darius launched a maritime expedition under Skylax of Caryanda to the Indus Delta, and during Alexander’s time, again, we read of the people of the Punjab fitting out a fleet. We have the testimony of Arrian to show that the Xathroi (Kshatri), one of the Punjab tribes, supplied Alexander during his return voyage with thirty oared galleys and transport vessels which were built by them.

-Herodotus 517 BC, India and Its Invasion by Alexander p. 156.


By regular practice one becomes an adept in fighting from chariot, horses, elephants and boats, and a past-master in archery.”

-Kamandaka (XVI, 50)


“Boats should be employed for military purposes when the theatre of hostilities abounded in water.

(Manu Samhita Vii 192)


‘The Admiralty as a department of the State may have been a creation of Chandragupta but there is evidence to show that the use of ships and boats was known to the people of the Rg Veda. ”

Early History of India, Vincent Smith P.133.

This exploit you achieved, Asvins in the ocean, where there is nothing to give support, nothing to rest upon, nothing to cling to, that you brought Bhujya, sailing in a hundred oared ship, to his father’s house.

Further on in the Veda, this same vessel is described as a plava which was storm-proof and which presented a pleasing appearance and had wings on its sides. Another reference informs us that Tugra dispatched a fleet of four vessels (Catasro navah) among which was the one referred to above. We may infer from these passages that the Asvins were a great commercial people having their home in a far-off island, and that their ruler Tugra maintained a fleet in the interests of his State. There are also other references in the Rg Veda to show that the ancient Indians were acquainted with the art of navigation. For instance, Varuna is credited with a knowledge of the ocean routes along which vessels sailed.

The Baudhayana Dharmasastra speaks of Samudrasamyanam and interprets it as nava dvipantaragamanam, i.e. sailing to other lands by ships. This very term occurs in the navadhyaksa section of the Kautaliya Arthasastra.

The Puranas have several references to the use of ships and boats. The Markandeya Purana speaks of vessels tossing about on the sea. The Varahapurana refers to the people who sailed far into the ocean in search of pearls and oysters. The ships floated daily on the shoreless, deep and fearful waters of the ocean. We are on firmer ground when we see in the Andhra period their coins marked with ships. The ship building activities were great on the east coast, and the Coromandel coast in particular. From this period to about 15th century A.D. there was a regular intercourse with the islands of the Archipelago most of which were colonized and also with ancient America right across the Pacific as testified to us by the archaeological finds and inscriptions in those parts.

The Pali books of Sri Lanka like the Mahavamsa refers to ocean going vessels carrying 700 passengers. Such frequent intercourse and colonization through the ages could not have been effected without a powerful fleet.



“Turning to the history of South India, we have evidence to show that the country had trade and culture contacts with foreign countries like Rome in the west and Malay Archipelago and South east Asia in the east. Yavana ships laden with articles of merchandise visited the west coast frequently. There was active foreign trade between Tamil Indian and the outer world at least from the time of Soloman, i.e. about 1000 B.C. Roman historians refer to the commercial intercourse that existed between Rome and South India. In the first century before Christ we hear of a Pandyan embassy to Augustus Caesar. (refer to Periplus translated by Schoff p. 46).

The Sangam classics point to the profession of pearl-diving and sea-fisheries on a large scale. We hear of shipwrecks of the early Tamils saved now and then by Manimekhalai, the goddess of the sea.

(Note: ancient Tamil tradition traces its origins to a submerged island or continent, Kumari Kandam, situated to the south of India. The Tamil epics Shilappadikaram and Manimekhalai provide glorious descriptions of the legendary city and port of Puhar, which the second text says was swallowed by the sea.


As in the case of Dwaraka, (please refer to chapter on Dwaraka and Aryan Invasion Theory), initial findings at and off Poompuhar, at the mouth of the Cauvery, show that there may well be a historical basis to this legend: apart from several structures excavated near the shore, such as brick walls, water reservoirs, even a wharf (all dated 200-300 B.C.), a few years ago a structure tantalizingly described as a “U-shaped stone structure” was found five kilometers offshore, at a depth of twenty-three meters; it is about forty meters long and twenty wide, and fishermen traditionally believed that a submerged temple existed at that exact spot. If the structure is confirmed to be man-made (and not a natural formation), its great depth would certainly push back the antiquity of Puhar.


Only more systematic explorations along Tamil Nadu’s coast, especially at Poompuhar, Mahabalipuram, and around Kanyakumari (where fishermen have long reported submerged structures too) can throw more light on the lost cities, and on the traditions of Kumari Kandam, which some have sought to identify with the mythical Lemuria…

We have the account of a Cera King conquering the Kadamba in the midst of sea waters. The Cera King Senguttuvan had a fleet with which he defeated the Yavanas who were punished with their hands being tied behind their backs and the pouring of oil on their heads. The Cholas also maintained a strong fleet with which they not only invaded and subjugated Lanka but also undertook overseas expeditions. Among the conquests of Rajaraja, Lanka was one, and his invasion of that island finds expression in the Tiruvalangadu plates, where it is described as follows:

“Rama built, with the aid of the monkeys, a causeway over the sea and then slew with great difficulty the king of Lanka by means of sharp-edged arrows. But Rama was excelled by this (king) whose powerful army crossed the ocean in ships and burnt the king of Lanka.”




You may find interesting material  in the above mentioned site


Tamil Kings In Mahabharata

In Hinduism on February 25, 2015 at 10:43

Tamil and Sanatana Dharma are so intermingled that one finds numerous references to The Tamils and  Tamil Kings in the Rig Veda, Ramayana, Mahabharata and other Puranas.

Ramayana mahabharata Dynasty Chart. image.png

Ramayana Mahabhrata Dynastie. Click to Enlarge.

I have written quite a few articles on this.

The Chola Kings trace their ancestry to the Solar Dynasty.

Chera King Udiyan Cheralaathan fed both the Kaurava and Pandya armies.

Krishna killed a Pandyan King(5:48)

Chera and Chola Kings were defeated by Krishna (7:11)

King Sarangathdwaja wanted to attack Dwaraka to avenge his father’s Death, the Pandya King,  after obtaining weapons from Bhisma, Drona, Balarama and Kripa.

However wiser counsel prevailed and he dropped the idea.

Later he fought alongside the side of the Pandavas against Drona(7:23).

He was rate as an Athiratha by Bhishma( (5,172)

When the mighty Pandya, that foremost of all wielder of weapons, has been slain in battle by the Pandavas, what can it be but destiny?(9:2)

Pandya, who dwelt on the coast-land near the sea, came accompanied by troops of various kinds to Yudhishthira, the king of kings (5:19). There hath come Pandya. Remarkably heroic and endued with prowess and energy that have no parallel, he is devoted to the Pandava cause. (5:22).

Pandya was  in the Rajasuya ceremony of Pandava King Yudhisthira.


The Kings of Chera and Pandya, brought numberless jars of gold filled with fragrant sandal juice from the hills of Malaya, and loads of sandal and aloe wood from the Dardduras hills, and many gems of great brilliancy and fine cloths inlaid with gold.

Singhalas gave those best of sea-born gems called the lapis lazuli, and heaps of pearls also, and hundreds of coverlets for elephants (2:51).(2:36,43).

Draupadi Swayamvara.

Pandya King took part in the  event Panchala princess Draupadi’s Swayamvara (MBh 1:189)




Krishna’s Cousin Arishtanemi Jain Tirthankara In Veda

In Jainism on February 24, 2015 at 13:17

Lord Krishna’s Cousin Arishtanemi is a Tirthankara of Jainism!

Lord Krishna as a child.Image.jpg

Krishna as a child

Arishtanemi is also called as Neminatha.

He is the twenty-second Thirthankara .

Tirthankara means one who helps to cross over, creates a Passage.

Life is considered to be an Ocean of pain, it is called Samsara.

Tirthankara is one who has crossed over the Cycle of Birth and death.

They create the path for those who follow them.

There are Twenty four Tirthankaras, Vardhamana Mahavira being the Twenty Fourth

More Tirthankara will manifest in future.

Buddhism and Jainism are two great religions of India and Jainism precedes Buddhism.

These  two Religions are nastika systems of Indian Thought.

Nastika means one that does not belive in the authority of the Vedas.

We may call these systems as Heterodox.

Jains have excellent system of Logic.

And their Ethical system is very stringent.

I shall be posting on Jainism in detail shortly.

Lord Krishna’s Cousin Arishtanemi was a Jain Tirthankara,  a counterpart of Lord Krishna,a Maha Purusha.

Arishtanemi, (Neminatha) Twenty second Tirthankara Sculpture,Image.jpg

Arishtanemi, (Neminatha) Twenty second Tirthankara of Jainism


“The Tirthankaras, along with 12 cakravartins (“world conquerors”), nine vasudevas (counterparts of Vasudeva, the patronymic of Krishna), and nine baladevas (counterparts of Balarama, the elder half-brother of Krishna), constitute the 54 mahapurusas (“great souls”), to which were later added nine prativasudevas(enemies of the vasudevas). Other, more minor, figures include nine naradas (counterparts of the deity Narada, the messenger between gods and humans), 11 rudras (counterparts of the Vedic god Rudra, from whom Siva is said to have evolved), and 24 kamadevas (gods of love), all of which show Hindu influences. There are also four groups of gods, the bhavanavasis (gods of the house), the vyantaras (intermediaries), the jyotiskas(luminaries), and the vaimanikas (astral gods). These deities were assimilated from ancient Indian folk religion.”

Note the Vasus, Rudras and Adityas.

My detailed post follows on this.

“Arishtanemi is a legendary figure. Said to have lived 84,000 years before the coming of the next Tirthankara, Parshvanatha, he is believed to have been the contemporary and cousin of the Hindu god Krishna. Legend holds that on his wedding day, Arishtanemi heard the cries of animals being slaughtered for the marriage feast and immediately renounced the world. The name Arishtanemi (“the rim [nemi] of whose wheel is unhurt [arishta]”) is attributed to a dream his mother had before he was born in which she saw a wheel of black jewels. In paintings of the Shvetambara sect, Arishtanemi always appears black (in paintings of the Digambara sect, he is blue). His symbol is the conch. According to Jain belief, he attained moksha (release from earthly existence) on the Girnar Hills in Kathiawar (in western India), which has become a place of pilgrimage for Jains.


wait, we have some thing more intersting.

The Vedas refer to Aritanemi in Svasti Vachana.

Svasti vachana is rendered at the conclusion of an auspicious occasion, to Bless by Auspicious words.



Reference and Citations.









Tamil King Offered Tharpana The Dead In Mahabharata 3102 BC

In Hinduism, Tamils on February 17, 2015 at 18:57

The Sanatana Dharma was an intruder into Tamil Culture, it was imposed by the Brahmins who crossed over th India through the Khyber Pass, say the Rationalists and The self-styled scholars of Tamil.

Yes , it was imposed to such an extent that the early Tamil literature Ahanaanuru records that the Chera King Udiyan Cheralaathan offered Tharpana to the people killed in the Mahabharata war.

Emblem of Chera Kings,jpg

Emblem of Chera Kings, Tamil Nadu,Bow ad Arrow.

He also fed both the Kaurava and Pandava Army, as a Third Umpire.

  1. அலங்கு உளைப் புரவி ஐவரொடு சினைஇ
    நிலம் தலைக் கொண்ட பொலம்பூந் தும்பை
    ஈர் ஐம்பதின்மரும் பொருது களத்து ஒழியப்
    பெருஞ்சோற்று மிகுபதம் வரையாது கொடுத்தோய் – புறநானூறு 2.-Poet Maamoolar

    ‘Provided Unlimited Food for the Battle by The Kauravas’

    2.Performed Tharpana and Sraddha.


    ‘ “துறக்கம் எய்திய தொய்யா நல்லிசை முதியர்ப் பேணிய உதியஞ்சேரல்”

    Udiyan Cheral performed obsequies for the ancestors’-Ahanaaanuru 233


    His contribution in feeding the army was acknowledged so much appreciated that he was subsequently called  with Prefix ‘Perunchotru Udiyan Cheralaathan’

    Perunchotru Udiyan means one who fed vast quantities of food to People.





Serpent Mound US Hindu Naga Loka Ruins?

In Hinduism on February 15, 2015 at 22:11

There is a 420 meter Long Mound called the Serpent Mound in Adams County,Ohio,US.

Serpent Mound Marker.jpg

Serpent Mound Ohio historical marker. “Serpent Mound Plaque” by Stepshep – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Serpent_Mound_Plaque.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Serpent_Mound_Plaque.jpg


The Great Serpent Mound is a 1,348-foot (411 m)-long,three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio. Maintained within a park by the Ohio Historical Society, it has been designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of Interior. The Serpent Mound of Ohio was first reported from surveys by Ephraim Squire and Edwin Davis in their historic volume Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, published in 1848 by the newly founded Smithsonian Museum.’

ncluding all three parts, the Serpent Mound extends about 1,370 feet (420 m), and varies in height from less than a foot to more than three feet (30–100 cm). Conforming to the curve of the land on which it rests, with its head approaching a cliff above a stream, the serpent winds back and forth for more than eight hundred feet and seven coils, and ends in a triple-coiled tail. The serpent head has an open mouth extending around the east end of a 120-foot (37 m)-long hollow oval feature.Most of them are depicted with the snake eating an egg or with eggs in the general vicinity,[5]though some scholars posit that the oval feature symbolizes the sun, the body of a frog, or merely the remnant of a platform. The effigy’s extreme western feature is a triangular mound approximately 31.6 feet (9.6 m) at its base and long axis. There are also serpent effigies in Scotland and Ontario that are very similar.

Various theories have been advanced on the meaning of this relic.

Built by members of the Adena culture,

the Hopewell culture, or the Fort Ancient culture.,

Allegheny people.

There is also a Theory that states how a comet-like Venus could have seemed to emerge from Jupiter as in ancient Hindu and Greek myths.There are serious suggestions that the serpent is intimately connected with the heavens. Several writers have suggested that the serpent is a model of the constellation we call the Little Dipper, its tail coiled about the north star.


the cosmos is often thought of as having three basic levels – i.e.,

Upperworld, earth, and Lowerworld . These three levels are vertically connected by an axis mundi. In Native American cosmology, the Upperworld is the realm of the sky, sun, and stars, as well as powerful celestial birds known as Thunderbirds. By contrast, the Lowerworld is a watery world, located opposite to the Upperworld. It is the realm of fishes, frogs, snakes, and related creatures. Chief of the Lowerworld creatures is either the Great Horned Serpent or Underwater Panther. The Upperworld and Lowerworld are antithetical to each other.”

Serpent Mound Ohio.jpg

Location of the Under Water Panther Serpent Grotto (this amazing Lidar of the Serpent Mound, the largest effigy mound in the world and a UNESCO Nominated World Heritage site, was made and shared by Jeffery Wilson, President- Friends of Serpent Mound).

The attributes of the Water Serpent- Water Spirit include :

a) an unusually long tail and often represented with a man face with horns in petro glyphs

b) often accompanied by other water animals

c) ruled the waters- underworld-not a bad place

d) could come to the earth level in the form of a man (6)( William F Romain, Director of the Serpent Mound Project, in his article about the Newark Earthworks)

The attributes of the Water Serpent- Water Spirit include :

a) an unusually long tail and often represented with a man face with horns in petro glyphs

b) often accompanied by other water animals

c) ruled the waters- underworld-not a bad place

d) could come to the earth level in the form of a man (6)’

The Americas are the Patala Loka described b the Puranas of Hinduism.


Serpent Mound US.jpg

Here is another example of a Serpent Mound River Stone Artifact. Note the extended snake mouth jaws with a circle in it.

The Incas’s ancestors were Tamils.

Please read my post on this.

More archeological evidence has come to light on the Indian connection of South America.


Most of you in India are familiar with the Charak Puja ceremonial observed in Bengal and several States in South India. This Hindu Ceremonial also observed in Mexicohistorian call it the mexicon and peru. The Spanish Valador ritual. A relief of Bayon central temple of Angkor Thom inCambodia represents a rite similar to the Mexico Valador. The use of parasol (Chhatra) is an age-old sign of royalty and rank in India, Burma, China and Japan. The Maya Astec and the Incas also used it as a sign of royalty. Frescoes of Chak Multum in Yucatan show two types of parasols both of which correspond to types still in use in South-East Asia.’

Incas celebrated it as “Inti Raymi”

This was celebrated 24 June.


The Nagas of the Patala Loka lived under water,

They were Blue/Black in color.

The can enter the earth and assume Human Forms.

Lord Krishna killed  Kaliya by entering deep into the waters and was there quite some das before he emerged , killing Kaliya.

Bhima spent few months in the Patala Loka after having been poisoned by Duryodhana and pushed into river waters.

He married a Naga Girl and had a son through her.

In Ramayana, the Moola Sena of Ravana came from down South to assist him in his battle with Rama.

Lord Vishnu went down the sea and killed Hiranyaksha.

And the Puranas describe differnt toes of Serpents.

The Vedas were rescued for the deep-sea, Patala by Vishnu.

Considering all these references, the fact that all other archeological finds in the Americas, and the evidence of Sanatana Dharma having been present throughout the world and the Astronomical details provided by Vedic Texts having been proved right, one can look for Sanatana Dharma connection.

I am searching for more material and shall come back.

Inputs welcome.




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