Tamil and Sanatana Dharma walked hand in hand together, contrary to the misinformation that the Tamils were inimical to Sanatana Dharma .
I have recorded facts from History that how Tamils were a part of Sanatana Dharma, with additional contributions from them,Tamil Kings took part in the Marriages/Wars in the North of Vindhya Mountains.
Tamils celebrated the Lifting of Govardhan Giri by Lord Krishna by alluding to it through the Indra Vizha, The Festival for Indra.
This has been documented in earlier Tamil Sangam Works and in detail in the Silappadikaaram.
The Vedic Gods, Subrahmanya, Devi, Varuna,Vishnu and Indra were worshiped, assigning each of them to a unique terrain.
‘Vaadai Vizha or Vadavazhi Vizha, the festival of welcoming the Lord Surya back to home, as He turns northward, celebrated on December 21/22 (Winter Solstice) (the sixth day of Panmizh[Maargazhi]). It is sung about in Akanauruanthology.
The Surya Siddhanta defines Uttarāyaṇa (उत्तरायण, উত্তরায়ণ, ઉત્તરાયણ), or Uttarayan as the period between the Makara Sankranti(which currently occurs around January 14) and Karka Sankranti (which currently occurs around July 16). The term Uttarayana is derived from two different Sanskrit words “uttara” (North) and “ayana” (movement) thus indicating a semantic of the northward movement of the Sun on the celestial sphere. This movement begins to occur a day after the winter solstice in December which occurs around 22 December and continues for a six-month period through to the summer solstice around June 21 (dates vary ). This difference is because the solstices are continually precessing at a rate of 50 arcseconds / year due to the precession of the equinoxes, i.e. this difference is the difference between the sidereal and tropical zodiacs. The Surya Siddhanta bridges this difference by juxtaposing the four solstitial and equinotial points with four of the twelve boundaries of the rashis.
I have written a few articles on the Tamils and people of Sanatana Dharma interacting quite frequently and Tamils were a Part of Sanatana Dharma, despite efforts being made to project Tamils as Inimical to Sanatana Dharma and that the North looked down at the South.
History proves otherwise.
Tamil Kings attended Nala Damayanthi Swayamvara, which had taken place before the Ramayana,Rama’s wedding with Sita, Draupadi’Swayamvara in the Mahabharata, Tamil Kings fought alongside the Pandavas in the Epic Battle of Mahabharata,Tamil King Cheralaathan fed both Kaurava and Pandava army during the Mahabharata war,He performed Tharpana for those who lost their Lives in the war, Arjuna, Sahadeva went on a Pilgrimage to South,Arjuna married a Pandyan Princess and Lord Krishna was a special Invitee for the Tamil Sangam, He married a Pandyan Princess, had a daughter through her named Pandiah,had her married to a Pandyan Prince and gave away 100 Yadava Families as Gift f to her during her marriage.
And Balarama visited the South and worshiped Lord Murugan, ( Subrahmanya) at Valliyur, Durga at Kanya Kumari, and also worshiped Parashurama.
And he visited Sriranagam before proceeding to meet Krishna at Yanaimalai, near Madurai!
Rishaba Parvata means mountain of Bull.
This may be due to some versions which state that the mountain looks like a Bull.
The other Rishba mountain near Bangalore, is Nandi Hills, which is quite far away from Madurai.
And there is yet another one near Tumkur(Near Bangalore), which is far from Madurai
Considering that Krishna married a Pandyan Princess, the place mentioned as Rishaba Mountain in the Mahabharata is to be taken as the Yanaimalai(Elephant hill, Ana/Yanai in Tamil means Elephant,near Madurai as the other Anaimalai is in the western Ghats and lies in Kerala/Coimbatore ,Tamil Nadu.
And Yanaimalai ,
“Two Hindu temples are present in the foothills, one being the Ladan cave temple (Ladan koil), a Shaivite temple dedicated to Muruga, and the other being Yoga Narasimha temple, a Vaishnavite temple dedicated to Vishnu. Both are rock-cut temples constructed by the Pandyas, belonging to the 8th century. The place where the Yoga Narasimha temple is situated is known as Narasingam. Tamil-Brahmi and Vattelettu inscriptions in the temples shows their history. The Ladan temple has been declared a protected monument by theArchaeological Survey of India.
There is a Vishnu Temple called Azhagar Koil and Vishnu comes to Madurai for Madurai Meenakshi’s marraige with Lord Shiva as Somasundara.
Please read my Post on this,
Thirupaaran Kundram , near Madurai is one of the Major temples of Lord Murugan( The Six Temples of Subrahmanya-Aarupadai Veedu.
““Lord Balarama bathed in the Gomati, Gandaki and Vipasa rivers, and also immersed Himself in the Sona. He went to Gaya, where He worshiped His forefathers, and to the mouth of the Ganges, where He performed purifying ablutions. At Mount Mahendra He saw Lord Parasurama and offered Him prayers, and then He bathed in the seven branches of the Godavari River, and also in the rivers Vena, Pampa and Bhimarathi. Then Lord Balarama met Lord Skanda and visited Sri Saila, the abode of Lord Girisa. In the southern provinces known as Dravida-desa the Supreme Lord saw the sacred Venkata Hill, as well as the cities of Kamakosni and Kanci, the exalted Kaveri River and the most holy Sri-ranga, where Lord Krsna has manifested Himself. From there He went to Rsabha Mountain, where Lord Krsna also lives, and to the southern Mathura. Then He came to Setubandha, where the most grievous sins are destroyed.” (Sri Balarama’s pilgrimage (Mahabharata 9 – Shalya Parva))
“Yanaimalai (Elephant Hill) is a protected monument and tourist attraction in Tamil Nadu, India. It has Jain sculptures, a Shaivitetemple, and a Vaishnavite temple.
Yanaimalai is in Tamil Nadu, India. The hill stretches over 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) and is 90 metres (300 ft) high.
There are a lot of articles in the web that Lord Krishna and Draupadi were lovers.
And this is the reason for Krishna taking an active part in the Kurukshetra war and Draupadi seeking Krishna’s help and advice at critical moments in her life, be it her being stripped in Public in Mahabharata , when Dhrvasa visited them during Pandavas Vana Vasa, when she was crest fallen when Abhimanyu’s wife’s Foetus was about to be annihilated by Aswathama… !
“Many authors have their own interpretations for this relationship. It could spring up from the attributes given to both the characters from historical narratives to fan fictions in each period of time. IMO, most of the readers find their relationship not distant enough as the religious discourse has conditioned our society.
I would want to approach it from both the premises. Assumption 1 : They did not have feelings for each other.
From this view point, the narrative projects a great bond of friendship. Protecting/mentoring/humoring a woman who you respect/admire shows that Krishna valued a relationship of standing by each other as something higher than the socially believed concepts of chastity (Probably the society too did not care much!). People might call it a sakhi-sakha relationship or a brother-sister relationship or a god-devotee relationship. But the common feature of any of the above is that they walked together towards a common goal
Assumption 2 : They had feelings
The narrative now projects a compromise in a relationship for a perceived greater cause. But we can observe that their interactions post her wedding were not much inhibited. Probably neither of them felt much guilty about it or they consciously faced the situation and grew out. The beauty of it is that the ‘separation’ did not seem to affect their commitment to each other. At the same time, their relationship did not affect their commitment to their own spouses. They were still together and yet not together.
Either ways, I find the relation worth a bow.
My unsolicited advice/request to those who explore the epic : Try not to judge the historical characters. We have no idea what they have practically faced. Try not to justify the weaknesses that exist in us by projecting them in the historical characters. Yes, they were humans like you and me. But had they just been like you and me with similar strengths and weaknesses, they would not have created immortal epics. :)”
Draupadi was Lord Krishna’s true lover! 14 unknown facts about Mahabharat
When it comes to Mahabharat, there’ll be hardly anyone of the Hindu religion who would have not heard about the epic. However, there are many things in this scripture that are neither told to anyone, and also people have not paid any attention to it. This epic is filled with innumerable interesting facts.
In the Shastras, Mahabharat is also known as the fifth Veda. The writer of this epic is Ved Vyas.
Today we will tell you about that secret of Mahabharat you would have never heard or thought of. Did you know that Draupadi was Lord Krishna’s lover?
More than what the ill intentioned outsiders could do to malign Hinduism, these self-styled writers on Hinduism could do better.
I am not sure if these Catherine Mayos and Max Muellers have heard of a gentleman named Veda Vyasa,and he wrote The Mahabharata.
Krishna has always been explicit about His relationships, be it Rukmini or Sathya Bhama.
As to the observation Krishna had 16,000 wives please refer my post under the same name.
If Krishna and Draupadi were lovers Vyasa would have recorded it, for he is the man who recorded,
Draupadi had Five Husbands,
Santhanu , at an advanced age lusted after Sathyavati,
Sage Parasara’s liaison with a fisherwoman,
Kunti’s Illegal child,
Krishna’s manipulation of people and events in the Kurukshetra Battle,
.. list is endless.
Now Vyasa on Draupadi’s Swayamvara ,
Among others came in all her beauty the Princess Draupadi, stepping gently and sweet, bearing in a delicate hand the golden bridal garland, which was adorned with sparkling gems. Tardily she made approach, blushing with increasing loveliness, and appeared in the presence of the princes. Mighty and high-born men were there. The Pandavas beheld in the galleries their enemies Duryodhana, Karna, and all the great Kauravas, and they
saw also Krishna, the amorous and powerful one, and his brother, the wine-drinking Balarama 1, the Yádava princes, the Rajah of Sindhu and his sons, the Rajah of Chedi, the Rajah of Kosala, the Rajah of Madra, and many more. Now the Pandavas were still disguised as Brahmans, and stood among the holy men.
An aged and white-haired Brahman, clad in white, approached the high altar, chanting mantras. He spread the holy grass and poured out oil; then he kindled the sacred fire, and the offering to the gods was blessed.
Thereafter the thousand trumpets were sounded, and a tense silence fell upon the buzzing crowd. In the solemn hush all eyes were turned towards the royal mansion as Drupada’s valiant son, Dhrishta-dyumna, led forth his sister Draupadi, and in a voice like thunder proclaimed his father’s will, saying:
“Here stands the noble princess, my sister. Whosoever can bend this bow, and strike with an arrow yonder whirling target set on high, may, if his lineage is noble, claim Draupadi for his bride. My words are truth!”
Having spoken thus, the prince recited to his sister the names of the royal guests, their lineage and their deeds of fame, and bade her award the golden garland to the successful archer.
The rajahs then descended from their gorgeous thrones and gathered around Draupadi as the bright gods gather around Párvati, the mountain bride of Shiva. Their hearts were filled with love for the maiden and with hate for one another. Rivals frowned upon rivals. Those who had been close friends became of a sudden angry enemies because that Draupadi was so beautiful. Krishna
and Balarama alone remained aloof; calmly and self-restrained they stood apart, while rajah opposed rajah like to angry elephants.
Each of the love-sick monarchs gazed upon the mighty bow and upon the whirling target on high, and for a time no man sought to lift the bow lest he should be unable to bend it and then be put to shame. At length a rajah, more bold than the others, picked it up and tried his strength without avail; another followed and another, but failed to string it. Soon many rajahs strained their arms in vain, and some fell upon the ground and groaned, while the laughter of the people pealed around the barriers. . . . The gods had assembled in mid-air and looked down with steadfast eyes.
At length proud Karna strode forward; he took the bow and bent it and fixed the bowstring. Then he seized an arrow. Drupada and his son were alarmed, fearing he might succeed and claim the bride. Suddenly Draupadi intervened, for she would not have the son of a charioteer for her lord. She said, speaking loudly: “I am a king’s daughter, and will not wed with the base-born. . . .”
Karna smiled bitterly, his face aflame. He cast down the bow and walked away, gazing towards the sun. He said: “O sun! be my witness that I cast aside the bow, not because I am unable to hit the mark, but because Draupadi scorns me.”
Others sought to perform the feat, but in vain, and many rajahs feared to make attempt lest they should compel the laughter of the people. A buzz of merry voices arose from beyond the barriers.
Meanwhile the Pandava brethren, disguised as Brahmans, looked on with the others.
Then suddenly silence fell upon everyone, for Arjuna
advanced from the priestly band to lift the bow. The Brahmans applauded him, shaking their deerskins.
Said the rajahs: “Can a weakly Brahman, who is a mere stripling, accomplish a feat which is beyond the strength of mighty warriors.”
Others said: “The Brahman knoweth best his own skill. He would not go forward if he were not confident of success.”
An aged priest endeavoured to restrain Arjuna, lest he should by his failure bring ridicule upon the Brahmans; but the hero would not be thwarted. He strode forward like to a stately elephant and bared his broad shoulders and ample chest. He was nimble as a lion, and calm and self-possessed.
Ere he lifted the bow, he walked round it; then he addressed a prayer to the gods. . . . He stood up unmoved and serene as a mountain peak, and he bent the bow and fixed an arrow in it. . . .
All eyes watched him. He drew the cord, and the arrow flew upwards with a hissing sound; it hit the target eye, and the golden fish fell over and clashed upon the ground.
Like distant thunder arose the plaudits of the multitude; hundreds of Brahmans shouted in ecstasy and waved their scarfs; a thousand trumpets clamoured in triumph, and the drums were beaten loud. . . .”
Unlike other Religions,Hinduism has Prayers of different types.
There are three different types in terms of how these were arrived at, whom they are addressed to and the results sought for.
Before understanding the differences , one must know that in Hinduism, as its fundamental Truth as enunciated in the Vedas, the Sacred texts of the Hindus,describes the Reality, called Brahman, is distinct from Brahma, The God of Creation,is Without Name and Form.
The Brahman is with out Attributes, with Attributes and beyond Attributes,
It is to be experienced and is Beyond space,time,senses,mind and time.
It is Being, Consciousness and Bliss, Sat, Chit and Ananda.
The purpose of Life is to realize the Brahman, The Reality behind the noumenon, the world of Names and Forms, the substratum of the Universe, both Macro and Micro.
To achieve this, the impediment called Mind is to be Stilled.
The cessation of the Modification of Chitta is Yoga or Union with the Reality.
( Chitta is a Higher plane of Cognition, please read my posts on Yoga, Chitta)
To Still the Mind, the thoughts or the thought waves are to be stopped.
But as The Mind, by its nature, is always after a thousand thoughts, it is difficult to control it,
However it can be done by Right Determination,Knowledge and Practice, says Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita( Gnana and Vairaagya)
So in the process of quieting and making the Mind still, Hinduism advocates Worship of Gods with Forms, though in Reality they do not exist.
However as Krishna says , even these Gods of Names and forms are relatively Real in the sense that they grant the boons one wishes for and Krishna says He assumes the Forms and Names Of Gods and Goddesses addressed by the practitioner and deliver the results.
So Gods of Hinduism are Real and not Real at the same time.
For details read my post ‘Hinduism, Gods with Name and Form ,Yes Or No’.
As Human dispositions and needs are varied,, so are the Gods.
One may like Mother, Father, Friend , Lover, son, daughter…
To establish a relationship, each needs a unique approach and there can be no uniform and a single window approach.
So the Gods vary and your modes of address vary.
One does not address Mother as he would his Father, Lover or Friend.
So the prayers vary.
Generally there are three types of Prayers.
Stotra is from the root Stuthi, meaning ‘Praise’
If one were to get some thing from some one superior in Station, one praises him or her to get the things done for one who wishes for.
So in a Stotra one finds Praises of Gods, extolling their virtues, then requesting them to grant one’s Wishes.
We have a large collection of these Stotras.
These Stotras are also of different kinds.
One is by Gods themselves addressing the other Gods, like Krishna’s Siva Stuthi or Rudra’s Mantra Rajapadham addressed to Lord Narasimha, Indra’s Krishna Stuthi.
These are addreed to Gods whom one likes.
Another type is by the Great Rishis , like Hayagreeva’s Lalitha Sahasranama.
Yet another type is by great personalities like Bhishma, The Vishnu Sahasranama; the various slokas of Adi Shankaracharya, Swami Desikan,Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya….
All these deliver results in terms of efficacy in the descending order described
Some of these Rishis have Prayers to a Particular Deity.
In this case it is not necessary that the God one choses to worship need be what one likes.
These Gods produce results because of the fact that the Hymn is composed by a realized Soul.
A Stuthi or a Stotra by a Great Rishi like Valmiki, The Sundara Kanda of Ramayana is recited in a prescribed format for a fixed duration is called Parayana.
People also do this regularly as they do Lalitha Sahasra nama and Visnu Sahasranama.
The Parayana prayers may be from any of Language.
The basic requirement is Faith.
3.Mantra is different as they are locked Sounds . grasped by the Rishis, in a mysterious way.
Mantras, are the essence of Sound and Sound in its pure form is Mantra.
Mantras control Sound.
The difference between Mantras and the other two Types is that Mantras deliver guaranteed results, if one follows the procedures laid down.
Whereas in the case of Stotra or Parayana,the Divine intervention is left to the pleasure of the God addressed to, in the case of Mantras, the Gods are obliged to grant the requests as they represent the essence of Reality and in fact the Form of Gods themselves.
That is why even A Raskshasa can deliver a Brahmastra by invoking a Mantra.
Mantras can be addressed to specific Gods and also to Reality in its Attributeless Form.
Or the Mantra can be a combination of sounds mystically locked.
More to follow on the scientific explanation of Mantras, their validity analysis by Spectroscopy,Cymatics