5000 Years Mummy Spoke Indian Language Otzi Mummy Voice

A well preserved Mummy of an Iceman was found in Otzi Alps, Italian-Austrian Alps about twenty five years ago.

Ötzi the Iceman, now housed at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy
The Otzi Man reconstructed.
Naturalistic reconstruction of Ötzi – South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology

Scientists and Archaeologists  dated the mummy ,

‘ around 3,300 BCE, more precisely between 3359 and 3105 BCE, with a 66 percent chance that he died between 3239 and 3105 BCE’.

{ Consider the facts.Rama’s Empire covered the  present Italy/Austria.

The Mitanni Empire covered what is now known as Iraq, Turkey Syria, Lebanon,Egypt and included Italy.

They were the ancestors of these people.

Mitanni were the ancestors of the Egyptians as well.

“The first Mitanni king was Sutarna I (good sun). He was followed by Baratarna I (or Paratarna great sun), Parasuksatra(ruler with axe),…. Saustatar (Sauksatra, son of Suksatra, the good ruler), Artadama (abiding in cosmic law)..Tushratta (Dasaratha), and finally Matiwazza (Mativaja, whose wealth is thought) during whose lifetime the Mitanni state appears to have become a vassal to Assyria”. Subhash Kak traces the ‘arna’ syllable in the names of the kings to ‘araNi’ (अरणि) meaning ‘sun’


Sharada Devi in Sardinia.

the term yavana denoted an Ionian Greek”.(3) On pages 83–5 she makes mention of early Indian literature where foreigners were dubbed “yavana”, and points to an Asokan inscription where a border-people is given this appellation. In central and western India, she says, Yavana “figure prominently as donors to the Buddhist Sangha”.

Considering these facts it is not surprising to find the name Sharada , called as Sarda in Sardinia, Italy.

Scholars may pursue the issue.


Please read my other articles on Sanatana Dharma Mittani, Sumerian, Minoan, and other ancient civilizations like Mayas and Incas.

And Immigration of world population from India.

The sounds reproduced by the scientists of The Otzi Mummy  sound closer to Indian languages , more like a Dravidian language, when on hears the pronunciation of long sounds, AA, EE, AE”

Taking into account the archaeological etymological  and historical eveidence one may safely say that this Otzi Mummy Find corroborates the theory that Hindus were spread throughout the world and the Religion was Sanatana Dharma.


‘Scientists hailing from Bolzano’s General Hospital, Italy, used CT scans to produce a model of the ice mummy’s mouth, throat, and vocal cords. This allowed them to create a digital reconstruction—or the “best possible approximation”—of Otzi’s voice….

‘ The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, hence the nickname “Ötzi”, near the Similaun mountain and Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy.He is Europe’s oldest known natural human mummy, and has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy….

“We can’t say we have reconstructed Otzi’s original voice, because we miss some crucial information from the mummy,” Rolando Fustos, the study’s lead researcher, explained to Rossella Lorenzi from Discovery News.

“But with two measurements, the length of both the vocal tract and the vocal cords, we have been able to recreate a fairly reliable approximation of the mummy’s voice. This is a starting point for further research.”

He added: “The vocal cords are the source of the vocal sound, but the main contribution to it is given by the selective filtering accomplished by the vocal tract configuration.”

“Of course, we don’t know what language he spoke 5,000 years ago,” said fellow researcher Francesco Avanzini. “But we should be able to recreate the timbre of his vowel sounds and, I hope, even create simulation of consonants.”

Reconstructing those vowel sounds presented its own set of challenges. Because MRI scans would have caused Otzi damage, the team opted to use CT scans. Unfortunately, CT scans could only measure the mummy’s internal structure.

Also adding unnecessary complications was Otzi’s position when he died.

“We had to deal with Otzi’s position, whose arm is covering his throat,” stated Avanzini. “For our project this is the worst position you can imagine. Moreover, the hyoid bone—or tongue-bone—was party absorbed and dislocated.”

The scientists used special software to digitally maneuver Otzi’s arm away from his throat, as well as erect his skull. This allowed them to create a model of the vocal tract’s entire physical structure.

According to researcher Piero Cosi, the team also used mathematical models, and software that “simulates the way the vocal tract works,” to reconstruct information about the throat tissue’s composition and thickness, and the vocal cords’ density and tension.

The combined data convinced them that the frequency of Otzi’s voice was between 100 and 150 Hz—not too different from the average modern male.

The team presented the vocalizations at a congress—commemorating the discovery of Otzi in South Tyrol’s Otztal Alps 25 years ago—held at the European Research Academy (EURAC) Institute for Mummies and the Iceman located in Bolzano.

“This is a new, interesting aspect on Otzi’s research that deserves to be taken into consideration for further research,” stated the EURAC Institute for Mummies and the Iceman director, Albert Zink.

Genetic analysis

Ötzi’s full genome has been sequenced; the report on this was published on 28 February 2012.The Y-DNA of Ötzi belongs to asubclade of G defined by the SNPs M201, P287, P15, L223 and L91 (G-L91, ISOGG G2a2b, former “G2a4”). He was not typed for any of the subclades downstreaming from G-L91. G-L91 is now mostly found in South Corsica.

Analysis of his mitochondrial DNA showed that Ötzi belongs to the K1 subclade, but cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade (K1a, K1b or K1c). The new subclade has provisionally been named K1ö for Ötzi. Multiplex assay study was able to confirm that the Iceman’s mtDNA belongs to a previously unknown European mtDNA clade with a very limited distribution among modern data sets.

By autosomal DNA, Ötzi is most closely related to southern Europeans, especially to geographically isolated populations like Corsicans and Sardinians.

DNA analysis also showed him at high risk of atherosclerosis and lactose intolerance, with the presence of the DNA sequence of Borrelia burgdorferi, possibly making him the earliest known human with Lyme disease. A later analysis suggested the sequence may have been a different Borrelia species.

A 2012 paper by paleoanthropologist John Hawks suggests that Ötzi had a higher degree of Neanderthal ancestry than modern Europeans.

In October 2013, it was reported that 19 modern Tyrolean men were related to Ötzi. Scientists from the Institute of Legal Medicine at Innsbruck Medical University had analysed the DNA of over 3,700 Tyrolean male blood donors and found 19 who shared a particular genetic mutation with the 5,300-year-old man.


In May 2012, scientists announced the discovery that Ötzi still had intact blood cells. These are the oldest complete human blood cells ever identified. In most bodies this old, the blood cells are either shrunken or mere remnants, but Ötzi’s have the same dimensions as living red blood cells and resembled a modern-day sample.

H. pylori analysis

In 2016, researchers reported on a study from the extraction of twelve samples from the gastrointestinal tract of Ötzi to analyze the origins of the Helicobacter pylori in his gut.[The H. pylori strain found in his gastrointestinal tract was, surprisingly, the hpAsia2 strain, a strain today found primarily in South Asian and Central Asian populations, with extremely rare occurrences in modern European populations. The strain found in Ötzi’s gut is most similar to three modern individuals from Northern India; the strain itself is, of course, older than the modern Northern Indian straince

References and Citations.




Image credit.

Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10928855

Naturalistic reconstruction of Ötzi – South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology

Hindu Kings Of Iraq Turkey Syria Lebanon Egypt Italy Mitanni Empire

I have written about the Mitanni People and the Mitanni Empire.

The Mitanni Empire covered what is now known as Iraq, Turkey Syria, Lebanon,Egypt and included Italy.

They were the ancestors of these people.

Mitanni were the ancestors of the Egyptians as well.

Mittani Empire.png Mittani Empire. “Near East 1400 BCE” by User:Javierfv1212 – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Near_East_1400_BCE.png. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Near_East_1400_BCE.png#/media/File:Near_East_1400_BCE.png


‘These Kings and even a Roman Emperor sported Thiruman, The Vaishnavite marks on their Body.


The Sun King Akhenaten of Egypt who ruled between 1352-1336 BC was a son-in-law of Tushratta, the Mitanni king. The name Tushratta has been recorded in the Hittite cuneiform script.


Some have suggested that the Sanskrit origin of Tushratta is Dasaratha, a few others that it is Tvesaratha (having splendid chariots), a name which is attested in the Rigveda.

“The first Mitanni king was Sutarna I (good sun). He was followed by Baratarna I (or Paratarna great sun), Parasuksatra(ruler with axe),…. Saustatar (Sauksatra, son of Suksatra, the good ruler), Artadama (abiding in cosmic law)..Tushratta (Dasaratha), and finally Matiwazza (Mativaja, whose wealth is thought) during whose lifetime the Mitanni state appears to have become a vassal to Assyria”. Subhash Kak traces the ‘arna’ syllable in the names of the kings to ‘araNi’ (अरणि) meaning ‘sun’…

(Akhenaten, Surya, and the Rigveda’, Prof Subhash Kak (an Indian American computer scientist, previous Head of Computer Science Department, Oklahoma State University)

A number of Indo-European sounding words have been identified in the cuneiform documents of the Mitanni kingdom (1500-1200 BC). In addition to nouns and adjectives with parallels in Sanskrit this Hurrian speaking kingdom had kings with Indo-Aryan names and two documents even list the main Gods of the Indian pantheon….”


The kingdom of the Mitanni Indo-Iranian dynasty that ruled in the land of the Hurrians was in the upper Euphrates-Tigris basin – land that is now part of northern Iraq, Syria and south-eastern Turkey.

At its greatest extent (for a brief period at the height of its dynastic power), Mitanni territory extended to the Mediterranean coast and into northern Assyria / Mesopotamia, it’s south-eastern neighbour.

Mitanni’s north-western border with theHattian kingdom of the Hittites was fluid and constantly subject to aggression except when the two rivals concluded a peace treaty – one that invoked the Indo-Iranian pantheon of Mitra, Varuna, Indra and the Nasatyas – but also one that marked the decline of the Mitanni kingdom and a decrease in size. The Mitanni and Hittites were closely related. The Hittites used the Hurrian language extensively in their inscriptions. They also shared in the development of the light chariot whose wheels used spokes .

The Hurrian lands are today a part of Greater Kurdistan….


Despite Tusratta’s problems, he was not beyond offering his daughter Tadukhipa in marriage to the King Amenhotep III of Egypt for a large quantity of gold. The tablet seen to the right is a letter from Tusratta to Amenhotep in which he asks for “gold in very great quantity” as a bride price, supporting his request with the comment, “Gold is as dust in the land of my brother.”

The beleaguered Tusratta was then murdered by his son in a palace coup. Tusratta’s other son, Prince Shattiwaza, fled Mitanni and was eventually given sanctuary by the Hittite King Suppiluliuma with whom he concluded a treaty c. 1380 BCE, which we know as the Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza Treaty (discovered in 1907 CE in Hattusa, near present-day Bogazkale(Boğazkale, formerly Bogazköy) in north-central Turkey. In the treaty, the Hittite King Suppiluliuma agreed to assist Shattiwaza gain the Mitanni throne and invaded Mitanni. The Hittites captured the Mitanni capital Wassukanni after a second attempt and installed Shattiwaza as a vassal king.

The Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza Treaty is a source of considerable information about the Mitanni. In addition, it gives us some astonishing information about the religious practices of the Mitanni for it invokes the Indo-Iranian pantheon of asuras and devas Mitras(il) (Mitra), Uruvanass(il) (Varuna), Indara (Indra) and theNasatianna (Nasatyas) (Ashwins).

Following the capture of Wassukanni, the Hittites installed new rulers in Mitanni towns while the Assyrians regained control of the territory they had lost to the Mitanni. Tusratta was killed and his son Shattiwaza became a vassal of the Hittite Suppiluliuma (c.1344 – 1322 BCE). At the same time, the rebellious Artatama became a puppet king of a reborn Assyria, led by king Assur-Uballit I (1364-1328 BCE). Wassukanni was sacked again by the Assyrian king Adad-Nirari I around 1290 BCE, after which very little is known of its history.

In our page on the Hittites, we note:
“In the Bogazkale archives, native Hurrian is used frequently for a wide range of non-official texts such as those on rituals and even the Epic of Gilgamesh – more so than native Hattian. Native Hurrian texts have been found throughout the region. One such text dated to 1750 BCE was found at Tell Hariri (ancient Mari), a Middle Euphrates site, and another at Ras Shamra (Ugarit) on the Syrian coast indicating Hurrian i.e. Mitanni influence in the region preceded the rise of Hittite power. A similar language to Hurrian is the language of Urartu located to the west of the Hittite lands at the headwaters of the Euphrates and around Lake Van. According to the literature (cf. The Hittites by O. R. Gurney, Penguin Books 1981), The Hurrians were migrants to the Upper Euphrates and Habur basin from the Elburz Mountains east across the Taurus Mountains from about 2300 BCE onwards.”

The Mitanni name for chariot warriors was maryanna or marijannina, a form of the Indo-Iranian term marya meaning ‘young man,” used in the Rig Veda when referring to the celestial warriors assembled around the Vedic deity Indra.The Mitanni were famed charioteers. They are reported to have spearheaded the development of the light war chariot with wheels that used spokes rather than solid wood wheels like those used by the Sumerians.

Tushratta's letter to Amenhotep III of Egypt Amarna from Tell el-Amarna. Housed at British Museum WAA 29791.jpg Tushratta’s letter to Amenhotep III of Egypt Amarna from Tell el-Amarna. Housed at British Museum WAA 29791
The Hittite archives of Hattusa, near present-day Bogazkale contained what is the oldest surviving horse training manual in the world. The elaborate work was written c. 1345 BCE on four tablets and contains 1080 lines by a Mitanni horse trainer named Kikkuli. It begins with the words, “Thus speaks Kikkuli, master horse trainer of the land of Mitanni” and uses various Indo-Iranian words for horse colours, numbers and names. Examples are:

assussanni a form of the Sanskrit asva-sani meaning ‘horse trainer’,
aika wartanna meaning one turn (cf. Vedic Sanskrit ek vartanam),
tera wartanna meaning three turns (cf. Vedic Sanskrit tri vartanam),
panza wartanna meaning five turns (cf. Vedic Sanskrit panca vartanam),
satta wartanna meaning seven turns (cf. Vedic Sanskrit sapta vartanam), and
navartanna meaning nine turns (cf. Vedic Sanskrit nava vartanam).
[Regrettably, writers do not mention the Old Iranian equivalents.]

A Hurrian text from Yorgan Tepe also uses Indo-Iranian words to describe the colour of horses, words such as babru for brown, parita for grey, and pinkara for a reddish hue.

The Kikkuli manual for training chariot horses highlights the links between the Mitanni and Hittites. Even though they were rivals at times, the two groups also collaborated frequently. The fact that the Hittites employed a Mitanni as a master trainer of horses may indicate that it was the Mitanni who were the regional experts in horse training especially for military purposes (in a manner similar to the Sogdians in the East) and that the Mitanni in turn had brought the expertise with them in their migration westward.

The methods used in the Kikkuli method enabled horses to be trained without injury. The text detailed a 214-day training regime using interval training and sports medicine techniques such as the principle of progression, peak loading systems, electrolyte replacement, fartlek training, intervals and repetitions and was directed at horses with a high proportion of slow-twitch muscle fibres. the Kikkuli horses were stabled, rugged, washed down with warm water and fed oats, barley and hay at least three times per day.

Kikkuli’s interval training technique stressed the leading of horses at a trot, canter and gallop, before subjecting them to the weight bearing stress of a rider, driver or chariot. Workouts sometimes numbered three a day with scheduled rest days. Kikkuli’s interval training contained three stages – the first two for developing strong legs and a strong cardio-muscular system, and the third for increasing neuromuscular conditioning. His workouts included brief recoveries to lower the heart rate. Swimming was also included in intervals of three to five sessions, with rest periods after each session. The horses were also subject to warming down periods and the method’s example of cantering included intermediate pauses to lower the heart rate partially and as the training advanced the workouts included intervals at the canter.

Mitanni Indo-Iranian Names

The names of the Mitanni kings and their capital city were of Indo-Iranian origin. For instance, Tueratta was a form of the Indo-Iranian Tvesa-ratha meaning ‘Possessor of a Chariot’. The name S’attuara was a form of Satvarmeaning ‘warrior’ and the name of the Mitanni capital Wassukanni, was a form of Vasu-khani meaning ‘wealth-mine’.

The names of proto-Indo-Iranian dieties are also found to form the names of the Kassite rulers of Babylonia.


Several Mitanni names contained the Old Persian term arta, a derivative of asha via arsha, meaning cosmic order and truth (arta transforms to the Sanskrit r’ta). Arta is found used in Old Persian Achaemenian names (e.g. Artakhshassa c.450 BCE) and in the Sogdian Avesta as well. Asha is the central ethical concept of the Avesta.

Philologists trace the Mitanni names to the Vedic equivalents. For instance, they note that the royal name Artatama was a form of the Indo-Iranian R’ta-dhaanman meaning ‘the abode of rta’, and the name Artas’s’umara was a form of Rta-smara meaning ‘remembering r’ta’.

However, for some reason, none of the writers that we have come across link the name to their Old Iranian or Old Persian equivalents – equivalents that will be closer to the Mitanni names as we have demonstrated with the use of arta above.


Reference and Citation.


Sharada Devi in in Sardinia Italy Greek Hindu Connection

Various references to Sanatana Dharma,Hinduism,are found  in Italy and Greece.

Greeks were referred to as Yavana in the Vedic Texts, Puranas and ancient Tamil literature.

Yavanas were described to be beyond Gandhara. There was another country mentioned in the epic as Parama Yona, in the far west of Yavana. This could be the Ionia ofGreece, somehow related to Indian Ionians or Yavanas. The name Yavana could be the Sanskritized form of the name Ionia. Yavanas, Sakas, Pahlavas and Hunas were sometimes described as Mlechhas. Sometimes along with them, the Madras, Kambojas, Kekeyas, Sindhus and Gandharas were included. This name was used to indicate their cultural differences with the Vedic culture, prevailed in the Kuru-Panchala Kingdoms…

Yavana was the name of one of the sons of Maharaja Yayati who was given the part of the world known as Turkey to rule. Therefore the Turks are Yavanas due to being descendants of Maharaja Yavana. The Yavanas were therefore kshatriyas, and later on, by giving up the brahminical culture, they became mleccha-yavanas. Descriptions of the Yavanas are in the Mahabharata (Adi-parva 85.34). Another prince called Turvasu was also known as Yavana, and his country was conquered by Sahadeva, one of thePandavas. The western Yavana joined with Duryodhana in the Battle of Kurukshetra under the pressure of Karna. It is also foretold that these Yavanas also would invadeIndia in the Kaliyuga . (Srimad Bhagavatam 2.4.18

“… in the ports of southern India, where the early Tamil poems of uncertain date speak of a settlement of the Yavanas.”(1) The same author (2) does not follow the assumption that Yavanas were Roman traders, although she points out that between the first-second cent BC up to and included the third-fourth cent AD, rightly or wrongly “the term yavana denoted an Ionian Greek”.(3) On pages 83–5 she makes mention of early Indian literature where foreigners were dubbed “yavana”, and points to an Asokan inscription where a border-people is given this appellation. In central and western India, she says, Yavana “figure prominently as donors to the Buddhist Sangha”.

Considering these facts it is not surprising to find the name Sharada , called as Sarda in Sardinia, Italy.

Scholars may pursue the issue.

Sringeri Sharada Devi,image,jpg
Sringeri Sharada Devi



Sarda, Sardinia,Italy
THIS IS ‘THE MOTHER GODDESS SARDA prenuragic Ozieri culture (3500-2700 BC), Sardinia

Etruscan civilisation existed around 8 century 2 BC in Italy and is believed to have ruled the whole of Italy.

But very little information is available about them.

One of the reasons, like what Christianity has done to African Religion, is the systematic obliteration of the Etruscan civilization and its history by the Romans.

“Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy. Its homeland was in the area of central Italy, just north of Rome, which is today called Tuscany.

In ancient times there was a strong tradition that the Etruscan had emigrated from Lydia, on the eastern coast of present-day Turkey. Modern historians have largely discounted this idea, and believe that the Etruscan were an indigenous population – a belief largely confirmed by modern DNA studies. The sudden flowering of Etrsucan civilization at a date earlier than other indigenous peoples of central and northern Italy probably points to the blossoming of strong trading relations between the peoples of the area – identified by modern scholars as belonging to the Iron-age Villanovan culture – and merchants (and possibly some colonists) from the eastern Mediterranean. Mining of metals, especially copper and iron, would have led to early enrichment for the Etruscans, and to a higher material culture than other Italic peoples.

The Etruscan civilization lasted from the 8th century BC to the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. In the 6th century the Etruscans expanded their influence over a wide area of Italy. They founded city-states in northern Italy, and to the south, their influence expanded down into Latium and beyond. Early Rome was deeply influenced by Etruscan culture (the word “Rome” is Etruscan). The Etruscans also gained control of Corsica.

Between the late 6th and early 4th centuries BC, Etruscan power declined. To the south, the rising power of the Greek city-states of Sicily and southern Italy weakened Etruscan political and military influence, and cities which they had either dominated or founded, such as Rome, threw out their overlords and became independent city-states. In the north, Gallic tribes moved into northern Italy and destroyed the Etruscan cities there. However, in their homeland the Etruscan cities remained powerful, and were formidable opponents of the rising power of Rome. It was only over a long period, in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, that they surrendered their independence to the Romans…

Legend states that at the beginning of the Etruscan Age, the city of Rome was founded by the twin sons of the war God Mars. Their names were Romulus and Remus. The boys had been abandoned by their divine father and Etruscan mother and were reared in the forest by a she-wolf. This is a slightly different version of the story of the Hindu epic Ramayana where the divine king Sri Rama abandons Sita and his twin sons, Luva and Kusha. The two boy were reared by their mother and Rishi Valmiki in his forestashram.

In the Etruscan legend, the twins are raised by a she-wolf in the forest, but that probably emerges from a confusion between the Sanskrit terms ‘rishi’ (ऋषि) which means a ‘sage’ and the Sanskrit ‘vriki’ (वृकी) which means a ‘she-wolf’ – considering that the fame of Sri Rama had traversed west from India by the time of the Etruscans. And a treasure trove of Etrsucan paintings bears out this argument….

For more read here

Sanskrit names in Greece.Map.gif
Sanskrit names in Greece.

Now the Image of Sharada Devi  has been found here.( the image is slightly modified from the Idol we worship)



The language (or the languages) spoken in Sardinia during the Bronze Age is unknown . According to some reconstructions, the Proto-Sardinian language was akin to Basque with similarities with ancient Iberian, or even Etruscan. Other scholars believe that there were various linguistic areas (two or more), possibly pre-indoeuropeans and indoeuropeans.

Names of Sanskrit origins abound in Greece and it is therefore important to look at Edward Pococke’s view put forth in his book, ‘India in Greece’. His view was that in antiquity tribes of Indian origin moved westward and left their trail in the names of rivers and mountains and cities and towns, across Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Greece and Italy. For example Pococke traced the name of ‘Macedonia’ or Makedonia to the ‘Maghadan’ tribe of India. 

According to Count M. Bjornstjena as stated in his book ‘The Theogony of the Hindoos’ published in 1844, there is at least an indirect link between the Vedic god Shiva nd Dodona via the Temple of Ammon in Egypt. He says,”… several names of the Hindoo mythology are recognized in Egypt; thus Ammon the Supreme God of the Egyptians correspons to the Aum of the Hindus; and the Brahmanical Siva is found in the temple to which Alexander the Great made his pilgrimage from Egypt which yet bears his name…”. He adds, “According to the accounts of the priests in Sais to Herodotus, two priestesses were sent from the great temple of Ammon in Thebes to select spots in which sacredotal temple be erected, the one pointed out Siva in the Libyan desert, the other to Dodona in Epirus….”.  

‘Pococke had put forth the view that there was an exodus of many tribes that moved westwards and settled all along the path from India to Greece. Notice the following place names in Greece and their Sanskrit meanings. 

1. Trikala: Trikala (त्रिकाल) in Sanskrit is ‘the triad of ‘past, present and future’. The city of Trikala is built on the ancient site by the name Trikka. In Sanskrit ‘trika’ (त्रिक)  also means a ‘triad’. Though the ancient city of ‘Trikka’ is said to have been named after a Greek mythology nymph, her name ‘Trikka’ has no meaning in Greek.

2. Arta:  ‘Arta (आर्त) or ‘Artha’ (आर्थ) means ‘significant’ in Sanskrit.

3. Pramanda:  ‘Pramanda’ is probably a distortion of the sanskrit ‘pramanya’ (प्रामान्य) which means ‘authority’.

4. Paraga: ‘Paraga’ (पारग) means ‘learned’.

5. Andritsena: ‘Andritsena’ is a compound Sanskrit word where ‘anidrit’ (अनिद्रित) means ‘watchful’ and ‘senA’ (सेना) means an ‘army’, though ‘sena’  (सेन) is also often used as an ending syllable in a name of a person.

6. Krandidi: ‘Kranidi’  may be a corruption of ‘krandas’ (क्रन्दस्) that is ‘battle cry’.

7. Patra:  Patra (पात्र ) means a command, though the name of ‘Patra’ in Greece and ‘Petra‘ in Jordon have been linked to the meaning ‘stone’ and could therefore be derived from Sanskrit ‘prastar’ (प्रस्तर) also meaning ‘stone’.

8. Thebes: The present day Thiva was known as ‘Thebes’ in antiquity, its name a distortion of Khiva that Pococke traces to ‘Kubera’.

9. Kalamata: Kalamata in Sanskrit simply means ‘Goddess of Time’ which is the ‘Kali-mata’ of the Vedic tradition. Though the Greek ‘Kala’ means ‘good’, similar to Sanskrit ‘kalayan’, the Greek city ‘Kalamata’ is said to get its name from Greek ‘kalamia’ meaning ‘reed’. But whether it is the true source of ‘kala’ remains uncertain.

The word ‘kala’ appears in other Greek city names such as ‘Kalabaka’ and ‘Kalamaki’. ‘Kalabaka’ is said  to have Turkish origins where it means ‘Strong Fort’. ‘Kalamaki’ is translated as ‘Little reed’ and is the also the Greek name of a Turkish town by the name ‘Kalkan’.

A simpler explanation one might think is that the word ‘kala’ may have to do with the Sanskrit ‘kala’ (काल) meaning ‘time’.

10. Then there was ‘Damastium’ located 5 miles away from the Oracle of Dodon. Pococke states that ‘dama’ and ‘damma’ are distortions of the Sanskrit ‘dharma’ (धर्मं) meaning ‘duty’. The ‘astium’ in Damastium says Pococke is a distortion of the Sanskrit ‘asti’ (अस्ति) that is ‘to be’. Damastium in Greece was a place for the ‘residing priests’.
11. Domoskos: Domokos is probably a distortion of ‘Dharma-desh’ (धर्म-देश) meaning ‘Land of Dharma’.

Ionians appear in Indic literature and documents as Yavana and Yona as well as in the documentation of the ‘Edicts of Ashoka’, dated to 250 BC. Before then, the Yavanas appear in the Vedas. In the Vedas, the Yavanas are a kingdom of Mlechhas, or barbarians, to the far west, out of the line of descent of Indic culture and in general refer to the Greeks.

Citations and Reference.

Sonia Gandhi And Antique Idols Theft

There were reports that Sonia Gandhi was implicated in the Idols Thefts in India.


Art Theft from India
Yakshi Holding a Crowned Child (2002 Gift of Subhash Kapoor)
Image Credit.http://chasingaphrodite.com/2012/07/30/kapoor-case-investigation-into-stolen-indian-idols-will-test-museum-transparency/


“What about the arrest and jailing of Sonia Gandhi for smuggling antique idols out of India.

On 1-8-02, smuggling of India’s antique artifacts by Sonia Gandhi was brought up in the Indian Parliament by a Samata Party member.

Many Indians have visited Italy and had seen the shops owned by Sonia Gandhi, alias Edvige Antonia Albina Maino. .

This has never been a secret. There is an antique store called Ganapathi in Orbassano, Italy, Sonia’s native place.

The shop is owned by her relatives. Her smuggling activities began during Indira Gandhi‘s premiership when Sonia was only Mrs Rajiv Gandhi.

Sonia Gandhi an illiterate housemaid coming from a poor Italian mason’s family, money making was the first criteria, when she married Rajiv

. She never had education, but had herself certified as an art expert, which gave her the opportunity to certify Indian artifacts, as to which were museum pieces and which were not.

Election Commissioner Navin Chawla’s wife Rupika Chawla not only helped Sonia, but has even supplied Indian antiques to Sonia for smuggling in to Italy.

Sonia was close to Cultural Attache at the Italian Embassy and he used to smuggle artifacts via diplomatic courier bags which escaped customs inspection.

This Cultural Attache was later withdrawn by the Italian Government

. Antique smuggling and money laundering by Sonia with LTTE help was going on since 1984.

Boyfriend Quattrocchi,wanted in Bofors, was buying arms from Phuket, Thailand for LTTE. Rajiv killing by LTTE if probed further by CBI-led MDMA, of Jain Commission would have revealed the conspiracy with LTTE in the assassination of Rajiv killing.

Sonia systematically plundered and exported the ancient treasures of India, especially temple sculptures of Tamil Nadu, Andhra, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, Mughal paintings and precious gems in Indian Museums, all protected and banned from export under the Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972

The CBI had in 1993 registered cases on such illegal exports from a Chennai suburb to an identified person in Italy. Festival of India was used as a ploy to smuggle out treasures.

In this Sonia took the help Arjun Singh while he was MP, CM, art expert Martand Singh, a Pakistani couple Muneer and Farida Attaullah, London based Pakistani ISI fixer Salman Thassir a prince of Kuwait, and even the LTTE.

Quattrocchi the Italian rogue was right hand man for Rajiv Gahdi. Rajiv Gandhi used to send faxes of cabinet decisions to Win Chadda which was seen by every one.

Annual holidays and even weekly holidays are spend together by Quattrocchi family and Sonia family together. quattrocchi was arrested on 6th Feb 2007 and yet the news has come out on 23-2-2007.

Sonia with the help of CBI and our tainted judges is trying to cover up the biggest theft of public money by Rajiv gandhi. Sonia bofors frozen money in the bank to her boy friend. Yet the media was silent”

Comment in The Times of India. dated 9 May 2012.

Sonia Gandhi Idol Theft.


Now there is news that Indian Officials did not follow-up the lead.




Rebuttal of this allegation is welcome and there seems to be no rebuttals as on Date.


The Toledo Museum of Art has a mea culpa page on its website. Following widespread coverage of the Kapoor case in the media in India as well in the US, the museum has declared that it had bought eight items including a dancing Ganesha idol most likely belonging to Sripuranthan. The webpage acknowledges that similarities exist between the idol in its possession and the photograph of the idol sent by Tamil Nadu police.

But to set its record straight, the museum has said that it wrote to the Indian Consulate General in New York in 2013 requesting their assistance in establishing the true provenance of the Ganesha idol. It sent a letter to S Jaishankar, the Ambassador of India, asking for his assistance in February 16, 2014, but hasn’t heard back from Indian officials so far.

The lack of response from Indian consular officials is only a part of the red tape that needs to be cut to bring back the Kapoor treasures. The Tamil Nadu police here have a l s o b e e n bogged down by internal delays . Officials express frustration at the bureaucratic delays involved in reaching their letters of rogatory to the concerned parties. A senior police officer said: “Every letter prepared by CID’s idol wing police personnel in the state is forwarded to the Interpol division of CBI in Delhi.





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Italy Returns Marines Only Power Talks

Now Italy has agreed to return the marines involved in the killing of Fishermen in Kerala, India.

earlier Italy refused to return the marines who had gone to Italy from Indian Custody after an undertaking by the Italian Ambassador  to The Supreme Court of India that they would be returned  to India.

When Italy reneged on its commitment, India made a smart move in moving the Supreme court which blocked the Italian ambassador Mancini from leaving India and a blazing row ensued between India and Italy.

India’s firm stand against EUs quoting Vienna conventions India refused to buckle.

This has paid off.

Obviously Power usually works!

Wish India does it with Pakistan and Sri Lanka s well.


Italian Marines involved in the Murder of Indian Fishermen,
Italian Marines involved in the Murder of Indian Fishermen,

NEW DELHI—Bowing to pressure from New Delhi, Rome announced two Italian marines will return to India to stand trial on murder charges, a move that is likely to end a diplomatic impasse between the two countries.

Following discussions with Indian officials, the government of Prime Minister Mario Monti said that the two men—Massimiliano Latorre and Salvatore Girone—will be returning to India on Friday.

“Indian authorities have given us a written assurance that the marines will be treated well, and that their rights will be respected,” the Italian government said in a statement on Thursday night.

Rome was previously worried that the two men risked the death penalty in India, a form of punishment that is banned in Italy.

Foreign Minister Salman Khurshid, in a statement to Parliament Friday, said his government informed Italian officials that capital punishment is not applicable in this case.

The men are accused of fatally shooting two Indian fishermen off the coast of southern India last year. They deny they committed murder.

They were detained by local police, sparking a disagreement between Italy and India over where they should be tried.

India’s Supreme Court in January ordered its own courts have jurisdiction and said the criminal case will be handled in a special court in Delhi.

Italy contended the men should be tried in Italy as the incident occurred in international waters.

A month later, the court agreed to a request from Italian Ambassador Daniele Mancini, on behalf of his government, to allow the two men to travel to Italy for a four-week period to vote.

Last week, Italy announced the naval officers would not be returning to India as planned, a decision that led to an escalating diplomatic crisis.