Why Galactic Cosmic Radiation Not Hit Astronauts?


We know thee is radiation and some thing called Galactic Cosmic radiation.

We are also told that it would endanger our health and might induce cancer .

We have been ending Astronauts into Space and there seems to be no effects of this radiation.

On the one hand Space science claims that thought there may be Radiation that might affect people in Space, but they are protected by the Earth’s Atmosphere.

If the Earth’s atmosphere can protect some one in Space , why can’t it in Earth?

And Astronauts are exposed to Space with out this protective () layer of Earth’ Atmosphere on ISS and they also carry out jobs in Space outside the ISS.

Yet some how, there seems to be no effects of radiation on the Astronauts.

Read the following interesting story on Boing Boing.

I was also curious on the effect of Space Travel on human body.

I have provided a link at the end of this post.

Very interesting, yet it left me totally confused as to what the answer to my question is!

Galactic Radiation
Galactic Radiation

“Galactic cosmic radiation — also called galactic cosmic rays — is the kind of radiation that researchers are most worried about. It’s made up particles, bits and pieces of atoms that were probably flung off from the aftermath of supernovas. The majority of this radiation, roughly 90%, is made up protons ripped from atoms of hydrogen. These particles travel around the galaxy at almost the speed of light.

And then they hit the Earth. This planet has a couple of defense mechanisms that protect us here on the ground from the impact of galactic cosmic radiation. First, Earth’s magnetic field both pushes away some of the particles and blocks others completely. Then, the particles that make it through that barrier start to encounter the atoms that make up our atmosphere.

If you drop a big tower made of Legos down the stairs it will break apart, losing more pieces every time it hits a new step. That’s a lot like what happens to galactic cosmic radiation in our atmosphere. The particles collide with atoms and break apart, forming new particles. Those new particles hit something else and also break apart. At each step, the particles lose energy. They get a little slower, a little weaker. By the time they “come to a stop” at the ground, they aren’t the galactic powerhouses they once were. It’s still radiation. But it’s much less dangerous radiation. Just like it would hurt a lot less to be hit with one Lego block, than with a whole tower of them.

All of the astronauts we’ve sent into space so far have, at least partially, benefited from Earth’s protective barriers, Francis Cucinotta told me. He’s the director of the NASA Space Radiobiology Program, the go-to guy for finding out how radiation hurts astronauts. He says, with the exception of Apollo flights to the Moon, the human presence in space has happened within the Earth’s magnetic field. The International Space Station, for instance, is above the atmosphere, but still well inside the first line of defense. Our astronauts aren’t exposed to the full force of galactic cosmic radiation.

They’re also exposed to it for a relatively limited amount of time. The longest spaceflight ever lasted a little over a year. And that matters, because the damage from radiation is cumulative. You simply can’t rack up as much risk on a six month jaunt to the ISS as you could, theoretically, on a multi-year excursion to Mars.

But what’s interesting, and concerning, is that even with those protections we do see signs of radiation damage to astronauts, Cucinotta told me.

The big thing is cataracts — changes in the lens of the eye that make it more opaque. With less light able to get into their eyes, people with cataracts lose some of their ability to see. In 2001,

http://boingboing.net/2013/01/04/how-space-radiation-hurts-astr.html

What Happens to Body in Space?

Human beings living on Earth are effected by gravity because about two-thirds of our daily activities are standing or sitting. Great amounts of body fluids such as blood pool in the lower part of the body. The human body is equipped with various mechanisms to oppose gravity to maintain sufficient blood flow to the brain.
In microgravity environment, the quantity and the distribution of body fluid alter, being free of the gravitational effect. This is the concept of “fluid shift.”

http://iss.jaxa.jp/med/index_e.html

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Stunning Images From Space Photo Essay


These are the images from our known Universe.

Still GOD doesn’t Exist?

Sea Gull Nebula
Wings of the Seagull Nebula This image shows the intricate structure of part of the Seagull Nebula, known more formally as IC 2177. These wisps of gas and dust are known as Sharpless 2-296 (officially Sh 2-296) and form part of the “wings” of the celestial bird. This region of the sky is a fascinating muddle of intriguing astronomical objects — a mix of dark and glowing red clouds, weaving amongst bright stars. This new view was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile.
Color Crater on Mercury
Though Mercury is not known for having an especially colorful surface, some regions show a strong local contrast in color. Like other craters in Caloris, the interior and ejecta of Atget are darker and bluer than the typical brown volcanic plains. These craters help scientists to get a look at the three-dimensional compositional variations with the Caloris basin, and provide a way to judge the thickness of the volcanic plains (over 2 km here!). North is up in this image. These images were acquired as high-resolution targeted color observations. Targeted color observations are images of a small area on Mercury’s surface at resolutions higher than the 1-kilometer/pixel 8-color base map. During MESSENGER’s one-year primary mission, hundreds of targeted color observations were obtained. During MESSENGER’s extended mission, high-resolution targeted color observations are more rare, as the 3-color base map is covering Mercury’s northern hemisphere with the highest-resolution color images that are possible.
Pretty Veils in Orion
This esthetic close-up of cosmic clouds and stellar winds features LL Orionis, interacting with the Orion Nebula flow. Adrift in Orion’s stellar nursery and still in its formative years, variable star LL Orionis produces a wind more energetic than the wind from our own middle-aged Sun. As the fast stellar wind runs into slow moving gas a shock front is formed, analogous to the bow wave of a boat moving through water or a plane traveling at supersonic speed. The small, arcing, graceful structure just above and left of center is LL Ori’s cosmic bow shock, measuring about half a light-year across. The slower gas is flowing away from the Orion Nebula’s hot central star cluster, the Trapezium, located off the upper left corner of the picture. In three dimensions, LL Ori’s wrap-around shock front is shaped like a bowl that appears brightest when viewed along the “bottom” edge. The beautiful picture is part of a large mosaic view of the complex stellar nursery in Orion, filled with a myriad of fluid shapes associated with star formation.
Spiral Galaxy
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope – with a little help from an amateur astronomer – has produced one of the best views yet of nearby spiral galaxy Messier 106. Located a little over 20 million light-years away, practically a neighbour by cosmic standards, Messier 106 is one of the brightest and nearest spiral galaxies to our own. Despite its appearance, which looks much like countless other galaxies, Messier 106 hides a number of secrets. Thanks to this image, which combines data from Hubble with observations by amateur astronomers Robert Gendler and Jay GaBany, they are revealed as never before. At its heart, as in most spiral galaxies, is a supermassive black hole, but this one is particularly active. Unlike the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, which pulls in wisps of gas only occasionally, Messier 106’s black hole is actively gobbling up material. As the gas spirals towards the black hole, it heats up and emits powerful radiation. Part of the emission from the centre of Messier 106 is produced by a process that is somewhat similar to that in a laser – although here the process produces bright microwave radiation.
Starburst Galaxy
Starburst Galaxy Messier 82, also known as the Cigar Galaxy, is a starburst galaxy about 12 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major. Starburst galaxies undergo extremely high rates of star formation and are thought to represent a particular phase in a galaxy’s evolution. Because of its excessive star birth, M82 is five times brighter than our own Milky Way galaxy
Haunting Ghost Nebula.
Haunting Ghost Nebula This image was obtained with the wide-field view of the Mosaic Camera on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. vdB 141 is a reflection nebula located in the constellation Cepheus. Sometimes referred to as the ghost nebula, its awkward name is its catalog number in Sidney van den Bergh’s catalog of reflection nebulae, published in 1966. Several stars are embedded in the nebula. Their light gives it a ghoulish brown color. North is down and East is to the right. Imaged August 28, 2009.
Saturn Turbulence
This mosaic of images from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft shows the trail of a great northern storm on Saturn raging in full force. The contrast in the images has been enhanced to make the turbulent parts of the storm (in white) stand out without losing the details of the surrounding regions. The head of the storm is the set of bright clouds near the left of the image. A clockwise-spinning vortex spawned by the storm shortly after it erupted in early December 2010 can be seen in the middle. The head of the storm moved very swiftly westward, while the vortex drifted more slowly westward.
Two New Views of Andromeda
Top: In this new view of the Andromeda galaxy from the Herschel space observatory, cool lanes of forming stars are revealed in the finest detail yet. Herschel is a European Space Agency mission with important NASA participation. Andromeda, also known as M31, is the nearest major galaxy to our own Milky Way at a distance of 2.5 million light-years, making it an ideal natural laboratory to study star formation and galaxy evolution. Sensitive to the far-infrared light from cool dust mixed in with the gas, Herschel seeks out clouds of gas where stars are born. The new image reveals some of the very coldest dust in the galaxy — only a few tens of degrees above absolute zero — colored red in this image. By comparison, warmer regions such as the densely populated central bulge, home to older stars, take on a blue appearance. Intricate structure is present throughout the 200,000-light-year-wide galaxy with star-formation zones organized in spiral arms and at least five concentric rings, interspersed with dark gaps where star formation is absent. Andromeda is host to several hundred billion stars. This new image of it clearly shows that many more stars will soon to spark into existence. Bottom: The glow seen here comes from the longer-wavelength, or far, end of the infrared spectrum, giving astronomers the chance to identify the very coldest dust in our galactic neighbor. These light wavelengths span from 250 to 500 microns, which are a quarter to half of a millimeter in size. Herschel’s ability to detect the light allows astronomers to see clouds of dust at temperatures of only a few tens of degrees above absolute zero. These clouds are dark and opaque at shorter wavelengths. The Herschel view also highlights spokes of dust between the concentric rings.
Molecular Cloud in Monoceros
Molecular Cloud in Monoceros This image was obtained with the wide-field view of the Mosaic II camera on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory on January 11th, 2012. It shows a portion of the giant Monceros R2 molecular cloud. It is a location of massive star formation, particularly in the location of the bright red nebula just below the center of the image. The image was generated with observations in the Sulphur [SII] (blue) and Hydrogen-Alpha (red) filters. In this image, north is to the right, and east is up.
Saturn's herding Moons.
Saturn’s Herding Moons The ring-region Saturnian moons Prometheus and Pan are both caught “herding” their respective rings in this image. Through their gravitational disturbances of nearby ring particles, one moon maintains a gap in the outer A ring and the other helps keep a ring narrowly confined. Prometheus (53 miles, or 86 kilometers across), together with Pandora (not seen in this image), maintains the narrow F ring seen at the bottom left in this image. Pan (17 miles, or 28 kilometers across) holds open the Encke gap in which it finds itself embedded in the center. The bright dot near the inner edge of the Encke gap is a background star.
Looking Down at Jupiter.
Looking Down at Jupiter These color maps of Jupiter were constructed from images taken by the narrow-angle camera onboard NASA’s Cassini spacecraft on Dec. 11 and 12, 2000, as the spacecraft neared Jupiter during its flyby of the giant planet. Cassini was on its way to Saturn. They are the most detailed global color maps of Jupiter ever produced. The smallest visible features are about 120 kilometers (75 miles) across. The maps are composed of 36 images: a pair of images covering Jupiter’s northern and southern hemispheres was acquired in two colors every hour for nine hours as Jupiter rotated beneath the spacecraft. Although the raw images are in just two colors, 750 nanometers (near-infrared) and 451 nanometers (blue), the map’s colors are close to those the human eye would see when gazing at Jupiter.
Vesta Crater in 3 D
Vesta Crater in 3D This composite-color view from NASA’s Dawn mission shows Cornelia Crater, streaked with dark materials, on the giant asteroid Vesta. The data were obtained by Dawn’s framing camera during the mission’s high-altitude mapping orbit, about 420 miles (680 kilometers) above the surface. The images were integrated into a mosaic and wrapped on a topographical model of Vesta’s surface.

Source.

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/01/space-photo-of-the-day-2/?pid=5940

 

Australia Wild Fire Photo Essay


Australia is reeling under wild fire.

New South wales had as much as 165 wild Fires simultaneously yesterday.

Homes were destroyed and people left their Homes.

Photo Essay.

Australia Wild Fire.
Rural Fire Service (RFS) firefighters tackle a grass fire just outside of Gunning in New South Wales as more than 100 fires are still reported to be burning
Wild fire ,Australia.
Wild fire from International Space Station.
Wild Fire Australia
Another view of Wild Fire Australia from International Space Station.
Wild Fire Australia.
Burnt Trees,Scorched Earth, Wild Fire Australia.
Wild fire Australia.
Horrific: Sheep burnt to death during a bushfire lay in a paddock near Bookham, near Canberra, in the Australian Capital Territory
Wild Fire Australia.
Menacing: Trees burns and smoke billows from a fire along the Princes Highway at Deans Gap in the Shoalhaven area in New South Wales
Wild Fire Australia
Divine intervention: A building burns near the jetty. The family credits God with their survival from the fire that destroyed around 90 homes in their town of Dunalley as the country was hit with record temperatures
Wild Fire,Australia.
Escaping the flames: The family’s pet dog Polly sought safety on the jetty as the family huddled together in the water
Australia Wild Fire.
Fight for survival: Grandmother Tammy Holmes (second left) takes refuge under a jetty with her five grandchildren as wildfires tear through their town of Dunalley in Tasmania. Just about able to stand, she grabs hold of (from l-r) two-year-old Charlotte and four-year-old Esther, while nine-year-old Liam clings to the wooden structure to keep his head above water as 11-year-old Matilda also reaches for the jetty while supporting six-year-old Caleb

Source:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2259468/Australia-wildfires-Moment-terrified-family-forced-refuge.html

Related:

Australia is reeling under Fire with over 165 fires reported at the last count and the  Fire fighters are waging a grim battle.

The temperatures are expected to soar to 43 degrees.

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2013/01/08/australian-state-on-fire-nsw-live-updates/

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UFO Filmed by NASA During ‘Hurricane Sandy’ Video


NASA has filmed a UFO during the recent Hurricane Sandy that bashed the US recently.

 

NASA Filmed UFO Over Hurricane Sandy From Space Station

 

English: The International Space Station as se...
English: The International Space Station as seen in its ULF3 configuration by the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis, following the departure of STS-129, which delivered ExPRESS Logistics Carriers 1 & 2 to the orbital outpost. The newly-arrived Russian Poisk module is also visible. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Related.Compilation of NASA UFO Video compilation.

 

 

 

 

 

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Istanbul By Night From Space Station Fabulous


 

'Istanbul by Night' Jpg view from Space Station
Istanbul by Night

“Most of Istanbul’s Asian suburbs (image right) appear in this night view from the International Space Station, but only about half the area of the city on the European side is visible. The margins of the metropolitan area are clearly visible at night, more so than in daylight images in daylight images.

The Bosporus strait (also spelled Bosphorus) famously separates the two halves of the city and links the small Sea of Marmara (and the Mediterranean Sea) to the Black Sea. The strait is 31 kilometers (19 miles) long, most of which is visible in this view. The Bosporus is a very busy waterway, with larger ships passing north-south between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, while competing with numerous ferries that cross east-west between the two halves of the city.

Apart from the Sea of Marmara and Black Sea, the other dark areas are wooded hills that provide open spaces for the densely populated city—one of the largest in Europe at 13.5 million inhabitants. The old city of Istanbul occupies the prominent point at the southern entrance to the strait. The brighter lines crossing the metropolitan area the major traffic arteries; bright lights also mark the shorelines. The First Bosporus Bridge and Second Bridge (also known as the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge) span the strait. The brilliant lights of both international airports also stand out at image lower left and image lower right.”

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=79116&src=twitter-iotd

 

 

Himalayan Plateau Juts out of Cloud, View from Space


“The sheer height of the Himalayan plateau – known as the roof of the world – is captured in a spectacular shot taken by one of the keenest photographers on the International Space Station.
Cloud formations swirl around the base of the plateau in the image captured by Dutch astronaut Andre Kuipers, but the shot offers a view of Everest and its neighbours that few human beings will ever see, from 245 miles above our planet.

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André Kuipers – a keen photographer – launched to the ISS on 21 December last year from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, in Kazakhstan, on a Soyuz spacecraft as flight engineer for Expeditions 30 and 31, together with Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and NASA astronaut Don Pettit.
They remained in space for nearly six months, during which time Kuipers took some of the most spectactular shots from the space station, hosted on his Flickr page and the European Space Agency‘s page.

‘I remember how thin the Earth atmosphere looks like from space and how black the Universe is. It made me realise that billions of people live in a very fragile planet. We really should take care of it,’ says Kuipers.
Kuipers is medical doctor who has been actively involved in microgravity research for more than ten years. ‘The data I will collect from my own body can bring valuable information about the effects of weightlessness on the human body. This research may help in preparation for a future mission to Mars,’ he says.
Kuipers has since returned to Earth.

 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2152851/Top-world-Space-Station-captures-Himalayan-plateau-jutting-planets-surface.html#ixzz1wYERyj6l

We Live in Time-Warped Space-Gravity Facts.


A View of Earth from Saturn
A View of Earth from Saturn (Photo credit: alpoma)

Gravity may be pretty consistent on Earth, but our perception of it isn’t. According to research published in April 2011 in the journal PLoS ONE, people are better at judging how objects fall when they’re sitting upright versus lying on their sides.

 

The finding means that our perception of gravity may be less based on visual cues of gravity’s real direction and more rooted in the orientation of the body. The findings may lead to new strategies to help astronauts deal with microgravity in space.(Please read my bog on TIME-a non linear Theory)

Speaking of astronauts, their experience has shown that a switch to weightlessness and back can be tough on the body. In the absence of gravity, muscles atrophy and bones likewise lose bone mass. According to NASA, astronauts can lose 1 percent of their bone mass per month in space.

When astronauts come back to Earth, their bodies and minds need time to recover. Blood pressure, which has equalized throughout the body in space, has to return to an Earthly pattern in which the heart must work hard to keep the brain nourished with blood. Occasionally, astronauts struggle with that adjustment. In 2006, astronautHeidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper collapsed at a welcome-home ceremony the day after returning from a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station.

The mental readjustment can be just as tricky. In 1973, Skylab 2 astronaut Jack Lousma told Time magazine that he’d accidentally smashed a bottle of aftershave in his first days back from a month-long sojourn in space. He’d let go of the bottle in mid-air, forgetting that it would crash to the ground rather than just float there.

Pluto may no longer be a planet, but it’s still a good bet for lightening up. A 150-pound (68 kilogram) person would weigh no more than 10 pounds (4.5 kg) on the dwarf planet. The planet with the most crushing gravity, on the other hand, is Jupiter, where the same person would weigh more than 354 pounds (160.5 kg).

The planet humans are most likely to visit, Mars, would also leave explorers feeling light-footed. Mars’ gravitational pull is only 38 percent that of Earth’s, meaning a 150-pound person would feel like they weigh about 57 pounds (26 kg).

Even on Earth, gravity isn’t entirely even. Because the globe isn’t a perfect sphere, its mass is distributed unevenly. And uneven mass means slightly uneven gravity.

One mysterious gravitational anomaly is in the Hudson Bay of Canada (shown above). This area has lower gravity than other regions, and a 2007 study finds that now-melted glaciers are to blame.

The ice that once cloaked the area during the last ice age has long since melted, but the Earth hasn’t entirely snapped back from the burden. Since gravity over an area is proportional to the mass atop that region, and the glacier’s imprint pushed aside some of the Earth’s mass, gravity is a bit less strong in the ice sheet’s imprint. The slight deformation of the crust explains 25 percent to 45 percent of the unusually low gravity; the rest may be explained by a downward drag caused the motion of magma in Earth’s mantle (the layer just beneath the crust), researchers reported in the journal Science.

Bad news for space cadets: Some bacteria become nastier in space. A 2007 study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that salmonella, the bacteria that commonly causes food poisoning, becomes three times more virulent in microgravity. Something about the lack of gravity changed the activity of at least 167 salmonella genes and 73 of its proteins. Mice fed the gravity-free salmonella got sick faster after consuming less of the bacteria.

In other words, Michael Crichton‘s “The Andromeda Strain” had it wrong: The danger of infection in space may not come from space bugs. It’s more likely our own bugs grown stronger would strike us.

Named because nothing, not even light, can escape their gravitational clutches, black holes are some of the most destructive objects in the universe. At the center of our galaxy is a massive black hole with the mass of 3 million suns. Scarier thought? It might be “just resting,” according Kyoto University scientist Tatsuya Inui.

The black hole isn’t really a danger to us Earthlings — it’s both far away and it’s remarkably calm. But sometimes it does put on a show: Inui and colleagues reported in 2008 that the black hole sent out a flare of energy 300 years ago. Another study, released in 2007, found that several thousand years ago, a galactic hiccup sent a small amount of matter the size of Mercury falling into the black hole, leading to another outburst.

The black hole, named Sagittarius A*, is dim compared with other black holes.

“This faintness implies that stars and gas rarely get close enough to the black hole to be in any danger,” Frederick Baganoff, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who was involved with the 2007 study, told LiveScience‘s sister site SPACE.com. “The huge appetite is there, but it’s not being satisfied.”

http://www.livescience.com/14012-6-weird-facts-gravity.html

NASA probe orbiting Earth has confirmed two key predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which describes how gravity causes masses to warp space-time around them.

The Gravity Probe B mission was launched in 2004 to study two aspects of Einstein’s theory about gravity: the geodetic effect, or the warping of space and time around a gravitational body; and frame-dragging, which describes the amount of space and time a spinning objects pulls with it as it rotates.

“Imagine the earth as if it were immersed in honey,” Stanford University physicist Francis Everitt, Gravity Probe B’s principal investigator, said in a statement. “As the planet rotates, the honey around it would swirl, and it’s the same with space and time. GP-B confirmed two of the most profound predictions of Einstein’s universe, having far-reaching implications across astrophysics research.” [6 Weird Facts About Gravity]

Gravity Probe B used four ultra-precise gyroscopes to measure the two gravitational hypotheses. The probe confirmed both effects with unprecedented precision by pointing its instruments at a single star called IM Pegasi.

http://newsworldwide.wordpress.com/2012/05/06/satellite-confirms-that-we-live-in-a-space-time-warp/

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