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Tripura Samhara Shiva Geological Kurnool Mt.Toba Proof?

The references found in the Vedic Texts, Vedas, Puranas and the Ithihasa ,Ramayana and Mahabharata offer three levels of understanding .

One is that they are historical, as validated by archaeology and Carbon Dating.

The second is that ,taking into consideration of the Theory of Circular Time, and coordinating the Quantum Theory of Multi Verse, one can say that the events mentioned in the Hindu texts are happening even now simultaneously at the three aspects of Time, Past,present and future.

And there is the third interpretation.

The events narrated in the Hindu texts convey abstract philosophical and Physical truths.

It is in this context I am writing this Post.

There are references to the Tripura Samhara, The Destruction of three cities by Lord Shiva.

As a Historical fact, there are two theories about the location of Tripura.

One is in the Arctic and the another is in Atlantis.

For details read here .


The landmass we find today as  Malay Peninsula was a cluster of islands in South-East Asia.

It consists of Malay peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo and other surrounding areas.

They were a single landmass about 22,000 years ago.

Research by Glenn Milne and Graham Hancock have shown that these islands were not islands but were connected as a huge land mass some 22,000 years ago.

The sea level was 150 meters lower than what we find now and hence was inhabited by people.

This land was given the Name Sundaland.

An ancient volcano located in Sundaland erupted about 73,000 years ago caused a wide-spread devastation of mankind and other life.


Mount Toba location.image.png

The red star on the left side of Sundaland was the location of Mt Toba, a Super Volcano that erupted then.

The scale of devastation was such that the volcanic ash spread as far as the Arabian sea covering most parts of South India by a few meters.

Mount Toba in ancient Map.png

Mount Toba in ancient Map.

The red spot in the above picture is the location of Mt Toba and the blue spots are the regions where ash deposits have been identified. Due to the wind direction at the time of eruption, the ash had spread towards west of Indonesia.

Recent excavations in Jwalapuram, in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh showed that this village which had an human dwelling at that time (73,000 years ago) was covered with the ash of Mt Toba.

Jwalapuram, Kurnool ,India.png

Jwalapuram, Kurnool ,India.

‘Jwala’ in Sasnkrit means .Tongues of Flame.


Genetic studies reveal that almost all of mankind vanished then but for a small group from which the current population of the globe has come up.

Tripura means three sides or anything that is three. One can explain it at any level – physical, philosophical etc.
But after coming to know of the Sunda land and the eruption of Mt Toba, the story of Tripura Samhara shows a geological event.The names associated with Tripura samhara bear unique resemblance to the way a Super Volcano was maturing to erupt.

There was a Tarakasura who was killed by Karthikeya.
Tara means star.
Karthikeya is derived from a meaning ‘fire’ or ‘cut’.
A star or star like glowing material was absorbed by Fire (Agni) is the import of this.

After the death of  Tarakasura, his three sons,
Tarakaksha, Vidyunmali and Makalaksha did penanceto become terrific fortresses.
Tarakaksha means star-eyed, Vidyunmali means one wreathed in lightening and Kamalaksha means lotus eyed (red in colour).
They formed 3 cities which were continuously rotating.
The cities were made of iron at the bottom, silver above that and gold on top.
They were fierce and kept rotating thereby tormenting the people.
They were called the Tripura  Asuras.

This description of the Tripura asuras (3 sided asuras) tallies with that of an active volcano.
The initial Volcano, Tarakasura had spewed fire (killed by Karthikeya).
But that was not the end of the Volcano.
It kept being active by being star like sparks (Tarakaksha), lightening (Vidyunmali) and red in color (kamalaksha)…

The magma underneath had been so volatile that it is described as though the 3 layers of molten minerals of iron, silver and gold were rotating all the time…

The Danavas including Maya was present at the time Tripura was fuming!
The torment caused by Tripura was unbearable that  the Devas asked Shiva to kill him.
He did so by using a single arrow.
The killing of Tripura by Shiva was described as Tripura samhara.
The exact process of killing is described in the Sangam Tamil text called Paripadal
which is an exact description of the destruction caused by a Volcano.

Features of a Volcano.png

Features of a Volcano.

Tripura samhara visualized.

Tripura samhara visualized.

Paripadal – 5 says

“naaga naaNaa malai villaaka
moovagai, aareyil Orazal ambin muLiya”
(நாக நாணா மலை வில்லாக
மூவகை ஆரெயில் ஓரழல் அம்பின் முளிய)

Naaga – snake
naaNaa – as the string (of the bow)
malai – mountain
villaaka – as the bow
moovakai – 3 types
aareyil – walls (fortresses)
Orazal – a single streak of fire
ambin muLiya – at the end of an arrow – killed

That is,
Shiva killed Tripura with the mountain as the arrow and the snakes (mantle / magma) as the string, he blew the 3 fortresses of iron, silver and gold (molten material) by shooting a single arrow which has fire at its end.
The snakes – as we told before – personify the magma trying to come out.

This describes the sudden and powerful eruption of fire and mantle from inside the mountain (volcano) which resulted in the complete collapse of the volcano.

To depict it pictorially, here is the image of how a volcano looks when it bursts.


Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia which encompasses the Sunda shelf, the part of the Asian continental shelf that was exposed during the last ice age. The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age, was the most recent glacial period within the current ice age occurring during the last years of the Pleistocene, from approximately 110,000 to 12,000 years ago. It included the Malay Peninsula on the Asian mainland, as well as the large islands of Borneo,Java, and Sumatra and their surrounding islands. The eastern boundary of Sundaland is the Wallace Line, identified by Alfred Russel Wallace as the eastern boundary of the range of Asia’s land mammal fauna, and thus the boundary of the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. The islands east of the Wallace line are known as Wallacea, and are considered part of Australasia.

Citation and reference.


Bilva Dynasty Saka Era Of Hinduism Indonesia

Indonesia is one of the lands which have been most influenced by Sanatana Dharma.

The earliest references to Indonesia are found in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, and ancient Tamil Classics dated somewhere between 2000 -3000 BC.

It is referred as Javakam, named after Java in Indonesia.

The earliest inscriptions found in the archipelago are known as the Kutai-inscriptions and originate from East Kalimantan, dated around 375 AD when the Kutai Martadipura kingdom ruled. These inscriptions were written in Sanskrit (the liturgical language of Hinduism) using the Pallava script, a script developed in Southern India around the third century AD. In these inscriptions three rulers of Kutai Martadipura are mentioned and they describe a ritual that is characteristic of archaic Hinduism. Approximately one century later, the first (known) stone is inscripted on Java. This inscription, also in Sanskrit, states king Purnavarman of the Tarumanagara kingdom (fourth to seventh century) in West Java and associates him with a Hindu deity (Vishnu). Together, these inscriptions show evidence of major influences from Indian Hinduism within the ruling elites of the first known indigenous ancient kingdoms in the archipelago.

However, trade contacts between present-day India and the archipelago are known to have been established centuries prior to the Kutai inscriptions. The Strait of Malacca, a sea-lane linking the Indian Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, has been the main shipping channel for seaborne trade between China, India and the Middle East since human memory. A large part of Sumatra’s coastline is conveniently located next to this sea-lane causing merchants between India and China to stop over here or on the other side of the Strait (present-day Malaysia) to wait for the right monsoon winds that would carry them further. But it is assumed that Hinduism and Buddhism were not spread to the archipelago by these Indian traders. More likely, kings and emperors in the archipelago were drawn to the prestige of the Brahmans (the Hindu priestly class which forms the highest ranking of the four social classes). These Brahmans, supposedly, introduced a religion to the archipelago which enabled the indigenous kings to identify themselves with a Hindu deity or a Buddhist Bodhisattva (an enlightened mystical being), thereby replacing the ancestor worship that was adhered to previously. This new religious doctrine, therefore, implied more prestige for the kings. Empires in the archipelago that copied such Indian concepts were found on the islands of Kalimantan, Java, Sumatra and Bali….


Tamil Kings have been conquering Indonesia quite frequently and have established their rule.


The Mahabajit(Mahpahit) Dynasty of Indonesia ruled Indonesia from 1293 for two hundred Years.

Suhita,Queen of Indonesia.jpg

“Suhita” by Gunawan Kartapranata – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons –

The name Majabahit means the Bilva Tree,Aegle marmelos.

‘The name Majapahit derived from local Javanese which means “bitter maja“. German orientalist Berthold Laufer suggested that maja came from the Javanese name of Aegle marmelos, an Indonesian tree.The name originally refer to the area in and around Trowulan, the cradle of Majapahit, which linked to the establishment of a village in Tarik timberland by Raden Wijaya. It was said that the workers that clearing the Tarik timberland, encountered some bael trees, as they consumed the bitter-tasted fruits that subsequently become the village’s name. In ancient Java it is common to refer the kingdom with its capital’s name. Majapahit (sometimes also spelled Mojopait) also known in other name; Wilwatikta, although sometimes the native refer their kingdom as Bhumi Jawa or Mandala Jawa instead.”

The Bilva Leaves are used for the worship of Lord Shiva.

Bilva leaves , like Tulsi can be used repeated for Pooja  after washing them.

Indonesia abounds in Bilva and Rudraksha Trees.which, again, is used for Shiva worship.

The names of the Indonesian Rulers have Sanskrit base.

Gito[padesha form Mahbharata-Monument in Jakarta.jpg

Mahabharata Monument in Jakarta, Indonesia Mahabharata Monument in Jakarta, Indonesia

Some of them are,

Firts King Jayavardana, one who is adorned by Victory.

Names of His wives,



Gayatri Rajapatni.

Look at these names in the Image below.

Mahpahit Geneology Chart.gif

Mahpahit Geneology Chart.

The Mahabharata of India has a different version of the Indian Epic.

Indonesia has a different version of the Mahabharata from the Indian version of Mahabharata in many parts of the story. The Mahabharata was translated into (old) Javanese under the reign of king Dharmawangsaof Medang (r. 990-1006).

It is also known as ‘Bharat Yudha’ etc. and is often portrayed through the form of Javanese Wayang. A Characteristic feature of the Indonesian Mahabharata is that it gives more autonomy to other characters apart from the main characters – Krishna, Arjuna, Bhisma, Duryodhana. In the Indonesian version of Mahabharata more is said about the character of Shalya.”

And these Kings followed th Indian Calendar ‘Saka’





Borobudur Buddhist Temple Designed As Sri Chakra Meru

The Borobudur Temple, Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia, is a venerated Buddhist Shrine.

Borobudur Buddha Shrine, aerial View.jpg

Borobudur Buddha Shrine, aerial View.Resembles The Sri Chakra


Borobudur, or Barabudur, is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The monument consists of six square platforms topped by three circular platforms and is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues.[1] A main dome, located at the center of the top platform, is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues each of which is seated inside a perforated stupa. It is the world’s largest Buddhist temple,[2][3] as well as one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world.[4]

Sri Meru Yantra.jpg

Sri Meru Yantra.

Built in the 9th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty, the temple was designed in Javanese Buddhist architecture, which blends the Indonesian indigenous cult of ancestor worship and the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana.[4] The temple also demonstrates the influences of Gupta art that reflects India’s influence on the region, yet there are enough indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to make Borobudur uniquely Indonesian.[5][6] The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. The journey for pilgrims begins at the base of the monument and follows a path around the monument and ascends to the top through three levels symbolic of Buddhist cosmology: Kāmadhātu (the world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness). The monument guides pilgrims through an extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the walls and the balustrades. Borobudur has the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world’.

Ganesha Statue in Borobudur.jpg

Ganesha Statue in Borobudur.

In Indonesian, ancient temples are referred to as candi; thus locals refer to “Borobudur Temple” as Candi Borobudur. The term candi also loosely describes ancient structures, for example gates and baths. The origins of the name Borobudur, however, are unclear.

The Temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 effigies of Buddha in its complex.

If seen from the air and from the small reproduction of it in the museum and it was made in the form of a Hindu Meru which is a vertical representation of the Sri Yantra. Apparently this was the shape of a Buddhist mandala. The height of the whole edifice before renovation was 42 meters. Now it is only 34.5 meters  since the lowest level has been used as a supporting base.

Two ancient Ganesha statues are  at the entrance but there was a pool in front of the hotel in which you found a statue of Lakshmi which had a striking resemblance to the Chinese goddess of prosperity called Kuan.

Borobudur Buddhist Temple.

Interesting and funny

Star Map By Aliens Humanoids Reverse Humans

NASA image of Pioneer 10's famed Pioneer plaqu...

NASA image of Pioneer 10’s famed Pioneer plaque features a design engraved into a gold-anodized aluminum plate, 152 by 229 millimeters (6 by 9 inches), attached to the spacecraft’s antenna support struts to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

There is so much that we do not know in the world.


The tendency of Science is to shut its eye of the facts, deny them or grudgingly say that the events or the findings a Natural phenomena.


Yet the question remains, what are they?


Be it the Nazca Lines,cave paintings of Alien figures, Messages reaching us which we can not decipher,Ravan’s Pushpaka Vimana Axle,


UFO sightings.


I have quite a few articles on this filed under interesting and Funny and Astrophysics.


Now an addition to this ever growing list.


There is a piece Rock found in Indonesia from Devil’s Mountain, kept by a  Geologist.


The piece of rock has what is a Map of Stars, with directional arrows pointing out to various directions.


The Rock has figures of Humanoids.


It also has images , when reversed reveal Human Figures, Man and Woman.


The Rock piece has magnetic properties.


There are points marked in the Rock that some interpret as the landing points for an Alien ship or UFO.


In 1992, a strange artifact was discovered in a cave on the Devil Hills (or Mount of Satan) in Kupang, East Nus Tenggara, Indonesia.

The artifact was a stone, which possesses strange carvings on its surface.


You can also see humanoid figures, highlighted in the image below, which compares the carvings on the rock to the Pioneer plaques. These were plaques sent into space aboard Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 in 1972 and 1973, respectively, meant to give any intelligent life in the universe information on the crafts’ origins.

On the strange stone, the images (if they are similar) appear reversed.

Pioneer Plaques.jpg

Pioneer Plaques.

The artifact also had other qualities (translated from original):

“According to Willy [Soeharly] who is now a field investigation team coordinator BETA-UFO Kupang and surrounding areas, the rock contains a magnet and is thought to contain radioactive elements.”

The stone is now kept by the geologist’s family.

In the area of the Devil Hills, there have also been reports of UFOs, including “three black dots” that had formed a triangle, which some claimed had been the markings of a UFO landing. These markings eventually vanished due to erosion. Neons lights had also been reported descending toward the hills.



Vedas In Bali Islands Catur Veda Sira

Efforts to wipe out Hinduism and the Hindu Scriptures have been made.


And it has been successful in a limited way, thanks to the oral traditions of the Vedas  and the unstinting followers of the Vedas, The Brahmins.


I have posted how the Great African Religion was literally wiped out to the extent that even the natives of Africa still believe that they have been tribal

and mostly uncivilized.


Similar attempts have been made and ae being made about Indonesia and especially Bali Islands


You can get the information from the web that Hinduism  entered Bali some time around  First Century BC, this too is given out in a condescending



Hinduism came to Indonesia from India in the fifth century CE. It was gradually replaced by Buddhism, which was the main religion of Sumatra and Javauntil it in turn was displaced by the coming of Islam from the 14th century CE. However, due to “cultural barriers”, Bali became the only part of Indonesia to remain Hindu.[1][2]


Hindu influences reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as first century. There are several theories as to how Hinduism reached Indonesia. The Vaishya idea is that intermarriage occurred between Indian traders/merchants and Indonesian natives. Another theory (Kshatriya) believes that defeated soldiers from India found solace in Indonesia. Third, the Brahmana take a more traditional point of view that missionaries spread Hinduism to the islands. Lastly, the nationalist (Bhumiputra) theory is that Indonesians chose the culture themselves after having traveled to India.’


The position is,


Hinduism in its Vedic form has been the Religion of Indonesian islands.


The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are still being told there with vaiations.


Tamils History state that  these areas were conquered by the Tamil Kings of the Sangam Era, about 200o years ago.


Vedas were being chanted and a version of the Vedas , called ‘Catur Veda Sirah, The Head of Four Vedas’


Gatothgaja Statue In Bali

Gatothgaja In Bali


The emphasis seems to be more on Vishnu Worship.


 “The Indonesian, particularly Balinese Hindus today didn’t have the complete Samhita of Catur Veda.


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But some palm-leaf manuscripts we called Catur Veda Sirah, The Head of Four Vedas, were available under some hereditary Brahmin’s custody and government library.


The Rik, Yajus, and Sama’s “heads” full of clearly Vaishnavite meaning and established Lord Sriman Narayana’s supremacy above other deities.


The Atharva Sirah invokes other divine names such as Siva, Brahma, or even Skanda, Kumara, and Ganapati.


But from careful analysis, we also can conclude them finally as glorifying hymns for Lord Sriman Narayana.


The different names actually do  not refer to various deities but The Supreme Lord Narayana. These are the texts of Balinese Caturveda Sirah. …..



Balinese Version of The Veda.


Sang Hyang Rigveda Sirah

atha puruso ha vai narayano kaumayata prajaha srijeyeti| narayanat prano jayate manaha sarvendriyani ca kham vayur jyotir apah pruthvi visvasya dharani| narayanad brahma jayate| narayanad rudra jayate|narayanad indro jayate| narayanat prajapatih prajayate|narayanad dvadasa-aditya rudra vasavah sarvani chandansi| narayanadeva samutpadyante| narayanat pravartante|narayane praliyante| etad rigveda sirodhite||

Then The Supreme Person Narayana fastened the wish: May I create! From Narayana the life force is created. Narayana created mind, all senses, and also the sky, air, light (or fire), water, earth, and Narayana is the sustainer of everything (or the whole universe). From Narayana Brahma is born. Narayana created Rudra, Indra, and Prajapati. From Narayana the twelve Adityas, eleven Rudras, eight Vasus, and all Vedic metres are born. They originate from Narayana, they act by Narayana’s energy, and they finally dissolve in Narayana. Thus the head meaning of Rigveda has been studied.

In this Sirah, we try to comprehend Sriman Narayana by His unlimited opulence. At beginning the Sirah considered many material forces, then their great presiding deities (the abhimani-Devatas). Finally, the supremacy of Lord Narayana was established, by identifying Him as the original cause of everything. Remind us with the aphorismjanmadhyasya yatah of Brahmasutra.

Sang Hyang Yajurveda Sirah

atha nityo narayanah| brahma narayanah| sivas ca narayanah| sakras ca narayanah| kalas ca narayanah| disas ca narayanah| vidisas ca narayanah| urdhvam ca narayanah| adhas ca narayanah| antar bahis ca narayanah| narayana evedam sarvam| yad bhutam yas ca bhavyam| niskalanko niranjano nirvikalpah nirakhyatah| suddho deva eko narayanah| na dvitiyo’sti kascit| ya evam veda visnureva bhavati| ya etad yajurveda sirodhite||

The eternal Sriman Narayana is Brahma (The Primary), Narayana is Siva (The Auspicious), Narayana is Sakra (The Master), Narayana is the immortal time, Narayana is the four points of compass and the points between. Narayana is zenith and nadir, the interior and exterior. Narayana is this all; what has come into existence and all that will come into existence. The inconceivable One, the unstainable One, the unimpaired One, pure One Supreme Godhead, One without second, The Supreme Lord Narayana. He, who has come to realized this, will come to Vishnu. Thus the head meaning of Yajurveda has been studied.

Here we find mentioned many Devatas’ name. But we have to remember, this Sirah acts as a Vedic conclusion. By conclusive word of deva ekah or na dvitiyah, we know these different names only referred to One Personality. In other word the Sirah was saying, “That Brahma, you called as the supreme, is Narayana. That Siva actually Narayana. That Sakra actually Narayana. etc.” The Rigveda Sirah considered different personalities, but one of them, that Sriman Narayana, was the Supreme Origin of all. The Yajurveda Sirah only talked about One Single Personality, by addressing Him with various name. Here we also can use the methods of Sri Madhvacharya to solve something seem like ambiguity or contradictive statements of the Vedas. We can understand the words as Niravakasha (have only one meaning) and Savakasha (may interpreted by some meanings base on context). Brahma, Siva, Sakra, etc. could be interpreted in several meanings. viz. the name of demigods; the descriptions of Narayana’s quality; or as various names of Narayana. The second and third meaning was fit in this context by considering the phrase deva ekah narayana na dvitiyah. We called Narayana Brahma, because He is The First Person. We called Him Siva because He is all auspicious, etc. But it doesn’t mean asvatantra (dependent) gods, named Brahma or Siva, etc. was equal or same as Narayana, the Paramasvatantra (The Supremely Independent). In conclusive word, this Sirah meditates on Lord Narayana’s kalyana-guna

Sang Hyang Samaveda Sirah

Om ityagre vyavaharet| nama iti pascat| narayanayetyuparistat| om ityekaksaram| nama iti dvi aksare| narayanayeti pancaksarani| etad vai narayanasya-astaksaram padam| yo ha vai narayanasya-astaksaram padam abhyeti| anapabhruvah sarvamayureti| vindate prajapatyam rayasposam gopatyam tato’mrta tvam asnute| etat samaveda sirodhite.

First pronounce Om, then Namo, and finally Narayanaya. Om is the one syllable form, Namo is the two syllables form, and Narayanaya is the five syllables form. This is indeed the eight syllables mantra of Lord Narayana. Whoever goes to this eight syllables mantra of Lord Narayana, will be free from any curse during the whole course of his life. He will reach the status of Prajapati (Lord over beings), accumulating abundant of wealth, ownership over cattle and finally reaches immortality. Thus the head meaning of Samaveda has been studied.

This Sirah presenting Astaksara-mantra or Thirumantram as the conclusion of Samaveda. The mantra was actually the sound representation of the deity. There is no different between Astaksara-mantra and The Supreme Personality of Godhead Narayana Himself. One who attained realization on Astaksara-mantra, directly experience the Divine Being of Sriman Narayana Himself. He totally immersed in The Lord’s nama-rupa-guna-lila, His Holy Name, Divine Form, Qualities, and Pastimes. Indeed, this Sirah is the part of Vedic Narayana-suktam.

Sang Hyang Atharvaveda Sirah

Om suryatidam nirmalam satatam| candramrtvat sakalam| sa sadasiva sa suryam idapyam jagatvam| brahma surya surya prabhavam| mahesvaram mahadevam sambhu sankaras ca sivam sadasivam paramasivam| tava suksmam paramgataya tava sa surya| padmanabha narayana indram suryaprakasam| catur-bhumim asamam asisam krstam sukham sajanam| sthavarajangamam lata vrksa sapraroham mrga prajadhipati| om sivam sarva sakala maranam| nada vindvam bhaskaram omkaram ekaksaram| kalagnika-suryam tryaksara angam panca brahmanam dvyaksaram| narayanaskanda ganapati kumarastri siva surya sa etad atharvaveda sirodhite.

Om this is the eternal illuminating pure sun, the soothing ray emanating moon. The Sun of Sadasiva, the cosmic Brahma sun, the all shining sun, The Great Master (Mahesvara), The Great Lord (Mahadeva), The Self born One (Sambhu), The Attractive One (Sankara), The Auspicious (Siva), The Ever Auspicious (Sadasiva), The Most Auspicious (Paramasiva), The Subtlest One (Suksma), The Sun of highest ultimate goal (Paramgata). The Sun of the Lord with lotus-like navel (Padmanabha), sustainer of the whole universe (Narayana), and the King of all kings (Indra). Without parallel in the fourteen worlds, the blissful Lord of saintly persons, humans, animals, trees, vines, and other creatures. The highest Lord of all beings (Prajadhipati). The most auspicious Om, the end of everything, the lustrousnada and bindu of the Single Sacred Syllable Om. The fire of the Sun of the time. Embodiment of three syllables, five Brahmas, and two syllables. The Supreme Narayana, Skanda, Ganapati, Kumara, Devi, Siva, and Surya. Thus the head meaning of Atharvaveda has been studied.”

The Mahabharata narratives as found in present Wayang consist of folk-narratives developed by Wayang puppet-masters and bards over the ages, as also the narratives of Old Javanese Literature, which perhaps itself owes much to Folk-narratives. Kakawin Bhāratayuddha is an Old Javanese poetical rendering of some Parvas of the Mahabharata by Mpu Sedah and his brother Mpu Panuluh in Indian meters (kāvya or Kakawin). The commencement of this work was exactly November 6, 1157. It is by far the oldest extant Javanese work. Some important Kakawins relevant to our present discussion are – Kakawin Arjunawiwaha, by Mpu Kanwa, – 1030, Kakawin Krsnayana, Kakawin Bharatayuddha, by Mpu Sedah and Mpu Panuluh, 1157, Kakawin Hariwangsa Kakawin Gatotkacaśraya, Kakawin Arjunawijaya, by Mpu Tantular, and Kakawin Parthayajña.

With reference to Old Javanese literature and particularly Wayang puppet show, let us now see what major variations we find in the Indonesian narrative from its Indian origin. Let us also see the similarities of some Indian variations with the Indonesian narrative.


In the wayang kulit/leather-puppet performance Prabu Matsyapati or Durgandana, is the King of Wiroto(Virata). He is the son of Basukiswara, a just and powerful king of Cedhiwiyasa. Virataraja Matsya is Satyabati’s brother. Satyabati or Durgandini makes love to Bambang Palasara (Rishi Parashara) in a boat and produces five children.


The earliest recorded history was about the famous Mulavarman of Kutai in Kalimantan. He donated thousands of cows to agnihotri Brahmins and performed the biggest Yagna throughout the history of Nusantara. The Ramayana and also some Sanskrit works, called the present day Kalimantan as Barhina-dvipa, which later became Borneo. At the time of Mulavarman, the Indian supposed to include Nusantara as a part of Greater Kalinga. So by Mulavarman’s virtuous performance of grand sacrificial ceremony, his kingdom could be designated as Kalingottamam, the word perhaps changed to present day Kalimantan. According to some historian, the word Vaprakeshwara found in Mulavarman inscriptions has some connection with Lord Siva, and then they concluded that Mulavarman and his subjects were Saivas. But the form of his Yagna performance was Vedic. It didn’t seem involve the Agamic or Tantric elements of any sort. The lack of archaeological remains of temple worship from the time of Mulavarman supposed to prove this probability.

Their worship differs from Hindu worship in minor details, essence remains the same.

Festivals in Bali.

Nyepi –  31 March 2014
This holiday is the Balinese New Year, called Icaka New Year – a day of total silence throughout the island. No activity, no traffic is allowed on the roads; no fire may be lit for 24 hours. Great purification and sacrificial rites are held on the day before, so as to banish evil spirits from every place on the Island – Ogoh Ogoh figures are built, then burned.

Saraswati – 8 March and 4 October 2014
This day is devoted to Dewi Saraswati, the Goddess of  Science & Knowledge. Books of knowledge, manuscripts and the Wedas are blessed and special offerings are made for them.

As with other religious days in Bali, there are also ritual activities before and after the day of Saraswati itself. The day before the Saraswati is called Pengeradanaan, a day to prepare for Saraswati both spiritually and physically. Books are cleaned and properly arranged.

On Saraswati Day, the Balinese make offerings to their books. Students celebrate at school, usually in the morning. The Saraswati Day is not a day off work, so all offices are open.

The day after Saraswati is called Banyu Pinaruh. “Banyu” means water and “Pinaruh” means wisdom. Taken together, the words mean that man must have wisdom which always flows like water, and is useful for mankind. Early in the morning of Banyu Pinaruh Day, people will go the beaches, rivers and springs to purify themselves and pray for wisdom.

Pagerwesi – 12 March and 8 October 2014
Pagerwesi commemorates the day upon which an ancient battle between good and evil was fought. The word “Pagerwesi” means “iron fence”, and reflects the purpose of this important event: it is the day to strengthen one’s fortifications against evil. The correlation between Pagerwesi and the Saraswati is that knowledge is so powerful that it must be protected from bad influences. Pagerwesi Day reminds people to be wise and more aware of the function and power of knowledge.

The Balinese celebrate the Pagerwesi ceremony every six months according to the Balinese calendar. The celebration is usually three days after the Saraswati day.

During Pagerwesi, people make special offerings for the dead who have not yet been cremated. Observances are usually held at every house compound, and at temples.


The Galungan Ceremony –  21 May   and  17 December 2014
One of Bali’s major festivals celebrates the return of Balinese gods and ancestors to Bali. For ten days, Balinese families will entertain and welcome with prayers and offerings, along with ceremonies to cleanse and balance the inner and outer energy of the island. Galungan features, among other things, barong dancing from temple to temple in the village. The festival symbolizes the victory of good over evil. The origin of Galungan is a mystery, but essentially it is believed to be the beginning of the week in which the gods and ancestors descend to earth, and good triumphs over evil.

The holiday is celebrated by the fitting of ‘penjor’, tall bamboo poles beautifully decorated with woven coconut palm leaves, fruit, cakes and flowers, on the right side of every house entrance. People are attired in their finest clothes and jewels on this day.




Balinese Hinduism

Catur Veda Sira

Indonesian Mahabhata


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