Indonesia is one of the lands which have been most influenced by Sanatana Dharma.
The earliest references to Indonesia are found in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, and ancient Tamil Classics dated somewhere between 2000 -3000 BC.
It is referred as Javakam, named after Java in Indonesia.
The earliest inscriptions found in the archipelago are known as the Kutai-inscriptions and originate from East Kalimantan, dated around 375 AD when the Kutai Martadipura kingdom ruled. These inscriptions were written in Sanskrit (the liturgical language of Hinduism) using the Pallava script, a script developed in Southern India around the third century AD. In these inscriptions three rulers of Kutai Martadipura are mentioned and they describe a ritual that is characteristic of archaic Hinduism. Approximately one century later, the first (known) stone is inscripted on Java. This inscription, also in Sanskrit, states king Purnavarman of the Tarumanagara kingdom (fourth to seventh century) in West Java and associates him with a Hindu deity (Vishnu). Together, these inscriptions show evidence of major influences from Indian Hinduism within the ruling elites of the first known indigenous ancient kingdoms in the archipelago.
However, trade contacts between present-day India and the archipelago are known to have been established centuries prior to the Kutai inscriptions. The Strait of Malacca, a sea-lane linking the Indian Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, has been the main shipping channel for seaborne trade between China, India and the Middle East since human memory. A large part of Sumatra’s coastline is conveniently located next to this sea-lane causing merchants between India and China to stop over here or on the other side of the Strait (present-day Malaysia) to wait for the right monsoon winds that would carry them further. But it is assumed that Hinduism and Buddhism were not spread to the archipelago by these Indian traders. More likely, kings and emperors in the archipelago were drawn to the prestige of the Brahmans (the Hindu priestly class which forms the highest ranking of the four social classes). These Brahmans, supposedly, introduced a religion to the archipelago which enabled the indigenous kings to identify themselves with a Hindu deity or a Buddhist Bodhisattva (an enlightened mystical being), thereby replacing the ancestor worship that was adhered to previously. This new religious doctrine, therefore, implied more prestige for the kings. Empires in the archipelago that copied such Indian concepts were found on the islands of Kalimantan, Java, Sumatra and Bali….
Tamil Kings have been conquering Indonesia quite frequently and have established their rule.
The Mahabajit(Mahpahit) Dynasty of Indonesia ruled Indonesia from 1293 for two hundred Years.
The name Majabahit means the Bilva Tree,Aegle marmelos.
‘The name Majapahit derived from local Javanese which means “bitter maja“. German orientalist Berthold Laufer suggested that maja came from the Javanese name of Aegle marmelos, an Indonesian tree.The name originally refer to the area in and around Trowulan, the cradle of Majapahit, which linked to the establishment of a village in Tarik timberland by Raden Wijaya. It was said that the workers that clearing the Tarik timberland, encountered some bael trees, as they consumed the bitter-tasted fruits that subsequently become the village’s name. In ancient Java it is common to refer the kingdom with its capital’s name. Majapahit (sometimes also spelled Mojopait) also known in other name; Wilwatikta, although sometimes the native refer their kingdom as Bhumi Jawa or Mandala Jawa instead.”
The Bilva Leaves are used for the worship of Lord Shiva.
Bilva leaves , like Tulsi can be used repeated for Pooja after washing them.
Indonesia abounds in Bilva and Rudraksha Trees.which, again, is used for Shiva worship.
The names of the Indonesian Rulers have Sanskrit base.
Some of them are,
Firts King Jayavardana, one who is adorned by Victory.
Names of His wives,
Look at these names in the Image below.
The Mahabharata of India has a different version of the Indian Epic.
Indonesia has a different version of the Mahabharata from the Indian version of Mahabharata in many parts of the story. The Mahabharata was translated into (old) Javanese under the reign of king Dharmawangsaof Medang (r. 990-1006).
It is also known as ‘Bharat Yudha’ etc. and is often portrayed through the form of Javanese Wayang. A Characteristic feature of the Indonesian Mahabharata is that it gives more autonomy to other characters apart from the main characters – Krishna, Arjuna, Bhisma, Duryodhana. In the Indonesian version of Mahabharata more is said about the character of Shalya.”
And these Kings followed th Indian Calendar ‘Saka’
The Borobudur Temple, Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia, is a venerated Buddhist Shrine.
Borobudur, or Barabudur, is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The monument consists of six square platforms topped by three circular platforms and is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. A main dome, located at the center of the top platform, is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues each of which is seated inside a perforated stupa. It is the world’s largest Buddhist temple, as well as one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world.
Built in the 9th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty, the temple was designed in Javanese Buddhist architecture, which blends the Indonesian indigenous cult of ancestor worship and the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana. The temple also demonstrates the influences of Gupta art that reflects India’s influence on the region, yet there are enough indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to make Borobudur uniquely Indonesian. The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. The journey for pilgrims begins at the base of the monument and follows a path around the monument and ascends to the top through three levels symbolic of Buddhist cosmology: Kāmadhātu (the world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness). The monument guides pilgrims through an extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the walls and the balustrades. Borobudur has the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world’.
In Indonesian, ancient temples are referred to as candi; thus locals refer to “Borobudur Temple” as Candi Borobudur. The term candi also loosely describes ancient structures, for example gates and baths. The origins of the name Borobudur, however, are unclear.
The Temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 effigies of Buddha in its complex.
If seen from the air and from the small reproduction of it in the museum and it was made in the form of a Hindu Meru which is a vertical representation of the Sri Yantra. Apparently this was the shape of a Buddhist mandala. The height of the whole edifice before renovation was 42 meters. Now it is only 34.5 meters since the lowest level has been used as a supporting base.
Two ancient Ganesha statues are at the entrance but there was a pool in front of the hotel in which you found a statue of Lakshmi which had a striking resemblance to the Chinese goddess of prosperity called Kuan.
There is so much that we do not know in the world.
The tendency of Science is to shut its eye of the facts, deny them or grudgingly say that the events or the findings a Natural phenomena.
Yet the question remains, what are they?
Be it the Nazca Lines,cave paintings of Alien figures, Messages reaching us which we can not decipher,Ravan’s Pushpaka Vimana Axle,
I have quite a few articles on this filed under interesting and Funny and Astrophysics.
Now an addition to this ever growing list.
There is a piece Rock found in Indonesia from Devil’s Mountain, kept by a Geologist.
The piece of rock has what is a Map of Stars, with directional arrows pointing out to various directions.
The Rock has figures of Humanoids.
It also has images , when reversed reveal Human Figures, Man and Woman.
The Rock piece has magnetic properties.
There are points marked in the Rock that some interpret as the landing points for an Alien ship or UFO.
In 1992, a strange artifact was discovered in a cave on the Devil Hills (or Mount of Satan) in Kupang, East Nus Tenggara, Indonesia.
The artifact was a stone, which possesses strange carvings on its surface.
You can also see humanoid figures, highlighted in the image below, which compares the carvings on the rock to the Pioneer plaques. These were plaques sent into space aboard Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 in 1972 and 1973, respectively, meant to give any intelligent life in the universe information on the crafts’ origins.
On the strange stone, the images (if they are similar) appear reversed.
The artifact also had other qualities (translated from original):
“According to Willy [Soeharly] who is now a field investigation team coordinator BETA-UFO Kupang and surrounding areas, the rock contains a magnet and is thought to contain radioactive elements.”
The stone is now kept by the geologist’s family.
In the area of the Devil Hills, there have also been reports of UFOs, including “three black dots” that had formed a triangle, which some claimed had been the markings of a UFO landing. These markings eventually vanished due to erosion. Neons lights had also been reported descending toward the hills.
Efforts to wipe out Hinduism and the Hindu Scriptures have been made.
And it has been successful in a limited way, thanks to the oral traditions of the Vedas and the unstinting followers of the Vedas, The Brahmins.
I have posted how the Great African Religion was literally wiped out to the extent that even the natives of Africa still believe that they have been tribal
and mostly uncivilized.
Similar attempts have been made and ae being made about Indonesia and especially Bali Islands
You can get the information from the web that Hinduism entered Bali some time around First Century BC, this too is given out in a condescending
“Hinduism came to Indonesia from India in the fifth century CE. It was gradually replaced by Buddhism, which was the main religion of Sumatra and Javauntil it in turn was displaced by the coming of Islam from the 14th century CE. However, due to “cultural barriers”, Bali became the only part of Indonesia to remain Hindu.“
“Hindu influences reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as first century. There are several theories as to how Hinduism reached Indonesia. The Vaishya idea is that intermarriage occurred between Indian traders/merchants and Indonesian natives. Another theory (Kshatriya) believes that defeated soldiers from India found solace in Indonesia. Third, the Brahmana take a more traditional point of view that missionaries spread Hinduism to the islands. Lastly, the nationalist (Bhumiputra) theory is that Indonesians chose the culture themselves after having traveled to India.’
Then The Supreme Person Narayana fastened the wish: May I create! From Narayana the life force is created. Narayana created mind, all senses, and also the sky, air, light (or fire), water, earth, and Narayana is the sustainer of everything (or the whole universe). From Narayana Brahma is born. Narayana created Rudra, Indra, and Prajapati. From Narayana the twelve Adityas, eleven Rudras, eight Vasus, and all Vedic metres are born. They originate from Narayana, they act by Narayana’s energy, and they finally dissolve in Narayana. Thus the head meaning of Rigveda has been studied.
In this Sirah, we try to comprehend Sriman Narayana by His unlimited opulence. At beginning the Sirah considered many material forces, then their great presiding deities (the abhimani-Devatas). Finally, the supremacy of Lord Narayana was established, by identifying Him as the original cause of everything. Remind us with the aphorismjanmadhyasya yatah of Brahmasutra.
Sang Hyang Yajurveda Sirah
atha nityo narayanah| brahma narayanah| sivas ca narayanah| sakras ca narayanah| kalas ca narayanah| disas ca narayanah| vidisas ca narayanah| urdhvam ca narayanah| adhas ca narayanah| antar bahis ca narayanah| narayana evedam sarvam| yad bhutam yas ca bhavyam| niskalanko niranjano nirvikalpah nirakhyatah| suddho deva eko narayanah| na dvitiyo’sti kascit| ya evam veda visnureva bhavati| ya etad yajurveda sirodhite||
The eternal Sriman Narayana is Brahma (The Primary), Narayana is Siva (The Auspicious), Narayana is Sakra (The Master), Narayana is the immortal time, Narayana is the four points of compass and the points between. Narayana is zenith and nadir, the interior and exterior. Narayana is this all; what has come into existence and all that will come into existence. The inconceivable One, the unstainable One, the unimpaired One, pure One Supreme Godhead, One without second, The Supreme Lord Narayana. He, who has come to realized this, will come to Vishnu. Thus the head meaning of Yajurveda has been studied.
Here we find mentioned many Devatas’ name. But we have to remember, this Sirah acts as a Vedic conclusion. By conclusive word of deva ekah or na dvitiyah, we know these different names only referred to One Personality. In other word the Sirah was saying, “That Brahma, you called as the supreme, is Narayana. That Siva actually Narayana. That Sakra actually Narayana. etc.” The Rigveda Sirah considered different personalities, but one of them, that Sriman Narayana, was the Supreme Origin of all. The Yajurveda Sirah only talked about One Single Personality, by addressing Him with various name. Here we also can use the methods of Sri Madhvacharya to solve something seem like ambiguity or contradictive statements of the Vedas. We can understand the words as Niravakasha (have only one meaning) and Savakasha (may interpreted by some meanings base on context). Brahma, Siva, Sakra, etc. could be interpreted in several meanings. viz. the name of demigods; the descriptions of Narayana’s quality; or as various names of Narayana. The second and third meaning was fit in this context by considering the phrase deva ekah narayana na dvitiyah. We called Narayana Brahma, because He is The First Person. We called Him Siva because He is all auspicious, etc. But it doesn’t mean asvatantra (dependent) gods, named Brahma or Siva, etc. was equal or same as Narayana, the Paramasvatantra (The Supremely Independent). In conclusive word, this Sirah meditates on Lord Narayana’s kalyana-guna.
Sang Hyang Samaveda Sirah
Om ityagre vyavaharet| nama iti pascat| narayanayetyuparistat| om ityekaksaram| nama iti dvi aksare| narayanayeti pancaksarani| etad vai narayanasya-astaksaram padam| yo ha vai narayanasya-astaksaram padam abhyeti| anapabhruvah sarvamayureti| vindate prajapatyam rayasposam gopatyam tato’mrta tvam asnute| etat samaveda sirodhite.
First pronounce Om, then Namo, and finally Narayanaya. Om is the one syllable form, Namo is the two syllables form, and Narayanaya is the five syllables form. This is indeed the eight syllables mantra of Lord Narayana. Whoever goes to this eight syllables mantra of Lord Narayana, will be free from any curse during the whole course of his life. He will reach the status of Prajapati (Lord over beings), accumulating abundant of wealth, ownership over cattle and finally reaches immortality. Thus the head meaning of Samaveda has been studied.
This Sirah presenting Astaksara-mantra or Thirumantram as the conclusion of Samaveda. The mantra was actually the sound representation of the deity. There is no different between Astaksara-mantra and The Supreme Personality of Godhead Narayana Himself. One who attained realization on Astaksara-mantra, directly experience the Divine Being of Sriman Narayana Himself. He totally immersed in The Lord’s nama-rupa-guna-lila, His Holy Name, Divine Form, Qualities, and Pastimes. Indeed, this Sirah is the part of Vedic Narayana-suktam.
Sang Hyang Atharvaveda Sirah
Om suryatidam nirmalam satatam| candramrtvat sakalam| sa sadasiva sa suryam idapyam jagatvam| brahma surya surya prabhavam| mahesvaram mahadevam sambhu sankaras ca sivam sadasivam paramasivam| tava suksmam paramgataya tava sa surya| padmanabha narayana indram suryaprakasam| catur-bhumim asamam asisam krstam sukham sajanam| sthavarajangamam lata vrksa sapraroham mrga prajadhipati| om sivam sarva sakala maranam| nada vindvam bhaskaram omkaram ekaksaram| kalagnika-suryam tryaksara angam panca brahmanam dvyaksaram| narayanaskanda ganapati kumarastri siva surya sa etad atharvaveda sirodhite.
Om this is the eternal illuminating pure sun, the soothing ray emanating moon. The Sun of Sadasiva, the cosmic Brahma sun, the all shining sun, The Great Master (Mahesvara), The Great Lord (Mahadeva), The Self born One (Sambhu), The Attractive One (Sankara), The Auspicious (Siva), The Ever Auspicious (Sadasiva), The Most Auspicious (Paramasiva), The Subtlest One (Suksma), The Sun of highest ultimate goal (Paramgata). The Sun of the Lord with lotus-like navel (Padmanabha), sustainer of the whole universe (Narayana), and the King of all kings (Indra). Without parallel in the fourteen worlds, the blissful Lord of saintly persons, humans, animals, trees, vines, and other creatures. The highest Lord of all beings (Prajadhipati). The most auspicious Om, the end of everything, the lustrousnada and bindu of the Single Sacred Syllable Om. The fire of the Sun of the time. Embodiment of three syllables, five Brahmas, and two syllables. The Supreme Narayana, Skanda, Ganapati, Kumara, Devi, Siva, and Surya. Thus the head meaning of Atharvaveda has been studied.”
The Mahabharata narratives as found in present Wayang consist of folk-narratives developed by Wayang puppet-masters and bards over the ages, as also the narratives of Old Javanese Literature, which perhaps itself owes much to Folk-narratives. Kakawin Bhāratayuddha is an Old Javanese poetical rendering of some Parvas of the Mahabharata by Mpu Sedah and his brother Mpu Panuluh in Indian meters (kāvya or Kakawin). The commencement of this work was exactly November 6, 1157. It is by far the oldest extant Javanese work. Some important Kakawins relevant to our present discussion are – Kakawin Arjunawiwaha, by Mpu Kanwa, – 1030, Kakawin Krsnayana, Kakawin Bharatayuddha, by Mpu Sedah and Mpu Panuluh, 1157, Kakawin Hariwangsa Kakawin Gatotkacaśraya, Kakawin Arjunawijaya, by Mpu Tantular, and Kakawin Parthayajña.
With reference to Old Javanese literature and particularly Wayang puppet show, let us now see what major variations we find in the Indonesian narrative from its Indian origin. Let us also see the similarities of some Indian variations with the Indonesian narrative.
In the wayang kulit/leather-puppet performance Prabu Matsyapati or Durgandana, is the King of Wiroto(Virata). He is the son of Basukiswara, a just and powerful king of Cedhiwiyasa. Virataraja Matsya is Satyabati’s brother. Satyabati or Durgandini makes love to Bambang Palasara (Rishi Parashara) in a boat and produces five children.
The earliest recorded history was about the famous Mulavarman of Kutai in Kalimantan. He donated thousands of cows to agnihotri Brahmins and performed the biggest Yagna throughout the history of Nusantara. The Ramayana and also some Sanskrit works, called the present day Kalimantan as Barhina-dvipa, which later became Borneo. At the time of Mulavarman, the Indian supposed to include Nusantara as a part of Greater Kalinga. So by Mulavarman’s virtuous performance of grand sacrificial ceremony, his kingdom could be designated as Kalingottamam, the word perhaps changed to present day Kalimantan. According to some historian, the word Vaprakeshwara found in Mulavarman inscriptions has some connection with Lord Siva, and then they concluded that Mulavarman and his subjects were Saivas. But the form of his Yagna performance was Vedic. It didn’t seem involve the Agamic or Tantric elements of any sort. The lack of archaeological remains of temple worship from the time of Mulavarman supposed to prove this probability.
Their worship differs from Hindu worship in minor details, essence remains the same.
Festivals in Bali.
Nyepi – 31 March 2014
This holiday is the Balinese New Year, called Icaka New Year – a day of total silence throughout the island. No activity, no traffic is allowed on the roads; no fire may be lit for 24 hours. Great purification and sacrificial rites are held on the day before, so as to banish evil spirits from every place on the Island – Ogoh Ogoh figures are built, then burned.
Saraswati – 8 March and 4 October 2014
This day is devoted to Dewi Saraswati, the Goddess of Science & Knowledge. Books of knowledge, manuscripts and the Wedas are blessed and special offerings are made for them.
As with other religious days in Bali, there are also ritual activities before and after the day of Saraswati itself. The day before the Saraswati is called Pengeradanaan, a day to prepare for Saraswati both spiritually and physically. Books are cleaned and properly arranged.
On Saraswati Day, the Balinese make offerings to their books. Students celebrate at school, usually in the morning. The Saraswati Day is not a day off work, so all offices are open.
The day after Saraswati is called Banyu Pinaruh. “Banyu” means water and “Pinaruh” means wisdom. Taken together, the words mean that man must have wisdom which always flows like water, and is useful for mankind. Early in the morning of Banyu Pinaruh Day, people will go the beaches, rivers and springs to purify themselves and pray for wisdom.
Pagerwesi – 12 March and 8 October 2014
Pagerwesi commemorates the day upon which an ancient battle between good and evil was fought. The word “Pagerwesi” means “iron fence”, and reflects the purpose of this important event: it is the day to strengthen one’s fortifications against evil. The correlation between Pagerwesi and the Saraswati is that knowledge is so powerful that it must be protected from bad influences. Pagerwesi Day reminds people to be wise and more aware of the function and power of knowledge.
The Balinese celebrate the Pagerwesi ceremony every six months according to the Balinese calendar. The celebration is usually three days after the Saraswati day.
During Pagerwesi, people make special offerings for the dead who have not yet been cremated. Observances are usually held at every house compound, and at temples.
The Galungan Ceremony – 21 May and 17 December 2014
One of Bali’s major festivals celebrates the return of Balinese gods and ancestors to Bali. For ten days, Balinese families will entertain and welcome with prayers and offerings, along with ceremonies to cleanse and balance the inner and outer energy of the island. Galungan features, among other things, barong dancing from temple to temple in the village. The festival symbolizes the victory of good over evil. The origin of Galungan is a mystery, but essentially it is believed to be the beginning of the week in which the gods and ancestors descend to earth, and good triumphs over evil.
The holiday is celebrated by the fitting of ‘penjor’, tall bamboo poles beautifully decorated with woven coconut palm leaves, fruit, cakes and flowers, on the right side of every house entrance. People are attired in their finest clothes and jewels on this day.