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History Of India 2 Eastern India Nation Of The Ganges Bengal Odisha Assam


When we read the History of a vast country like India,with its roots stretching back to over thousands of years,we should remember the landmass and the present poltical maps have no relevance.

The Ancient Indian kingdoms were 56 and I have listed them in another article.

We have to have a rough division of the Bharatvarsha into four regions for better understanding and remember that the borders of the Kingdoms were subject to periodical changes depending on which King won and annexed the vanquished territory.

I shall soon begin a Timeline of the Kings of India,though I had written on the List of Indian Kings.

And we may bear in mind that Bharathavarsha of ancient times was not limited to the present Geographical area of India.

I have written on the Rama Empire that encompassed the world and also that of Emperor Vikramaditya.

Now in the last article I had dealt with the History of India in general ,the Dynasties from Ikshvaku to Chandragupta.

It covered,though it speaks of Bharatvarsha in totality,it concentrated more on Central and North India as we know at present.

In this article,we shall check the Eastern Part of India.

Unlike the History of Central and North India,the Eastern,Southern and Western part of India are interwoven move intricately aming themselves.

For instance,the Eastern India was closely connected to Dravida Desa,the present South India.

The Eastern and Southern people,Dravidas were classified as Dasyus,that is who did not follow the Vedas in its entirety.

And while the Central and North Indian Kings expanded more towards North and North East of India,the Western and Southern  kings expanded their Kindoms towards the east of India to Micronesia and the present Australia.

The Southern ,Dravida kings ,in addition to East ,expanded their Kingdoms towards Middle East,Africa,Greece and the Americas.

The Eastern kingdoms comprised of the present West Bengal,Bangladesh,Assam,Odisha and Northeastern State.

The Eastern Indian polity comprised of five major tribes and were predominantly Kshatriyas and I itiallythey did not accept the Brahmins and the Vedas fully and hence were called Dasyus.

AngasVangasKalingas, Pundras and Suhmas shared a common ancestry.

Some interpretations suggest Dasyu means Slave (Monier Williams)

I take the well researched interpretation of Sri.P.T.Srinivasa Iyengar,in his ‘History of Tamils’that Dasyu means who do not follow Vedas in its entirety.

Hindu scriptures such as the Mahabharata suggest that ancient Bengal was divided among various tribes or kingdoms, including the Nishadas and kingdoms known as the Janapadas: Vanga (southern Bengal), Pundra (northern Bengal), and Suhma (western Bengal) according to their respective totems. ‘

The Vanga Kingdom was the first powerful seafaring nation of South Asia, especially Bengal. They had overseas trade relations with JavaSumatra and Siam (modern-day Thailand). According to Mahavamsa, the Vanga prince Vijaya Simhaconquered Lanka (modern-day Sri Lanka) in 544 BCE and gave the name “Sinhala” to the country. Bengali people migrated to the Malay Archipelago and Siam (in modern Thailand), establishing their own colonies there.

*I do not agree with these dates;they can be pushed earlier.

The Southern ,Dravida kings ,in addition to East ,expanded their Kingdoms towards Middle East,Africa,Greece and the Americas
These kingdoms find reference in thebAtharva Veda and Greek writers refer extensively these areas.

Gangaridai (GreekΓανγαρίδαι; Latin: Gangaridae) was an ancient region corresponding to the Ganges delta region of the Indian subcontinent, which was mentioned in the records of numerous Greco-Roman writers. The term means “nation of the Ganges” in Greek and Latin. It is one of the earliest references to the Bengal region in the Indian subcontinent (now divided between Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal). According to ancient Indian records, the Vanga Kingdom and Samatata Kingdom occupied the region during the same period. The capital of the Gangaridai is thought by some archaeologists to be situated at Kotalipara in present-day Gopalganj District, Bangladesh…..

Diodorus Siculus further describes “Gandaridae”:

Among the southern countries the first under the Kaukasos is India, a kingdom remarkable for its vast extent and the largeness of its population, for it is inhabited by very many nations, among which the greatest of all is that of the Gandaridae, against whom Alexander did not undertake an expedition, being deterred by the multitude of their elephants. This region is separated from farther India by the greatest river in those parts (for it has a breadth of thirty stadia), but it adjoins the rest of India which Alexander had conquered, and which was well watered by rivers and highly renowned for its prosperous and happy condition. –Diodorus Siculus (1st century AD). Quoted from Ancient India as Described in Classical Literature, John W. McCrindle, p. 201.’

Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state.Remnants of Copper Age settlements in the Bengal region date back 4,000 years’

The Vanga Kingdom was an ancient seafaring thalassocracy during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. The boundary of the kingdom was naturally formed by the Padma and Bhagirathi rivers in the West, North and East; while the South was bounded by the Bay of Bengal. Its contemporary neighbouring states include SuhmaAngaPundravardhanaSamatata and Harikela..’

Harikela seems to have been the earliest people.

However ,Bhagadatta seems to have been the earliest king of Naraka dynasty ( sub sect ofcChandravamsa,Lunar Dynasty)

He took part in the Mahabharatha war and he is called Asura,powerful and he is referred to from Dravida Desa,South India..

The Angas were a part of these Kingdoms.

Karna was crowned as the King of Anga by Duryodhana.

The power of Angas did not last long and it ended with Bimbisara.

From Bimbisara, the History Of India seems alright except some misinformation about the middle ages.

It may be of interest to note that the Nishadas were also present in the area of Kerala and they were hunters.

Hunters,according to Tamil Classics were the first people who lived in areas in around mountains,Kurinji and Murugan is the God of Kurinji.

Interesting thread.

Shall write on this and more on the tribes/kings who ruled BengalOdisha and Assam.

Reference and citations.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anga

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagadatta

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bengal

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gangaridai

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History Of India 1 Ikshvaku To Chandragupta Maurya.

FeaturedSurya,Chandra vamsa,Solar,Lunar dynasties India.image

Most History text books in India begin with Maurya Dynasty and Bimbisara,as if there were no history in india before that period,dismissing them as Legends and hyperbole in the imagination of Poets.

The History conveniently begins prior to Alexander’s invasion of India.

Alexander’s invasion of India is a myth as revealed by Greek historians.

But the real history of India,as revealed by the Vedas,Puranas,Ramayana,Mahabharatha,Sanskrit and Tamil literature ,validated by Archeology,foreign literature,especially Greek,Etymological similarities between world languages and Sanskrit and Tamil,Astronomical /Carbon/Infrared dating of artifacts recovered in India and abroad confirm what the Indian texts say.

To understand Indian history,one has to,

Approach Indian texts with open mind,

Verify them with the tools I have mentioned,

Understand that there was no Aryan Invasion,

Sanatana Dharma coexisted with the Tamil culture,which also followedcSanatana Dharma,

There was no North South Divide save the wars between the usual wars between kings,

That the history of India extends to thousands of years,

That the Concept of Time in India is Cyclic and not linear,

There were two major dynasties,Solar and Lunar,Suryavamsa and Chandravamsa and there were many sub dynasties,

The Solar dynasty ,though its ancestor Manu was a Dravidian King,was established in North India,while thexLunar dynasty also flourised in south India,through Ila,Daughter of Manu.

The South Indian  kings trace their ancestry to. Solar ,Ikshvaku Dynasty and also to Lunar dynasty,Chandra vamsa.

The Ikshvahu dynasty frm Treta Yuga ,from million years ago extended upto Dwapara yuga and ended with King Sumitra who was defeated and driven away from Ayodhya.

Then we find continum from that period from Magadha dynasty,which belongs to Lunar Dynasty,Chandravamsa from Bruhatradha.

Lunar, Dynasty,Chandravmsa.image
Lunar dynasty,Chandra vamsa.

‘Barhadradha Dynasty Before the Mahabharata War of 3138 B.C.

1. Barhardradha I :-

According to Mahabharata, Brihadradha-I, the founder of Barhadradha Dynasty was the eldest son of Uparichara Vasu , the seventh in the descent from the Great Kuru, son of Samvarna, a descendant of the Lunar Dynasty (Chandravamsajah) of kings. He founded the kingdom of Magadha probably about 3709 B.C. or 571 years before the Great war of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra between the Pandavas and the Kauravas.

This  battle according to Mahabharata, the important Puranas, and all other ancient Hindu, Bauddha and Jaina authorities and traditions, took place. 36 years before the commencement of the Kaliyuga—the present Yuga.   Kali Yuga  began immediately after the departure of Sri Krishna, son of Vasudeva by Devaki, from this world on the 20th February, 3102 B. C., in the year Pramadhin of the Southern School of Hindu astronomers. (Vide Indian Eras By this author, Kota Venkata Chelam)

Brihadradha married the two beautiful twin daughters of the king of Kasi; and by the blessing of a Rishi, he obtained a most powerful son by name Jarasandha. The king, after installing his mighty son Jarasandha on the throne of Magadha retired into a forest and led an ascetic life. In this context the Mahabharata gave the next prominent dynasty of Jarasandha, leaving some generations of kings in the interval between Brihadradha I and Jarasandha (or Brihadradha II). – (Vide_Mahabharata, Sabha Parva. Adhyayas 14 to 19).

N.B:- The Matsya Purana enumerates all the names of kings between Brihadradha-I and Jarasandha or Brihadradha-II Jarasandha, son of Bhuvana was the 15 th in descent from Kuru and the tenth from Brihadradha-I, the founder of the Magadha Dynasty of kings. The following table shows the order of descent according to Matsya Purana. (Chapter 59):-

1. Samvarna

2. Kuru (The founder of the Kaurava Dynasty who removed his capital from Prayaga to Kurukshetra.)

3. Sudhanvan, Parikshit, Prajana, Jaghnu or Johnu or Yaju

4. Suhotra.

5. Chyavana

6. Krimi (or Kriti)

7. Chaidya or Uparicharavasu or Pratipa

8. (1) Brihadradha-I thefounder of the Magadha Dynasty.(3709 B.C.)

9. (2) Kusaagra

10. (3) Vrishabha or Rishabha.

11· (4) Pushpavat or Punyavat

12. (5) Pushpa or Punya

13. (6) Satyadhrithi or Satyahita.

14. (7) Sudhnvan II or Dhanusha.

15. (8) Sarva

16. (9) Bhuvana or Sambhava.

I7. (10)Brihadradha II or Jarasandha.

http://trueindianhistory-kvchelam.blogspot.in/2009/08/kings-of-magadha-before-great.html )

Visit the above site which is very informative.

‘The Hindu Mahabharata calls Brihadratha the first ruler of Magadha. King Bimbisara of the Haryanka dynasty led an active and expansive policy, conquering Anga in what is now West Bengal.
The death of King Bimbisara was at the hands of his son, Prince Ajatashatru. King Pasenadi, king of neighbouring Kosala and brother-in-law of King Bimbisara, promptly retook the gift of the Kashi province.
Accounts differ slightly as to the cause of King Ajatashatru’s war with the Licchavi, an area north of the river Ganges. It appears that Ajatashatru sent a minister to the area who for three years worked to undermine the unity of the Licchavis. To launch his attack across the Ganges River, Ajatashatru built a fort at the town of Pataliputra. Torn by disagreements the Licchavis fought with Ajatashatru. It took fifteen years for Ajatashatru to defeat them. Jain texts tell how Ajatashatru used two new weapons: a catapult, and a covered chariot with swinging mace that has been compared to a modern tank. Pataliputra began to grow as a center of commerce and became the capital of Magadha after Ajatashatru’s death.’

Haryanka dynasty (c. 600 – 413 BCE)Edit
Bhattiya or

Bimbisara (544-493 BCE)

Ajatashatru (493-461 BCE)

Udayabhadra

Anuruddha

Munda

Nagadasaka
Shishunaga dynasty (413–345 BCE)Edit
Shishunaga (413–395 BCE)

Kakavarna Kalashoka (395–367 BCE)

Mahanandin (367–345 BCE)
Nanda Dynasty (345–321 BCE)Edit
Mahapadma Nanda Ugrasena (from 345 BCE), illegitimate son of Mahanandin, founded the Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin’s empire

Pandhuka

Panghupati

Bhutapala

Rashtrapala

Govishanaka

Dashasidkhaka

Kaivarta

Dhana Nanda (Agrammes, Xandrammes) (until 321 BCE), overthrown by Chandragupta Maurya

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magadha

From Bimbisara to current day,the History of India is clear and can be studied,though some misinformaion about middlecages remain.

I have traced the Dynasties in Northvand shall write about the Dynasties of South India,including Andhra Ikshvakus and Tamils.

I have taken references to Sanskrit and Tamil among Indian languages as I know only these two.

Related.

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2014/12/27/kings-list-india-by-puranas-validated/

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2014/12/26/lunar-dynasty-india-chandra-vamsa-of-mahabharata-list/

 

 

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Improbable Is Possible Sanatana Dharma Tamil World History


I have been researching India,its History,Sanatana Dharma,Hinduism for the past eight years.

I have been referring Indian texts in Sanskrit,Tamil and English (these languages I know a bit).

My search was triggerred by anamolies in Indian History and culture in the prescribed text books.

‘Considering these facts,( I have written detailed articles on each point mentioned here),I have been pursuing my studies and I am stuck with some startling, seemingly improbable facts.

Nothing is Improbable because I do not understand it,

Arthur Conan Doyle quote..image
Nothing is Improbable, Arthur Conan Doyle Quote in Sherlock Holme.

This might shock some.

I shall be writing a series with evidence on some of my conclusions, which might border on Wild imagination to plain Crazy!

So the idea that One could see the world with a small device in one’s palm and communicate.!’

When checked with resources from ancient Indian texts,foreign literarure not being referred to in our curricula,archaeology,Astronomy,Astro-archeaology,Philology,Linguistics,Racial theories,Geology, and the past cultures of the world and their religion and legends,I found,

  1. Bharatvarsha existed as explained in Indian Texts,
  2. The events, characters are real,
  3. Bharatvarsha extended throughout the world,
  4. Rama and Krishna were real.
  5. Rama’s name is found  in Kings List of Sumeria, along with Dasaratha and Bharatha.
  6. Rama is referred to in Atlantis Legends.
  7. Rama Tribe is found in Africa.
  8. Ramas Chapel in Iraq.
  9. Egyptian Pharoahs wore Vaishnav marks on thier body.
  10. Australian Aborigines perform Shiva Trinetra Dance even today.
  11. Ancient Tamil is spoken ,even now in Cameroon.
  12. Hindu thoughts were prevalent in Greece much before the arrival of Alexander to India.
  13. Pillars of Herules was dedicated to Krishna.
  14. Krishna Balarama and Shiva were worshipped in ancient Greece.
  15. Tamil Siddha Bhogar is found in Sooth America.
  16. Agastya is found New Zealand.
  17. Rig Veda was compiled in the Arctic.
  18. Pradhyumna, son of Lord Krishna founded the Port city Port Barzhyn in Russia.
  19. Russia has Vedas called Perun,Perun Santis and they were nine in number.
  20. Siberians worship Ayur Devathas of Hinduism even today.
  21. Lake Baikal was Indra’s Amravathi.
  22. Kaikeyi was born in Russia.
  23. Russian language is very close to Sanskrit.
  24. Saptha Rivers, that is seven rivers as explained in Indian Texts are found in Russia.
  25. Yagnyavalka, the Sage who gave Shukla Yajur Veda lived in Russia.
  26. Caspian Sea was Kashyap Sagar.
  27. River Danube was name after Dhan, mother of Dhanavas.
  28. Rig Vedic Mandala city is found in Arkaim, Russia.
  29. Russia was calle Sthree( Women) Varsha and was a Republic.
  30. Petra Jordan Has a Shiva Temple.
  31. Arabia was Aravasthan.
  32. King Vikramaditya ruled the region.
  33. His edict is found in Kaaba.
  34. Muhammad’s Uncle wrote Siva Stuthi.
  35. Shiva Linga is in Meccan and Islam follows Vedic rituals at Kaaba.
  36. Ancient Arabians followed Tamil customs.
  37. Tamil kings extended their kingdoms to middle and far east.
  38. Cilappadikaram Nedunchezhiyan ,Pandya King was called Nebuchadnezzar I.
  39. Yadavs migrated to Israel and are the ancestors of Jews.
  40. Hittie,Elamite,Hurian,Sumerian,Minoan civilizations trace their roots to Tamils.

Articles to follow.

Please note that this Blog exploratory and research oriented in Nature.

Alternative views with evidence welcome.

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293 Tamil Sangam Sites Vaigai River Madurai


History of India reveals more surprises.

Dating of these artifacts recovered from the sites is a challenge to C14,Carbon Dating, as C 14 is useleless in dating beyond 50,000 years.

This,coupled with the systematic misinformation about Indian history by the Agenda filled western scholars(?) Straight from Max Mueller to present day pseudo researchers from the West,the self styled Secularists and Anglophiles,who try to muddle history of India and our general reluctance to study our regional and Sanskrit texts and our labelling them as myth ,without bothering to read them, has to led us to be unaware of our history.

Keezhadi excavation image.
Keezhadi archeological site ,Sivaganga dist. Tamil Nadu.

And the north south divide,the canard of Aryan Invasion and the lie of Tamil and Dravidas being antagonistic to Vedic culture has made us look at Indian history in compartments,looking at Tamil culture,history as alien,against Indian/Vedic culture and treat it as inferior or later to Vedic/Sanatana Dharma.

My researches over the past eight years prove all these assumptions  to be wrong.

The Tamil/ Dravidian culture was a part Sanatana Dharma and existed along with it.

It predatess Sanatana Sanatana Dharma, going by the findings of archelogical sites.

For example there are,

A million year old Advanced Tamil site in Chennai,

In Thiruvallur,

20,000 year old Poompuhar site in Tamil Nadu with Vedic Links,

Sites near Palani,Andippati,Adichanallur,……..

Now Kezhadi,in Sivaganga District,near Madurai has revealed a river civilization beneath the ground.

And it belongs to Sangam Era.

Sangam Era is currently dated around 3000 years ago!

Yet Poompuhar is around 20,000 years old.

Tamil Brahmi is older than this,as Cilappadikaram, a Classical Epic of Sangam Era was written, not in Brahmi, but in evolved later Tamil!

Archeologists have, in 2013, have catalogued 293 towns belonging to Sangam Era in Vaigai bed!

Time we rewrote our History.

In a year-long survey conducted in 2013, the state Archaeology department had identified nearly 293 Sangam Age towns along the course of river Vaigai. “Our field of research included areas that fell within five kilometres from the river on both the banks, starting from the place of Vaigai’s origin in Theni district to the very end of the river in Ramanathapuram district,” says archaeologist Dr. V. Vedachalam. The places were classified as granaries, trading points, ports, habitation sites and living or dilapidated temples. Excavations were carried out at Varushanad in Theni and Azhagankulam in Ramnad.

The excavation at Keezhadi has been carried out at two localities in the farm. “Both the places have yielded different items and we presume they represent a social hierarchy,” says Amarnath. The bigger of the two locations with more number of trenches is said to be a settlement of educated rich people, as many jewellery, fine game stones, semi-precious stones and a dozen Tamil Brahmi inscriptions have been found. “Even the brick structures appear more refined.” Beads of agate, Carnelian and quartz indicate that they had trade link with countries like Rome. The Tamil Brahmi letters found on pottery is all names of individuals such as, Thisan, Aadhan and Udhiran. “They are typical Sangam Age Tamil names,” says Amarnath.

Reference and citation.

http://www.thehindu.com/features/metroplus/society/keezhadi-archaeological-excavation/article7557728.ece

5000 Year Dholavira Planned City Water Harvesting Astronomically Aligned


The Ancient History of India is amazing,not merely for the accuracy of facts ,including Geographical but for the skill of the people in building not only temples but well planned cities.

The myth that early Indians built only temples and were called ‘Barbaric’ these  barbarians built massive temple structures,where the shadow of the building falls in its base,was built in an area where no granite was available,80 tons monolithic block was hoisted at a height of around 180 feet,when pulleys were not supposed to have been known (Thanjavur),

Temple where the pillar does not rest on the ground,(Lepakshi’

Where the rays of the Sun fall at a specific time at a specific period;falls at the feet of the Deity..

There are many temples of this kind.

There are astronomically aligned temples.

I have written on most of them.

Please check under Temples/ Hinduism Category.

Not only this.

The ancient Indians built cities in concentric circles with temple at the center,Water tanks,fortification,sewage system,centralised granary,Disaster shelters..

These were specialized by the Dravida Kings.

The Kings of North did not lag behind.

They matched their counterparts in the south.

Even during Vedic period well planned cities were built.

Treatise on Town Planning of the Vedic period is found.

Please read my article on this.

Now the Harappan period of Dholavira had an advanced town planning system.

Excavations at Dholavira,Gujarat,India confirm this.

The city had,

16 Gates,

4 Stadia,

Water harvesting,

Drainage system,

Brick Masonry and Ceramic used.

The city was built with mathematical precision and

It was astronomically aligned.

 

For details,I am producing excerpts from Archeological Survey of India Report.

Fourteen field seasons of excavation through an enormous deposit caused by the successive settlements at the site for over 1500 years during all through the 3rd millennium and unto the middle of the 2nd millennium BC have revealed seven significant cultural stages documenting the rise and fall of the Indus civilization in addition to bringing to light a major, a model city which is remarkable for its exquisite planning, monumental structures, aesthetic architecture, amazing water harvesting system and a variety in funerary architecture. It also enjoys the unique distinction of yielding an inscription made up of ten large-sized signs of the Indus script and, not less in importance, is the other find of a fragment of a large slab engraved with three large signs. This paper attempts to give an account of hydro-engineering that is manifest in the structures of the Harappans at Dholavira.

The ancient site at Dholavira (230 53′ 10″ N; 700 13’E), taluka Bhachau, district Kachchh in state Gujarat, lies in the island of Khadir which, it turn, is surrounded by the salt waste of the Great Rann of Kachchh. The ancient settlement is embraced by two monsoon channels, namely, the Manhar and Mansar. The ruins, including the cemetery covers an area of about 100 hectares half of which is appropriated by the articulately fortified settlement of the Harappans alone.

Lying between the monsoon channels and being undulating sloping towards the south, the site was ideally suited for a settlement having artificial dams and reservoirs.

Thee city of Dholavira in its fullest form was a precisely proportionate whole and proportionality resolved configuration following a resolute set of principles of planning and architecture with mathematical precision and, perhaps, with astronomically established orientation. Of the city, at present, three corners with partially eroded towers but fully intact inner corners have been confirmed by excavation. When measured between the inner corners, the E- W length of the city area along the northern defensive wall and N-S one along the western one worked out to 771.10 m and 616.87 m, respectively – thus giving the precise ratio of 5 : 4. Similarly, the other divisions of the city also revealed amazing ratios and proportions. The following table provides revealing information:

 Sl. No.   Division  Width  Length  Ratio
1 City, internal 616.87 711.10 4 : 5
2 Castle, internal at available top 92 114 4 : 5
3 Castle, external (as per present exposure) 118 151 4 : 5
4 Citadel (castle + bailey), external approximately (including bastions) 140 280 1 : 2
5 Bailey, internal 120 120 1 : 1
6 Middle Town + Stadium, internal 290.45 340.5 6 : 7
7 Middle Town, excluding Stadium, internal 242 340.5 5 : 7
8 Stadium, internal 47.5 283 1 : 6
9 Lower Town, built-up area 300 300 1 : 1

The above table inter alia reveals the proportional relationship between the castle and the city so it does in respect of intra-divisional and inter-divisional measurements. It is interesting to give another illustration: the diagonal drawn between the two opposite angles made by the north-eastern and the south-western corners of the city touched the north-western corner of the castle. While of the remaining two, the south-eastern corner is still missing, or not found out, a line, therefore bisecting the north-western angle also bisected the north-western corner of the middle town and further on cut across a crossing of four streets and finally the north-eastern corner of the castle. This could have been achieved by precise mathematical calculations and drawings which were then translated on the ground that was undulating by 13 m in gradient. It was indeed a great engineering achievement. In the whole scheme, the enwalled area of the castle became 49th (7 X 7) part of the city while its total built-up area was 25th (5 X 5) part.

Furthermore, it is very significant that the two-thirds of the middle town and the whole of lower town were planned with bold projections and recesses just like those one finds in the layout of an Indian temple of the later ages. As a result, the city divisions were provided with a number of housing sectors and spaces. Some of latter were found to have been used for dumping domestic refuse. Another significant feature is the arterial street that ran across axially from west to east dividing all the above-mentioned units and sub-units into two equal halves, and a north-south street, perhaps somewhat staggered, further subdivided each unit….

Seventeen gates, all built in the fortification walls with equally interesting add-on components, have been exposed so far. Their number-wise break up is: cattle 5, bailey 2, stadiums 4, middle town 1, annexe 2 and the remaining 3 belonging to the late Harappans of Stage VI. ..

The other area in which the Harappans of Dholavira excelled spectacularly pertained to water harvesting with the aid of dams, drain, reservoirs and storm water management which eloquently speak of tremendous engineering skill of the builders. Equally important is the fact that all those features were integrated part of city planning and were surely the beauty aids, too, The Harappans created about sixteen or more reservoir of varying sizes and designs and arranged them in a series practically on all four sides. A cursory estimate indicates that the water structures and relevant and related activities accounts for 10 hectares of area, in other words 10% of the total area that the city appropriated within its outer fortification. The 13 m of gradient between high and low areas from east to west within the walls was ideally suited for creating cascading reservoirs which were separated from each other by enormous and broad bunds and yet connected through feeding drains.

Six of the water tanks, one to east of castle and five of the series to south of it, have been fully or considerably exposed while a few others or other related features are testified in check digs. It was found to be the largest, grandest and best-furnished reservoir of rectangular shape measuring 73.40 m N-S and 29.30 m E-W (ratio 5:2) at the top while above that there should have been a 1 to 1.20 m high embankment as evidenced at four corners.