Beef Eating Allowed in The Vedas Mahabharata?

There has been reports of a Man belonging to Muslim community being beaten by a mob for eating Beef.

In this connection I received a mail  as follows.

‘I saw this post in FB.  Though I do agree that lynching someone for suspecting eating of beef is quire unacceptable.  But the quotes in the post, seems to take a distorted view of our scriptures.  Would you pl enlighten on this topic ?’

The mail detailed quotes from the Mahabharata and the Upanishads that people, even rishis wee eating beef ding the Sanatana dhama period.

My view is that it looks that people were eating meat during the Vedic period.

I have provided  quotes which indicate meat-eating and those that prohibit it.

The explanations trying to explain away beef eating seems to me laboured and lack conviction.

Cow Being worshiped. Cow Being worshiped.

Another point often made in this connection is that the animal slain in the Yagnya were given life , they reached Heaven.

Bt the point is they were slain!

On consideration it looks to me that people were eating meat/beef and later it was prohibited.

A society has all sorts of people, some good, some bad and some indifferent.

One should remember that Vedic people were also humans  and were open to Human foibles.

We had Rama and Ravana;Kishna and Kamsa, Sakuni, Yudhishta and Duyodhana and Duchchatana.

Mahabharata and Ramayana are facts , Valmiki and Vyasa ecoded facts.

Had they wanted they could have painted Rama without blemish(killing Vali) , Krishna with out His Machiavellian schemes to win the Mahabharata War.

They portrayed society as it was.

As they people rose spiritually and found higher values they changed their Lifestyle and values.

Just as condemning everything modern is wrong, it is equally incorrect to say that whatever the Vedic people did was right.

And our mission should be to take what is Right in relation to Lifestyle  and advanced scientific concepts.

And savour the treasure called Hinduism…

The path to Realization as explained by the Upanishads.

Cow worshiped , Beef eating prohibited in Vedas.

Aghnyeyam saa vardhataam mahate soubhagaaya

Rigveda 1.164.27
Cow – The aghnya – brings us health and prosperity

Suprapaanam Bhavatvaghnyaayaah
Rigveda 5.83.8
There should be excellent facility for pure water for Aghnya Cow

Yah paurusheyena kravishaa samankte yo ashwena pashunaa yaatudhaanah

Yo aghnyaayaa bharati ksheeramagne teshaam sheershaani harasaapi vrishcha
Rigveda 10.87.16

Those who feed on human, horse or animal flesh and those who destroy milk-giving Aghnya cows should be severely punished.

Vimucchyadhvamaghnyaa devayaanaa aganma
Yajurveda 12.73
The Aghnya cows and bulls bring you prosperity

Bhagavata Purana:

“Those who are ignorant of real dharma and, though wicked and haughty, account themselves virtuous, kill animals without any feeling of remorse or fear of punishment. Further, in their next lives, such sinful persons will be eaten by the same creatures they have killed in this world.” (Bhagavata Purana 11.5.14)

Beef eating in Vedas.

Rigveda (10/85/13) declares, “On the occasion of a girl’s marriage oxen and cows are slaughtered.”
Fact: The mantra states that in winter, the rays of sun get weakened and then get strong again in spring. The word used for sun-rays in ‘Go’ which also means cow and hence the mantra can also be translated by making ‘cow’ and not ‘sun-rays’ as the subject. The word used for ‘weakened’ is ‘Hanyate’ which can also mean killing. But if that be so, why would the mantra go further and state in next line (which is deliberately not translated) that in spring, they start regaining their original form.

How can a cow killed in winter regain its health in spring? This amply proves how ignorant and biased communists malign Vedas.
Claim: Rigveda (6/17/1) states that “Indra used to eat the meat of cow, calf, horse and buffalo.”

Fact: The mantra states that brilliant scholars enlighten the world in the manner that wood enhances the fire of Yajna. I fail to understand from where did Avtar Gill and his friends discover Indra, cow, calf, horse and buffalo in this mantra!”

Narada said, ‘Rantideva, the son of Srinjaya, we hear, fell a prey to death. That high-souled king had two hundred thousand cooks to distribute excellent food, raw and cooked, like unto Amrita, unto the Brahmanas, by day and by night, who might come to his house as guests. 1 The king gave away unto the Brahmanas his wealth acquired by righteous means. Having studied the Vedas, he subjugated his foes in fair fight. Of rigid vows and always engaged in due performance of sacrifices, countless animals, desirous of going to heaven, used to come to him of their own accord. 2 So large was the number of animals sacrificed in the Agnihotra of that king that the secretions flowing from his kitchen from the heaps of skins deposited there caused a veritable river which from this circumstance, came to be called theCharmanwati3 He, incessantly gave away nishkas of bright gold unto the Brahmanas, ‘I give thee nishkas.’ ‘I give thee nishkas,’ these were the words incessantly uttered by him. ‘I give thee,’ ‘I give thee’ saying these words he gave away thousands of nishkas. And once again, with soft words to the Brahmanas, he gave away nishkas. Having given away, in course of a single day, one crore of such coins, he thought that he had given away very little. And, therefore, he would give away more. Who else is there that would be able to give what

p. 130

he gave? The king gave away wealth, thinking, If I do not give wealth in the hands of Brahmanas, great and eternal grief, without doubt, will be mine.’ For a hundred years, every fortnight, he gave unto thousands of Brahmanas a golden bull into each, followed by a century of kine and eight hundred pieces of nishkas. All the articles that were needed for his Agnihotra, and all that were needed for his other sacrifices, he gave away unto the Rishis, including Karukas 1 and water-pots and plates and beds and carpets and vehicles, and mansions and houses, and diverse kinds of trees, and various kinds of viands. Whatever utensils and articles Rantideva possessed were of gold. They that are acquainted with the history of ancient times seeing the superhuman affluence of Rantideva, sing this song, viz., ‘We have not seen such accumulated treasures even in the abode of Kuvera; what need be said, therefore, of human beings?’ And people wonderingly said, Without doubt, the kingdom of Rantideva is made of gold. 2 On such nights, when guests were assembled in the abode of Rantideva, one and twenty thousand kine were sacrificed (for feeding them). And yet the royal cook adorned with begemmed ear-rings, had to cry out, saying, ‘Eat as much soup as you like, for, of meat, there is not as much today as in other days. Whatever gold was left belonging to Rantideva, he gave even that remnant away unto the Brahmanas during the progress of one of his sacrifices. In his very sight the gods used to take the libations of clarified butter poured into the fire for them, and the Pitris the food that was offered to them, in Sraddhas. And all superior Brahmanas used to obtain from him (the means of gratifying) all their desires. When he died, O Srinjaya, who was superior to thee in respect of the four cardinal virtues and who, superior to thee was, therefore, much superior to thy son, thou shouldst not, saying, ‘Oh, Swaitya, Oh, Swaitya,’ grieve for the latter who performed no sacrifice and made no sacrificial present.'”


129:1 The Bengal reading of the second line of the second verse is vicious. At any rate, the Bombay reading is better.

129:2 Animals slain in sacrifices are believed to go to heaven.






Atlantis White Island, Of White Skinned?

There are scholars who maintain that Atlantis was first mentioned by Plato.

But references to the area designated as Atlantis are found in many cultures.

Atlantis was given its name by the Greeks after Atlas.

But early Greek legends indicate Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism connection.

Balarama, Krishna legends have found and there is a view that the Pillars of Hercules was made in honor of Lord Krishna.

Please check my posts by Googling the term and ramanan50.

Be that as it may.

Saka Dweepa is deemd to be Atlantis by taking reference to Sanskrit Texts.

Atala, one of the regions, out of 14,is a part of the nether world probably indicating that it lies, below, the equator( at least a portion of it).

Atlantis, Location.jpg Atlantis, Location

The Vishnu Purana, one of the oldest of the Hindu Puranas, speaks of “Atala, the White Island,” one of the seven dwipas (islands) belonging to Patala (Book II, chaps. i, ii, and iii). This ancient text locates Atala geographically on the seventh (heat, or climate) zone, which according to Francis Wilford (the translator) is 24 to 28 degrees north latitude, putting it in the same latitude as the Canary Islands just off the North African coast. Col. Wilford rightly calls Atala, “Atlantis, the White Island”. (Wilford, 1808)

At least one “authority” has attempted to identify Atala with Italy, but Italy is not an island. Also, Italy is 38 to 45 degrees north latitude. Finally, I fail to see any possibility that the “Western Ocean,” mentioned in the texts as its location, could be the Mediterranean Sea when the Karna Parva of the Mahabharata clearly describes Africa as comprising that ocean’s eastern shoreline—placing that body of water clearly to the west of Africa!

Another non-Sanskrit scholar implies that Atala might be one of the well-known northern lands, such as Iceland or Greenland, and that the epithet “White Island” refers to its being covered with snow the majority of the time—even the mythological Hyperborea has been suggested. This does not appear to be the case.

Atala and Sveta Dwipa (“White Island”) are not the only names for Atlantis in Sankrit lore. Another name, Saka Dwipa, is used just as often in the Puranas; and according to the Sanskrit Dictionary (1974), Saka Dwipa means “island of fair skinned people.” It is therefore quite possible that “white” refers to the skin color of its inhabitants, rather than to the dominant color of the island—although it should not be assumed that all Atlanteans were white-skinned.

The terms “Atala” and “White Island” are used also by the Bhavishya Purana (4th cent. B.C.). Here it is stated that Samba, having built a temple dedicated to Surya (the Sun), made a journey to Saka Dwipa, located “beyond the salt water” looking for the Magas (magicians), worshippers of the Sun. He is directed in his journey by Suryahimself (i.e., journeys west following the Sun), riding upon Garuda (the flying vehicle of Krishna and Vishnu) he lands at last among the Magas.

The Mahabharata (circa. 600 B.C.) also refers to “Atala, the White Island”, which is described as an “island of great splendour.” It continues: “The men that inhabit that island have complexions as white as the rays of the Moon and they are devoted to Narayana . . . Indeed, the denizens of White Island believe and worship only one God.” (Santi Parva, Section CCCXXXVII)

Although there are numerous ancient Egyptian king-lists in existence, only a few include the famous “reign of the gods”. These include the Palermo Stone (2565-2420 B.C.), the Turin Papyrus (1300 B.C.), and Manetho’s Egyptian Chronicles (250 B.C.). Of these, the Turin Papyrus is by far the most complete source.

The Turin Papyrus (Gardiner, 1987; Smith, 1872) lists ten kings who ruled during the “reign of the gods,” complimenting the fragments of Manetho which have come down to us. Most importantly, it informs us as to the correct number of actual kings, thus helping us to equate Egyptian names with the corresponding Greek names. Below is a list of god-kings from the Turin Papyrus, with Manetho’s fragmented list alongside:

The Turin Papyrus Manetho’s King-list
Ptah Hephaestus
Ra Helios
Su Agathodaemon
Seb Cronos
Osiris Osiris
Set Typhon
Horus . . .
Thoth . . .
Ma . . .
Horus Horus


So we have ten Aulitean (or, Aletean) kings reigning in a “foreign land” during the precise time Plato says ten Atlantean kings reigned in Atlantis. The Turin Papyrus also records the installation of the next series of kings in 9850 B.C.! This date is so close to the date given for the end of Atlantis that coincidence is virtually out of the question. In such a case, the equation “Aletean=Atlantean” doesn’t seem out of the question. ‘

The Santi Parva also describes Atala as being inhabited by white men who never have to sleep or eat. (Ibid.) Interestingly enough, the Greek historian Herodotus (450 B.C.) describes a tribe of Atlanteans who “never dream and eat no living thing”. (History, Book IV) Can this be coincidence? And just as the god Poseidon is very much involved in the Atlantis story, likewise in the Sanskrit accounts we find Varuna (the Hindu Poseidon) very much involved in Atala.

In other words, Atala, the White Island is remarkably similar to Plato’s Atlantis, even down to its circular capital city, Tripura! Tripura is made in three concentric parts, just as Plato’s Metropolis is divided into three parts by concentric canals. During the war of the gods and Asuras, the wicked cities of the Asuras began to fall, one by one, amidst loud cries of woe: “Burning those Asuras, he [the hero] threw them down into the Western ocean” (Karna Parva, Section XXXIV).

Concerning the “concentric arrangment” of Tripura, a recent archeological discovery of a fortified palace in Bactria, India, known as Dashly-3, turned out to be a concentric 3-ringed structure of the “tripura type”. [Their words, not mine.] The archaeologists, excavating under the auspices of the Archaeological Departments of Pakistan and India (Mahadevan, 15), also state that the Dasyas, the builders of Dashly-3, were “Asura-worshippers”.

In the Surya Siddhanta, an ancient Sanskrit text on astronomy, the translator (W. D. Whitney, 1860) mentions an “island” (dwipa) called Jambu Dwipa, surrounded by rings of alternating land and water. I am tempted to equate Jambu Dwipa with the Atlantean capital, which Plato describes as surrounded by circular canals, “making alternate zones of sea and land” (Critias)…


For instance, it has been alledged that Plato called Atlantis “a continent,” whereas Atala was only an island; therefore, it is reasoned, they could not be one and the same.

In actual fact, Plato never calls Atlantis a continent: only a “large island”. That Atala is also a very large island can be deduced from the Mahabharata, which describes Atala as having a capital city (Tripura), other major cities with houses, palaces, and streets, and as being populated by numerous tribes, some of whom chose to wage war against other nations. This is not a description of a small island.

That whether it was an Island or a Continent is a non issue.

Continent may be  a large mass surrounded by water.

Like Australia.

‘The Santi Parva also describes Atala as being inhabited by white men who never have to sleep or eat. (Ibid.) Interestingly enough, the Greek historian Herodotus (450 B.C.) describes a tribe of Atlanteans who “never dream and eat no living thing”. (History, Book IV) Can this be coincidence? And just as the god Poseidon is very much involved in the Atlantis story, likewise in the Sanskrit accounts we find Varuna (the Hindu Poseidon) very much involved in Atala.

In other words, Atala, the White Island is remarkably similar to Plato’s Atlantis, even down to its circular capital city, Tripura! Tripura is made in three concentric parts, just as Plato’s Metropolis is divided into three parts by concentric canals. During the war of the gods and Asuras, the wicked cities of the Asuras began to fall, one by one, amidst loud cries of woe: “Burning those Asuras, he [the hero] threw them down into the Western ocean” (Karna Parva, Section XXXIV).

Concerning the “concentric arrangment” of Tripura, a recent archeological discovery of a fortified palace in Bactria, India, known as Dashly-3, turned out to be a concentric 3-ringed structure of the “tripura type”. [Their words, not mine.] The archaeologists, excavating under the auspices of the Archaeological Departments of Pakistan and India (Mahadevan, 15), also state that the Dasyas, the builders of Dashly-3, were “Asura-worshippers”.

In the Surya Siddhanta, an ancient Sanskrit text on astronomy, the translator (W. D. Whitney, 1860) mentions an “island” (dwipa) called Jambu Dwipa, surrounded by rings of alternating land and water. I am tempted to equate Jambu Dwipa with the Atlantean capital, which Plato describes as surrounded by circular canals, “making alternate zones of sea and land” (Critias)’

Try this one!

The term Asura means powerful.


While Ravana from the southern part of Bharatavarsha is called a Rakashsa, the people of Atala, Atlantis were called Asuras.


This term set me to search for a landmass which had a culture similar to Sanatana Dharma.


One finds references to this in the Ramayana where Sugriva directs hs army to search for Sita in Peru, identifying it with the Nazca Lines, which he called


as  Shiva’s Trishul Mark, the Nazca Lines resemble the Trishul Mark.


The description of Tripura confirmed suspicion that Atlantis is Tripura mentioned in the Purana and destroyed by Lord Shiva.


However, secondary tradition founded by people and limited in time, and the original tradition has superhuman origin and timeless nature. Because of this myth, and even the Bible texts “Egyptian Book of the Dead” is only secondary to the polar revelation contained in the text of “Avesta”, “Rig” and “Popol Vuh.”There is direct textual overlap between the myth of Tripura and dredaniem of Atlantis. First of all, ‘of course, we are talking about uniformity describe the appearance of Tripura and Atlantis. “Matsya Purana” and “Mahabharata” reported three round town, merged into one, and the first one was made of gold, the other – from the silver, and the third – of iron [29]. In turn, Plato in the dialogue “Critias” said a central island surrounded by the “alternate water and earth rings (earth was two, and water – three) all larger diameter, conducted as if the compass of the middle of the island, at equal distance from each other” [ 30]. Central island and two earthen ring – this is a description of a triple-like Tripura. The walls of each of these cities were covered with metal. The outer city wall was covered with copper, middle – tin, and the inner city – precious orichalcum. [31] The walls of the temple of Poseidon were lined with silver and gold. [32] Such detailed description of the matches in the Indian holy city of ancient myth and prove not only the relationship of the two stories, but the stories of historical authenticity.In other Indo-European sacred myths we find the same pattern. In “Avesta” description Vary, a town built on the orders of Yima Ahuramazda, fits the description of Atlantis and polar Tripura.


Tripura destroyed by Shiva Atlantis

Delhi Indraprastha Built by Builder from Atlantis

More to follow.




Lakshmi Jyeshta Devi Durga In Ancient Sumeria?

I have written on the presence of Sanatana Dharma throughout the world.

Either they have been a part of Sanatana Dharma directly or having been there after being inhabited by the Tamils who have been, contrary to what the fraudulent Tamil Historians say on this, a part of Sanatana Dharma.

Sanatana Dharma had been there in Sumeria, Mesopotamia , apart from being present in other Cultures.

The Hindu Gods are present in the Sumerian and Mesopotamian Culture

Rama and Dasaratha’s names are found in the King’s List of Sumeria.

In the Kings List, one finds the Dynasties of the Kings of Sumeria with their official locations.

It includes the names of Kings of adjoining countries, then called city states

The Kingship was believed to be from the Gods and was transferable from one  city to another.

Rama in Sumerian King List

If Ram-Sin is identified as Rama his greatest Amorite enemy Hammurabi must be Ravana or Ravi-anna. This presents some difficulties although Valmiki’s version of the abduction of Sita probably has more to do with poetic imagination than history. However, that she was the chief priestess of the moon-temple at Ur may have been at the root of some events of the politically turbulent era. There is a possibility that at some stage Ur was captured by Hammurabi. The chief-priestess of Ur was inviolable under Sumerian law and the fact that Ravana did not dishonour Sita may show his regard for law. The Battle between Khammu-ravi and Ram-Sin who led a group of Ten-Kings was one of the most famous events of Sumerian history.

Rama Invaded Babylon

There is also a similarity between the war of Ten Kings during the Vedic period and battle of Ten kings in Sumeria,

Now I have come across references to Goddess Durga and Lakshmi in the Sumerian Culture.

Look at the following Image of Inanna.

Inanna, Sumerian Goddess.jpg Inanna, Sumerian Goddess.

You find the Lion  as one would find in Durga Temples and Trishul as well.

Goddess Durga.jpg Goddess Durga.

Inanna, the goddess of love and war, with a lion. No other image of Inanna better illustrates her dual nature. She is depicted as a goddess of love, “showing some leg”; while the lion and the weapons of battle (maces) seen rising up behind her shows that she is also the goddess  of war. In all of ancient mythology, no other deity is the goddess of love and war combined. The eight-pointed star (Venus) is another symbol associated with Inanna. This image is in photographic reverse. See the complete seal impression. Also see a line-drawing of the seal by S. Beaulieu.

Although she is called the goddess of love, Inanna is really the goddess of lust. She is not associated with romance, marriage, fertility or child-bearing. She is so extreme in her emotions, so psychotic in her desires, and so relentless in getting what she wants, she thus symbolizes the violence of human passion. This is why she is also represents the destruction and carnage of war.’

Durga is a Goddess of Power .

As Mahalakshmi.

I have not found the legend of Lakshmi as the daughter of Moon in any other culture excepting in Hinduism.

Inanna’s Akkadian counterpart is Ishtar. In different traditions Inanna is the daughter of Anu or she is the daughter of the moon-god Sin.

And like Lakshmi, Inanna has a sister,

‘Additionally, the myth may be described as a union of Inanna with her own “dark side”, her twin sister-self, Ereshkigal, as when she ascends it is with Ereshkigal’s powers, while Inanna is in the underworld it is Ereshkigal who apparently takes on fertility powers, and the poem ends with a line in praise, not of Inanna, but of Ereshkigal. It is in many ways a praise-poem dedicated to the more negative aspects of Inanna’s domain, symbolic of an acceptance of the necessity of death to the continuance of life.

Lakshmi’s Elder sister is Jyesta Devi, personification of things inauspicious.

Devadasi system in Sumeria.

The Devadasi system, I have been thinking, was unique to India.


‘Along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers were many shrines and temples dedicated to Inanna. The House of Heaven (Sumerian: e2-anna; Cuneiform: 𒂍𒀭 E2.AN) temple[6] in Uruk[7] was the greatest of these, where sacred prostitution was a common practice. In addition, according to Leick 1994 persons of asexual or hermaphroditic bodies and feminine men were particularly involved in the worship and ritual practices of Inanna’s temples (see gala)’

And Iraq, has Sanatna Dharma connection!






Godmen Prophets Not Approved by Vedas Smritis Hinduism

Of late there has been a proliferation of godmen in Hinduism, offering salvation and performing miracles.

There are corporate Gurus, whose background is murky, who address world leaders, in the garb of Hinduism.

Their qualification is a few words of Hindu thoughts, some quotes and slick marketing.

There are Gurus for Yoga.

Yoga has become a school exercise!

Idiots like me imagine one has to follow Patanjali, who lays down strict code of conduct ad diet for yoga sadhana.

Today what one needs is a few mumbo-jumbo , basic lines in yoga and slick marketing.


Self styled godmen.jpg. Self styled godmen.

Please check my Posts on yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

Hinduism does not approve of Prophets, Godmen.

Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism is personal.

It does not allow brokers between you and God,after all He is your father.

You do not need a broker to talk to your father.

Nor does Hinduism believe in Prophets.

Vedas and Smritis do not approve of or condone these Godmen or Prophets.

There is no concept of Prophet or Godmen in Hinduism.

One strives to realize Oneself.

Paths travelled by great men are shown.

They are only indicative.

Each Man/woman has to find His/Her salvation.

It is purely personal and determined by one’s disposition, Swabhava.

No one can convert any one , in the real sense ,against his swabhava, Nature.

Lord Krishna, in The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 18, towards the close of the discourse to Arjuna, in the battle field of Mahabharata, says to Arjuna,

I have briefed you the secret of secrets, you decide what to follow, according to your nature, after analysing what is good for you’

This comes from Lord Krishna, an Avatar of Vishnu!

Arthur osbourne records thus on his discussion with Ramana Maharishi, the great Saint of this century.

When asked about his not accepting Sishyas , Disciples,Ramana Maharishi replied.

‘Who is a Guru and who is a Sishya?

All are Brahman.

and if you are hungry, only you should eat, not Me.

So search for reality on you’

  • Though the article has received acceptance, there have been some comments in Facebook communities and by way of personal omments to my mail ID, about me questioning the Guru system of Hinduism

What I have written here is about Godmen and Prophets, who have no place either in Sruthi and Smriti.

However the Guru systemws practised during the Veidc and subsequent periods to teach Vedas and guide individuals in the Dharmic path, with no intent on the part of the teacher to ern money.

And the concept of Guru, Acharya and Updhyaya are laid down.

Excerpt from my earlier Post.

Vedas have Chapters.

One who teaches these parts is called Upaadhyayaa.

He takes compensation for this service.

‘एकदेसम तु  वेदस्य वेदान्गान्यबी  वा पुन:: यूअध्यापथि वृथ्यर्थं  उपाध्याय: स  उच्च्यथे I’-Manu Smriti.

Whereas one who does Brahmopadesam at the time of Upanayana and follows up with Teaching of the vedas is Called Acharya.

Guru is one who seeks you out, if your yearning is sincere.

He knows your yearnings ,assesses your capacity and initiates you in the process that suits you, for individuals are unique ,so are the paths to Realization.

Guru is the Mentor while others are facilitators to study Veda

Guru Acharya Upadhyaya

If people believe in Godmen and at  later date they come to know that they have been misled, there is no point in blaming Hinduism as Hinduism, I repeat does not approve of Godmen and Prophets.

It may be of interest to note that even Lord Rama and Krishna were not worshiped in the same way we worship them today, during their time.

They were respected because of their actions, in the case of Krishna ,He was even abused!

Everyone was ( at least many were) engaged in following Dharma as enshrined in the Vedas and were attempting to realize self.




Veda Shakhas Brahmin Distribution Region wise

Vedas, the basic referral text of Hindus is a highly organized one.

There are four Vedas, Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Veda.

Each Veda has four divisions,

Samhitas or Hymns.

Texts of Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism.png Texts of Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism.

Brahmanas, Rituals.

Aranyakas, to be recited in the forest and

Upanishads, containing the highest Knowledge of Reality, Brahman.

Veda has  two sub divisions.

Shukla and Krishna Yajur.

These Hymns have Sukhthas in them which are in praise of  Deities and they are also explanation of Cosmology.

Some of them are also addressed to curing diseases .

These texts have been classified by Rishis.

Each Veda has many Branches. called Shakhas.

A shakha (Sanskrit śākhā, “branch” or “limb”), is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school.[3][4] An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a śākhin.[5] The term is also used in Hindu philosophy to refer to an adherent of a particular orthodox system.

A related term caraṇa, (“conduct of life” or “behavior”) is also used to refer to such a Vedic school:[7] “although the words caraṇa andśākhā are sometimes used synonymously, yet caraṇa properly applies to the sect or collection of persons united in one school, andśākhā to the traditional text followed, as in the phrase śākhām adhite, (“he recites a particular version of the Veda”)”.[4] The schools have different points of view, described as “difference of (Vedic) school” (śākhābhedaḥ). Each school would learn a specific VedicSaṃhita (one of the “four Vedas” properly so-called), as well as its associated Brahmana, Aranyakas, Shrautasutras, Grhyasutrasand Upanishads.

The traditional source of information on the shakhas of each Veda is the Caraṇa-vyūha, of which two, mostly similar, versions exist: the 49th pariśiṣṭa of the Atharvaveda, ascribed to Shaunaka, and the 5thpariśiṣṭa of the Śukla (White) Yajurveda, ascribed to Kātyāyana. These have lists of the numbers of recensions that were believed to have once existed as well as those still extant at the time the works were compiled. Only a small number of recensions have survived.

Rig Veda

Śaunaka‘s Caraṇa-vyuha lists five shakhas for the Rig Veda, the Śākala, Bāṣkala, Aśvalāyana, Śaṅkhāyana, and Māṇḍukāyana of which only the Śākala and Bāṣkala are now extant. The Bashkala recension of the Rigveda has the Khilani which are not present in the Shakala text but is preserved in one Kashmir manuscript (now at Pune). The Shakala has the Aitareya-Brahmana, The Bashkala has the Kausitaki-Brahmana.

There is, however, Sutra literature from the Aśvalāyana shakha, both a shrauta sutra and a grhya sutra, both surviving with a commentary (vrtti) by Gargya Naranaya. Gargya Naranaya’s commentary was based on the longer commentary or bhashya by Devasvamin, written in the 11th century.

Yajur Veda

Śaunaka‘s Caraṇa-vyuha lists forty-two or forty-four out of eighty-six shakhas for the Yajur Veda, but that only five of these are now extant, with a sixth partially extant. For the Yajur Veda the five (partially in six) shakhas are the (Vajasaneyi Madhandina, Kanva; Taittiriya, Maitrayani, Caraka-Katha, Kapisthala-Katha).

The Yajurvedin shakhas are divided in Shukla (White) and Krishna (Black) schools. The White recensions have separate Brahmanas, while the Black ones have their(much earlier) Brahmanas interspersed between the Mantras.

  • Shukla Yajurveda: Vājasaneyi Samhita Madhyandina (VSM), Vājasaneyi Samhita Kānva (VSK): Shatapatha Brahmana (ShBM, ShBK)
  • Krishna Yajurveda: Taittirīya Saṃhita (TS) with an additional Brahmana, Taittiriya Brahmana (TB), Maitrayani Saṃhita (MS), Caraka-Katha Saṃhita (KS), Kapiṣṭhala-Katha Saṃhita (KapS).
  • Citation.


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Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Madhyandina (VSM) Currently recited by all over North Indian Brahmins and by Deshastha Brahmins Madhyandina Shatapatha (SBM) survives as Shatapatha XIV.1-8, with accents. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad= SBM XIV. 3-8, with accents, Ishavasya Upanishad = VSM 40
Kanva (VSK) Currently recited by Utkala Brahmins, Kannada Brahmins, Karhade Brahmins and few Iyers Kanva Shatapatha (SBK)(different from madhyandina) survives as book XVII of SBK Brihadaranyaka Upanishad=SBK,with accents, Ishavasya Upanishad = VSK 40


Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Taittiriya TS,Present all over South India and in Konkan Taittiriya Brahmana (TB) and Vadhula Br. (part of Vadhula Srautrasutra) Taittiriya Aranyaka (TA) Taittiriya Upanishad (TU)
Maitrayani MS,Recited by few Brahmins in Nasik virtually same as the Upanishad Maitrayaniya Upanishad
Caraka-Katha Katha Aranyaka (almost the entire text from a solitary manuscript) Kathaka Upanishad, Katha-Shiksha Upanishad
Kapishthala KapS (fragmentary manuscript, only first sections accented), edited (without accents) by Raghu Vira.

Sama Veda

Śaunaka‘s Caraṇa-vyuha lists twelve shakhas for the Sama Veda out of a thousand that are said to have once existed, but that of these only one or perhaps two are still extant. The two Samaveda recensions are the Jaiminiya and Kauthuma.

The Kauthuma shakha has the PB, SadvB, the Jaiminiya shakha has the Jaiminiya Brahmana.

Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Kauthuma edited,Recited by all over North and in South India[citation needed] edited (8 Brahmanas in all), no accents None. The Samhita itself has the ‘Aranyaka’. Chandogya Upanishad
Ranayaniya Manuscripts of Samhita exist.Recited byGokarna[disambiguation needed],and Deshastha Brahmins[citation needed] Same as Kauthuma with minor differences. None. The Samhita itself has the ‘Aranyaka’. Same as Kauthuma.
Jaiminiya/Talavakara Samhita edited.Recited by Nambudiris and choliyal of Tamil nadu[citation needed] Two distinct styles of Saman recitation, partially recorded and published.[citation needed] Brahmana published (without accents) – Jaiminiya Brahmana, Arsheya Brahmana Tamil Nadu version of Talavakara Aranyaka (=Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana) published[citation needed] Kena Upanishad

Atharva Veda

Only one shakha of an original nine is now extant for the Atharvaveda. The nine sakhas were Paippalada, Tauda, Mauda, Shaunakiya, Jajala, Jalada, Brahmavada, Devadarsa and Chaarana-Vaidya.

The Shaunaka is the only shakha of the Atharvaveda for which both printed texts and an active oral tradition are known to still exist.

For the Atharvaveda, both the Shaunakiya and the Paippalada traditions contain textual corruptions, and the original text of the Atharvaveda may only be approximated from comparison between the two.

Shakha Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad
Shaunaka AVS, edited and recited by all over North India and South India Fragmentary Gopatha Brahmana (extant and published), no accents. Mundaka Upanishad (?) published.
Paippalada AVP; recited by Utkala Brahmins as samhita patha only. otherwise, two manuscripts survive: Kashmiri (mostly edited) and Oriya (partly edited, by Dipak Bhattacharya and others, unaccented) lost,similar to that of Gopatha Brahmana Prashna Upanishad, Sharabha Upanishad etc. – all edited.[citation needed]