Rig Veda 11,000 Years Old. Sarasvati River Research Satellite Images Dhola Vira Site

Dhola Vira is dated ,at least, to about 4,500 years ago,according to Archeologist  Sri. Bisht

The well deveoped structures and advanced water storing wells indicate a civilization which has been there for quite sometime.

The answer lies in the river Saraswathi.


The latest findings by Remote Sensing kAgency,Hyderabad,India,Computer simuation of Indian coast line and by National Institute of Oceanography,India, studied together make a startling revelation.

The Vedas,contrary to what is being informed,is, are at least 10,000 years old.

It is found,by simuation of flood in India,by Dr.Milne of Durham University that the land mass off the coast of Cambay,Gujarat,India,might be  between 9000 and 12,000 years old.

To understand this better one should know that the date of Indus Valley civilization,must be dated back fom the present,500o years ago concept ,which was based on the debunked Aryan Invasion theory..

(I have written on the Fraud called Aryan Invasion.Shall be writing more on this.)

The civilization was so advanced that it could be dated back in time.

The answer lies in Dhola Vira,Rann of Kutch,Gujarat,India.

Dhola Vira is dated, at least, about 4,500 years ago,according to Archeologist  Sri. Bisht

The well deveoped structures and advanced water storing wells indicate a civilization which has been there for quite sometime.

The answer lies in the river Saraswathi.

River Sarasvati.image
Sarasvati River,India,Satellite Image.

According to Sri. Gupta, Remote Sensing Agency,Hyderabad,India,the Saraswathi River flowed from the Himalayan Galciers through Gujarat and joined the Arabian Sea in Gujarat.

The river was 22 km wide!

It flowed in Parallel to River Indus( Sindhu)

This was found from the Satellite Images.

And based on the melting of Himalayan Glaciers,Saraswathi River had flown between 10000 and 6000 years ago.


Read this research paper in Nature.

‘The lost Saraswati River mentioned in the ancient Indian tradition is postulated to have flown independently of the Indus River into the Arabian Sea, perhaps along courses of now defunct rivers such as Ghaggar, Hakra and Nara. The persistence of such a river during the Harappan Bronze Age and the Iron Age Vedic period is strongly debated. We drilled in the Great Rann of Kachchh (Kutch), an infilled gulf of the Arabian Sea, which must have received input from the Saraswati, if active. Nd and Sr isotopic measurements suggest that a distinct source may have been present before 10 ka. Later in Holocene, under a drying climate, sediments from the Thar Desert probably choked the signature of an independent Saraswati-like river. Alternatively, without excluding a Saraswati-like secondary source, the Indus and the Thar were the dominant sources throughout the post-glacial history of the GRK. Indus-derived sediment accelerated the infilling of GRK after ~6 ka when the Indus delta started to grow. Until its complete infilling few centuries ago, freshwater input from the Indus, and perhaps from the Ghaggar-Hakra-Nara, probably sustained a productive marine environment as well as navigability toward old coastal Harappan and historic towns in the region.’

* ka), a unit of time equal to one thousand (103) years.

The above is an abstract of conclusions in a paper in Nature.

Author information.

    • Nitesh Khonde

    Present address: Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, 266007, India


  1. Department of Geology, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, 390002, India

    • Nitesh Khonde
    • , D. M. Maurya
    •  & L. S. Chamyal
  2. Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009, India

    • Sunil Kumar Singh
    •  & Vinai K. Rai
  3. Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, USA

    • Liviu Giosan
    • Source of the article wanted above.



ThecRig Veda,one of the earliest of the four Indian texts mentions Saraswathi repeatedly.

  • The Sarasvati is praised lavishly in the Rigveda as the best of all the rivers: e.g. in RV 2.41.16

अम्बितमे नदीतमे देवितमे सरस्वती अपरास्तस्य इव स्मासि प्रशस्तिम् अम्ब नास्कृतिम्

  • Oh Mother Saraswati you are the greatest of mothers, greatest of rivers, greatest of goddesses. Even though we are not worthy, please grant us distinction

Other verses of praise include RV 6.61.8-13, RV 7.96 and RV 10.17. In some hymns, the Indus river seems to be more important than the Sarasavati, especially in the Nadistuti sukta. In RV 8.26.18, the white flowing Sindhu ‘with golden wheels’ is the most conveying or attractive of the rivers.

  • RV 7.95.2. and other verses (e.g. RV 8.21.18) speak of the Sarasvati pouring “milk and ghee.” Rivers are often likened to cows in the Rigveda, for example in RV 3.33.1,
Like two bright mother cows who lick their youngling,
( source of the Quote. 


So Rig Veda can be dated at 10,000 Years ago.

Featured image of Dhola Vira Well. Wiki.

How Panchatantra Was Copied by World Literatures Harappan Horse Seal

And sources on Vedic life,Tamils from foreign sources as well.

How Max Mueller,Robert Caldwell&Co misinformed and disinformed under the cloak of scholarship.

Though I have published articles dispelling the myths of such ‘Indologists’, I shall present ,periodically,how Indian texts were copied and passed off as their own by the others.

The first one is Panchatantra.

Yesterday night,I ,by chance,happened to read an article in a self styled popular magazine of India,which proclaims its Secular outlook,which attacked eminent historians like Romilla Thapar,P.N.Oak,Kalyanaraman for their efforts in trying to clear the misinformation and disinformation of Indian History.

It took exception to Sri. N.S .Rajaram for his study on Harappan horse Seal.

The scholar lampooned Sri. Rajaram for doctoring images.

The article went on to ridicule Historians who are trying to unearth the real Indian history thus,

The Indus Valley Decipherment Hoax

MICHAEL WITZEL, a Harvard University Indologist, and STEVE FARMER, a comparative historian, report on media hype, faked data, and Hindutva propaganda in recent claims that the Indus Valley script has been decoded.

LAST summer the Indian press carried sensational stories announcing the final decipherment of the Harappan or Indus Valley script. A United News of India dispatch on July 11, 1999, picked up throughout South Asia, reported on new research by “noted histo rian, N.S. Rajaram, who along with palaeographist Dr. Natwar Jha, has read and deciphered the messages on more than 2,000 Harappan seals.” Discussion of the messages was promised in Rajaram and Jha’s upcoming book, The Deciphered Indus Script. For nearly a year, the Internet was abuzz with reports that Rajaram and Jha had decoded the full corpus of Indus Valley texts.

This was not the first claim that the writing of the Indus Valley Civilisation (fl. c. 2600-1900 BCE) had been cracked. In a 1996 book, American archaeologist Gregory Possehl reviewed thirty-five attempted decipherments, perhaps one-third the actual numb er. But the claims of Rajaram and Jha went far beyond those of any recent historians. Not only had the principles of decipherment been discovered, but the entire corpus of texts could now be read. Even more remarkable were the historical conclusions that Rajaram and his collaborator said were backed by the decoded messages.

The UNI story was triggered by announcements that Rajaram and Jha had not only deciphered the Indus Valley seals but had read “pre-Harappan” texts dating to the mid-fourth millennium BCE. If confirmed, this meant that they had decoded mankind’s earliest literary message. The “texts” were a handful of symbols scratched on a pottery tablet recently discovered by Harvard University archaeologist Richard Meadow. The oldest of these, Rajaram told the UNI, was a text that could be translated “Ila surrounds th e blessed land” – an oblique but unmistakable reference to the Rigveda’s Saraswati river. The suggestion was that man’s earliest message was linked to India’s oldest religious text.1 The claim was hardly trivial, since this was over 2,000 year s before Indologists date the Rigveda – and more than 1,000 years before Harappan culture itself reached maturity.

Rajaram’s World

After months of media hype, Rajaram and Jha’s The Deciphered Indus Script2 made it to print in New Delhi early this year. By midsummer the book had reached the West and was being heatedly discussed via the Internet in Europe, India, and the United States. The book gave credit for the decipherment method to Jha, a provincial religious scholar, previously unknown, from Farakka, in West Bengal. The book’s publicity hails him as “one of the world’s foremost Vedic scholars and palaeographer s.” Jha had reportedly worked in isolation for twenty years, publishing a curious 60-page English pamphlet on his work in 1996. Jha’s study caught the eye of Rajaram, who was already notorious in Indological circles. Rajaram took credit for writing most of the book, which heavily politicised Jha’s largely apolitical message. Rajaram’s online biography claims that their joint effort is “the most important breakthrough of our time in the history of Indian history and culture.’


Witzel was born at Schwiebus, then in Germany, now Poland.

He studied Indology in Germany (from 1965 to 1971) under Paul Thieme, H.-P. Schmidt, K. Hoffmann and J. Narten as well as in Nepal (1972–1973) under the Mīmāmsaka Jununath Pandit. At Kathmandu (1972–1978), he led the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project and the Nepal Research Centre. He has taught at Tübingen (1972), Leiden (1978–1986), and at Harvard (since 1986) and has held visiting appointments at Kyoto (twice), Paris (twice), and Tokyo (twice). He has been teaching Sanskrit since 1972.

He is noted for his studies of the dialects of Vedic Sanskrit, old Indian history,the development of Vedic religion, and the linguistic prehistory of the Indian Subcontinent.He is editor-in-chief of the Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies (EJVS)and the Harvard Oriental Series. He has been president of the Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory (ASLIP) since 1999, as well as of the new International Association for Comparative Mythology (2006-).He was elected into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003, and was elected as an honorary member of the German Oriental Society (DMG in 2009. He became Cabot Fellow, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard U. (2013), recognizing his book on comparative mythology (OUP, 2012).’


 I am not a scholar  of standing to comment on these comments.

But I am born in great country,not ashamed of it,learnt and studied Sanskrit and Vedas for eight years.

I am not a Phd nor do I make a living out of trying to interpret cultures of which my knowledge is only bookish and limited.

Nor do I need to satisfy my sponsors.

But I am presenting facts through this blog what I have unearthed,especially from foreign sources ,anything from Foreign is acceptable secularists,from Plato Strabo,Sumerian,Akkadian,Hittie,Arabic,Persian………

And sources on Vedic life,Tamils from foreign sources as well.

How Max Mueller,Robert Caldwell&Co misinformed and disinformed under the cloak of scholarship.

Though I have published articles dispelling the myths of such ‘Indologists’, I shall present ,periodically,how Indian texts were copied and passed off as their own by the others.

The first one is Panchatantra.

Panchatantra,an early Indian Sanskri Nitisastra,moral story,was by Vishnu Sarma.

The original Sanskrit work, which some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BCE ,s attributed to Vishnu Sharma. It is based on older oral traditions, including “animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine”.

Panchatantra is dated around 300 BC!

Panchatantra Latin version.image.png.
Panchatantra Latin.

This has been copied by nearly all the cultures, changed and passed off as their own.

‘Scholars have noted the strong similarity between a few of the stories in The Panchatantra and Aesop’s Fables. Examples are ‘The Ass in the Panther’s Skin’ and ‘The Ass without Heart and Ears’.”The Broken Pot” is similar to Aesop’s “The Milkmaid and Her Pail”, “The Gold-Giving Snake” is similar to Aesop’s “The Man and the Serpent” and “Le Paysan et Dame serpent” by Marie de France (Fables)[24] Other well-known stories include “The Tortoise and The Geese” and “The Tiger, the Brahmin and the Jackal”. Similar animal fables are found in most cultures of the world, although some folklorists view India as the prime source.[25][26] India is described as the “chief source of the world’s fable literature” in Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore Mythology and Legend.

…there are recorded over two hundred different versions known to exist in more than fifty languages, and three-quarters of these languages are extra-Indian. As early as the eleventh century this work reached Europe, and before 1600 it existed in Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, German, English, Old Slavonic, Czech, and perhaps other Slavonic languages. Its range has extended from Java to Iceland… [In India,] it has been worked over and over again, expanded, abstracted, turned into verse, retold in prose, translated into medieval and modern vernaculars, and retranslated into Sanskrit. And most of the stories contained in it have “gone down” into the folklore of the story-loving Hindus, whence they reappear in the collections of oral tales gathered by modern students of folk-stories.’


‘Another Indian literary product popular in all the European literatures are the body of
tales known as the Panchatantra. These tales were transmitted through Persian, Arab and
Greek. The South Slavs have early adaptations from Greek of these tales known by the title
“Stephanites and Ichnelates” in the literary Slavonic used by Serbs, Macedonians and
Bulgarians. The originally Greek names are modeled on the Arab ones, which in their turn
are modeled on the Persian Pahlavi Kalilah and Dinnah, “The Stolid and the Sly.”
The Persian text was rewritten and expanded in the fifteenth century, connected with the
name of Pilpay or Bidpai, the sage narrator, and was the basis for later Turkish and French
versions. A Ragusan by the name of Vincent Bratuti, in the capacity of the official interpreter
to the Spanish court, made the first Spanish version from the Turkish one in seventeenth
century, while in the eighteenth the enlightened officer M. A. Relkovic made a Croat version
from a French one. In the nineteenth century we have the first translations of some Indian
tales from Sanskrit into Serbo-Croat (by Petar Budmani) and into Slovenian (by Karol
Glaser); the complete Arab text of “The Stolid and the Sly” has been recently translated into
Serbo-Croat by the Bosnian orient list Besim Kor- kut. In addition a number of adaptations
of the Pancha- tantra from French and Russian have been published in the post-war
(This Transaction is a resume of a lecture delivered at the Indian Institute of World Culture by Mr.
Ivan Slamnig, of the Department of Comparative Literature at the Faculty of Arts of the Zagreb University.)

I shall upload the research paper in the forthcoming article.


Sri. Rajaram’s reply in Frontline.

Interview with N.S. Rajaram.

Following the publication of “Horseplay in Harappa,” N.S. Rajaram wrote a letter to the Editor of Frontline. In the covering note, he offered access to “the original photograph” of the ‘horse seal’ on which the image published in the Jha-Ra jaram book was based. Frontline accepted the offer and received from Rajaram a copy of the photograph, which was identical to the one Rajaram sent Iravatham Mahadevan in 1997. Frontline correspondent Anupama Katakam interviewed Rajar am in Bangalore on November 2 on the provenance of the image of the ‘horse seal,’ the ‘computer enhancement,’ the ‘decipherment,’ and other aspects of Rajaram’s work and views. Excerpts from the tape-recorded interview:

Where did the image of the ‘horse seal’ come from?

Jha had a photograph taken of the image from Mackay’s book – Mohenjodaro. This attribution is in the index of his book. Jha lives in a small town. He may not have had access to high-tech equipment, which explains the low quality of the image.

Why does he believe it to be a horse?

I looked at the original [photograph], which is very small. In Mackay’s book. Of course, Frontline gave a much better picture because they have better facilities. To me it looks more like a horse. I am convinced it is a horse.

The shape of the under-belly. If you look at the unicorn bull’s genital area, it is very prominent [referring to Frontline‘s cover]. It is not so in the horse. The tail is also quite different. And another thing is – the tapering back is a feature of all fast-running animals.

What is the significance of the ‘horse’?

I feel the importance of the horse is blown out of proportion. We have a great deal of much more important evidence that we have to explain. They are making it the central issue… It was just a footnote in our book…

As far as identification is concerned, we are sure it is a horse! And we can demonstrate that horses existed.

I believe the debate should be on a whole range of issues.

What is the old-style-telephone-like object in front of the animal?

Do you find it in our book? You see what has happened is this writing [pointing to the annotation] has got scrambled in the scanning. This writing which has got scrambled resembles this telephone-like thing which they refer to as a [feeding] trough. Noth ing is behind that label. This is not in the original seal.

Who annotated or labelled it?

Jha must have. To keep the file number… This is the photo I received and I have checked it with the original… But I didn’t have such a good print. The original seal is in Mackay’s book. This [points to the image numbered M-772A, published on p. 9 of the Frontline issue of October 13] they say has been flipped horizontally. It is probably the same seal, but you see there is more damage here. But I am not going to look at this one. You see when Parpola took this photograph, it was about 30 year s later. This has been computer-manipulated. As far as I am concerned, I will go with the oldest.

In any case, it is irrelevant as they may be the same image. See, the writing is the same… As far as the trough goes – it is a distortion of the letters.

On the why and how of the ‘computer enhancement’

I never said computer enhancement in my book. When they kept pressing me, I said it might have been computer-enhanced. That is what I mentioned in a particular note to these people. I had no idea. I think it was scanned by the publisher. The best way of finding out is if you look at what copy the publisher has and mine. Then you will know what went into the book. This has not been scanned by me. I xeroxed it and I either sent a smaller photograph to improve the resolution, or a contraction of it taken o n a xerox machine.

If I had this quality [pointing to a clear image of the broken seal published in Frontline], there would be no problem. My point is if ‘computer enhancement’ was said, it may have been said under pressure. I have never done any computer enhancemen t.

Clearly he [Jha] has, or somebody has, taken the photograph from a publication. And I either sent a photocopy of it… And I remember what I said to the publisher. I said, “see if something can be made out of this.”

Sources to Harappan Horse Seal materia.



Featured Image Credit.


5000 Year Dholavira Planned City Water Harvesting Astronomically Aligned

Excavations at Dholavira,Gujarat,India confirm this.

The city had,

16 Gates,

4 Stadia,

Water harvesting,

Drainage system,

Brick Masonry and Ceramic used.

The Ancient History of India is amazing,not merely for the accuracy of facts ,including Geographical but for the skill of the people in building not only temples but well planned cities.

The myth that early Indians built only temples and were called ‘Barbaric’ these  barbarians built massive temple structures,where the shadow of the building falls in its base,was built in an area where no granite was available,80 tons monolithic block was hoisted at a height of around 180 feet,when pulleys were not supposed to have been known (Thanjavur),

Temple where the pillar does not rest on the ground,(Lepakshi’

Where the rays of the Sun fall at a specific time at a specific period;falls at the feet of the Deity..

There are many temples of this kind.

There are astronomically aligned temples.

I have written on most of them.

Please check under Temples/ Hinduism Category.

Not only this.

The ancient Indians built cities in concentric circles with temple at the center,Water tanks,fortification,sewage system,centralised granary,Disaster shelters..

These were specialized by the Dravida Kings.

The Kings of North did not lag behind.

They matched their counterparts in the south.

Even during Vedic period well planned cities were built.

Treatise on Town Planning of the Vedic period is found.

Please read my article on this.

Now the Harappan period of Dholavira had an advanced town planning system.

Excavations at Dholavira,Gujarat,India confirm this.

The city had,

16 Gates,

4 Stadia,

Water harvesting,

Drainage system,

Brick Masonry and Ceramic used.

The city was built with mathematical precision and

It was astronomically aligned.


For details,I am producing excerpts from Archeological Survey of India Report.

Fourteen field seasons of excavation through an enormous deposit caused by the successive settlements at the site for over 1500 years during all through the 3rd millennium and unto the middle of the 2nd millennium BC have revealed seven significant cultural stages documenting the rise and fall of the Indus civilization in addition to bringing to light a major, a model city which is remarkable for its exquisite planning, monumental structures, aesthetic architecture, amazing water harvesting system and a variety in funerary architecture. It also enjoys the unique distinction of yielding an inscription made up of ten large-sized signs of the Indus script and, not less in importance, is the other find of a fragment of a large slab engraved with three large signs. This paper attempts to give an account of hydro-engineering that is manifest in the structures of the Harappans at Dholavira.

The ancient site at Dholavira (230 53′ 10″ N; 700 13’E), taluka Bhachau, district Kachchh in state Gujarat, lies in the island of Khadir which, it turn, is surrounded by the salt waste of the Great Rann of Kachchh. The ancient settlement is embraced by two monsoon channels, namely, the Manhar and Mansar. The ruins, including the cemetery covers an area of about 100 hectares half of which is appropriated by the articulately fortified settlement of the Harappans alone.

Lying between the monsoon channels and being undulating sloping towards the south, the site was ideally suited for a settlement having artificial dams and reservoirs.

Thee city of Dholavira in its fullest form was a precisely proportionate whole and proportionality resolved configuration following a resolute set of principles of planning and architecture with mathematical precision and, perhaps, with astronomically established orientation. Of the city, at present, three corners with partially eroded towers but fully intact inner corners have been confirmed by excavation. When measured between the inner corners, the E- W length of the city area along the northern defensive wall and N-S one along the western one worked out to 771.10 m and 616.87 m, respectively – thus giving the precise ratio of 5 : 4. Similarly, the other divisions of the city also revealed amazing ratios and proportions. The following table provides revealing information:

 Sl. No.   Division  Width  Length  Ratio
1 City, internal 616.87 711.10 4 : 5
2 Castle, internal at available top 92 114 4 : 5
3 Castle, external (as per present exposure) 118 151 4 : 5
4 Citadel (castle + bailey), external approximately (including bastions) 140 280 1 : 2
5 Bailey, internal 120 120 1 : 1
6 Middle Town + Stadium, internal 290.45 340.5 6 : 7
7 Middle Town, excluding Stadium, internal 242 340.5 5 : 7
8 Stadium, internal 47.5 283 1 : 6
9 Lower Town, built-up area 300 300 1 : 1

The above table inter alia reveals the proportional relationship between the castle and the city so it does in respect of intra-divisional and inter-divisional measurements. It is interesting to give another illustration: the diagonal drawn between the two opposite angles made by the north-eastern and the south-western corners of the city touched the north-western corner of the castle. While of the remaining two, the south-eastern corner is still missing, or not found out, a line, therefore bisecting the north-western angle also bisected the north-western corner of the middle town and further on cut across a crossing of four streets and finally the north-eastern corner of the castle. This could have been achieved by precise mathematical calculations and drawings which were then translated on the ground that was undulating by 13 m in gradient. It was indeed a great engineering achievement. In the whole scheme, the enwalled area of the castle became 49th (7 X 7) part of the city while its total built-up area was 25th (5 X 5) part.

Furthermore, it is very significant that the two-thirds of the middle town and the whole of lower town were planned with bold projections and recesses just like those one finds in the layout of an Indian temple of the later ages. As a result, the city divisions were provided with a number of housing sectors and spaces. Some of latter were found to have been used for dumping domestic refuse. Another significant feature is the arterial street that ran across axially from west to east dividing all the above-mentioned units and sub-units into two equal halves, and a north-south street, perhaps somewhat staggered, further subdivided each unit….

Seventeen gates, all built in the fortification walls with equally interesting add-on components, have been exposed so far. Their number-wise break up is: cattle 5, bailey 2, stadiums 4, middle town 1, annexe 2 and the remaining 3 belonging to the late Harappans of Stage VI. ..

The other area in which the Harappans of Dholavira excelled spectacularly pertained to water harvesting with the aid of dams, drain, reservoirs and storm water management which eloquently speak of tremendous engineering skill of the builders. Equally important is the fact that all those features were integrated part of city planning and were surely the beauty aids, too, The Harappans created about sixteen or more reservoir of varying sizes and designs and arranged them in a series practically on all four sides. A cursory estimate indicates that the water structures and relevant and related activities accounts for 10 hectares of area, in other words 10% of the total area that the city appropriated within its outer fortification. The 13 m of gradient between high and low areas from east to west within the walls was ideally suited for creating cascading reservoirs which were separated from each other by enormous and broad bunds and yet connected through feeding drains.

Six of the water tanks, one to east of castle and five of the series to south of it, have been fully or considerably exposed while a few others or other related features are testified in check digs. It was found to be the largest, grandest and best-furnished reservoir of rectangular shape measuring 73.40 m N-S and 29.30 m E-W (ratio 5:2) at the top while above that there should have been a 1 to 1.20 m high embankment as evidenced at four corners.

Dental Surgery Ancient India Indus Valley 9000 Years

Now evidence of Dentistry being practiced in Vedic India has come to light in the form of finds in Meghrab,Pakistan.

The period assigned to this is around 9000 years ago.

I date the Vedic period much,much earlier.

Please read my articles on this.

Dentistry in Indus Valley Report.

I have written quite a few articles on the Advanced Scientific Concepts in ancient India.


Mathematics, Physics,Chemistry,Botany,Zoology,Biology,Molecular Biology,Molecular Physics,Astronomy,Quantum Theory,Cloning,Aeroplane construction,Space travel,Surgery..

Dental drilling Vedic India.image.
Dentistry Ancient India,Indus valley.

Now evidence of Dentistry being practiced in Vedic India has come to light in the form of finds in Meghrab,Pakistan.

The period assigned to this is around 9000 years ago.

I date the Vedic period much,much earlier.

Please read my articles on this.

Dentistry in Indus Valley Report.

Man’s first known trip to the dentist occurred as early as 9,000 years ago, when at least 9 people living in a Neolithic village in Pakistan had holes drilled into their molars and survived the procedure.

The findings, to be reported Thursday in the scientific review Nature, push back the dawn of dentistry by 4,000 years to around 7000 B.C. The drilled molars come from a sample of 300 individuals buried in graves at the Mehrgarh site in western Pakistan, believed to be the oldest Stone Age complex in the Indus River valley.

“This is certainly the first case of drilling a person’s teeth,” said David Frayer, professor of anthropology at the University of Kansas and the lead author of the report. “But even more significant, this practice lasted some 1,500 years and was a tradition at this site. It wasn’t just a sporadic event.”

The earliest previously known evidence of dental work done in vivo was a drilled molar found in a Neolithic graveyard in Denmark dating from about 3000 B.C.

All 9 of the Mehrgarh dental patients were adults — 4 females, 2 males, and 3 individuals of unknown gender — and ranged in age from about 20 to over 40. Most of the drilling was done on the chewing surfaces of their molars, in both the upper and lower jaws, probably using a flint point attached to a bow that made a high-speed drill, the researchers say. Concentric ridges carved by the drilling device were found inside the holes.

The drilling may have been done to relieve the pain and damage of tooth rot, but only 4 of the total of 11 teeth showed signs of decay associated with the holes. The scientists say it is clear that the holes were not made for aesthetic reasons, given their position deep in the mouth and on the erosion-prone surface of the teeth.

While there is no evidence of fillings, the researchers believe something was used to plug the holes because some of them were bored deep into the teeth. What that filler substance was is unknown. The holes ranged in depth from a shallow half-a-millimeter to 3.5 millimeters, deep enough to pierce the enamel and enter the sensitive dentin.

Dental health was poor at Mehrgarh, though the problems were less often tooth decay than brutal wear and tear. Roberto Macchiarelli, professor of paleoanthropology at the University of Poitiers, France, and the report’s lead anthropological researcher, attributed the bad teeth to the Neolithic diet, which included newly domesticated wheat and barley.

“A lot of abrasive mineral material was introduced when grains were ground on a stone,” Professor Macchiarelli said, “and as these people moved to a grain diet, their teeth wore down, dentin was exposed, and the risk of infection rose.”

The Mehrgarh complex, occupied for 4,000 years, sits beside the Bolan River in Baluchistan, on a plain that was repeatedly buried in alluvial deposits that not only destroyed mud-brick buildings but crushed many skeletons in the graveyard. The excavation of 300 individuals was begun by a French team in the 1980’s; international groups followed until 2001, when it became too dangerous to work in Baluchistan.

None of the individuals with drilled teeth appears to have come from a special tomb or sanctuary, indicating that the oral health care they received was available to anyone in the society.

Professor Frayer said that, given the position of the holes and the angles of the drilling, “we’re pretty sure these were not self-induced.” That the patients lived to tell the tale of their dental visit is proved, he says, by subsequent wearing down of their teeth and by deliberate smoothing and widening of the holes later on.

The dentists may have been highly skilled artisans at Mehrgarh, where beads of imported lapis lazuli, turquoise, and carnelian were found drilled with holes even smaller than the ones in the nine individuals. Discovered among the beads were finely tipped drill heads.

“The drilling of teeth is very rare in the anthropological record,” said Professor Macchiarelli, noting that work similar to that done at Mehrgarh does not recur until much later, among the Anasazi Indians of the southwest United States around 1100 A.D., and in Europe around 1500 A.D.

[The 1,500-year-long tradition of drill work at Mehrgarh appears not to have been passed down to later cultures. There is no evidence that the Chalcolithic, or Copper Age, people who next lived there ever visited the dentist. Why the practice came to a halt is not known.

Sanatana Dharma Tamil Coexisted in Indus Valley Tamil Towns

Tamil Brahmi is found in Harappa.

Tamil Sangam period Towns,harbor names are found in Indus Valley Civilization.

Thee names are.

Vanji, capital of Chera Kingdom,

Gorkai, in Afghanistan

a Pandya harbor, Matrai(Madurai), Urai(Uraiyur capital of Cholas), Koodal kat(kodal, name for Madurai),in Pakistan,..After the demise of Osiris, his son Horus entered into a pact with Rama Empire(Emperor Zata’ar’s eldest son, Prince Rama.) to defeat Seth, the usurper.’

The Atlantis army met with Rama’s Army in Rishi City, now in Pakistan.

The relationship between Tamil and Sanatana Dharma is intriguing.

Their relationship is one of cordiality , mutual respect and admiration for each other.

The Tamil Kings are spoken of highly in the Vedas and Puranas.

They were invited to the Swayamvara of. Damayanthi, who predates Lord Rama, Rama Sita marriage, Draupadi Swayamvara and Yudhistra’s Rajasuya Yaga.

Tamil King Udiyan Cherallathan provided food for both the Pandava and Kaurava armies during the Mahabharata War.

Sananat Dharma spread around he world
Vedic India

Madurai Meenakshi’s father Malayathdwaja participated in the Mahabharata war fighting along side the Pandavas.

Lord Krishna was invited to Tamil Poets ‘Conclave at Madurai(probably the Thenmadurai, now sunk) and he participated in it.

Krishna and Arjuna married Pandyan Princesses;Krishna had a daughter and had her married to a Pandyan Prince, while Arjuna had a son.

Krishna’s elder brother Balarama visited south and worshiped Lord Subrahmanya.

And of course Parashurama, who established the present Kerala.

Sage Viswamitra’s descendant  Apasthamba wrote the Veda Sutra called Apasthama Sutra by integrating Tamil practices like Thaali, Mangalya, which is not found in the Vedas.

Brahmins in the south of India follow Apasthamba sutra even today.

Rama’ ancestor Vaivaswatha Manu migrated from the south to Ayodhya to found Ikshvaku Dynasty.

Manu migrated to Ayodhya because of a Tsunami recorded in Tamil Classic, Sangam Literature.

So there should have been no presence of any dynasty in the north if we go by this hypothesis .

However there was a Chola king, who ruled from North, much before the great Flood.

He was King Sibi and Cholas call themselves the descendants of Kashyapa.

This Sibi is mentioned in Tamil Literature  and in Puranas a belonging to Suryavansh.

He built a temple near Srirangam in Tamil Nadu for Lord Vishnu.

It is the Thiruvellarai Pundareekakshar temple, about 20km from Srirangam

Sibi is reported to have fought an army of Asuras here.

Asuras mean powerful, yet evil intentioned.

King Sibi ruled from Pakistan?

And we have a a site of about a Million years in Chennai which belongs to advanced Tamil civilization.

Another one is at Adhichanallur which dates back to 11000 years.

Thee site  refer to Sanatana Dharma.

And Sanatana Dharma refer Tamils!

Tamil Brahmi is found in Harappa.

Tamil Sangam period Towns,harbor names are found in Indus Valley Civilization.

Thee names are.

Vanji, capital of Chera Kingdom,

Gorkai, in Afghanistan

a Pandya harbor, Matrai(Madurai), Urai(Uraiyur capital of Cholas), Koodal kat(kodal, name for Madurai),in Pakistan,

‘சிந்துவெளி மற்றும் அரப்பாவில் ”கொற்கை, வஞ்சி, தொண்டி வளாகம்”
சிந்துவெளியில் சங்கத் தமிழரின் துறைமுகங்கள், தலைநகரங்கள் மற்றும் ஊர்களின் பெயர்கள்
பாகிஸ்தானிலுள்ள கொற்கை (Gorkai. Gorkhai), வஞ்சி (Vanji), தொண்டி(Tondi), மத்ரை (Matrai), உறை (Urai), கூடல் கட் (Kudal Garh) மற்றும் கோளி (Koli); ஆப்கானிஸ்தானிலுள்ள கொற்கை (Korkay. Gorkay). பூம்பகார் (Pumbakar) ஆகிய ஊர்ப் பெயர்கள் சங்க இலக்கியங்களில் குறிப்பிடப்பட்டுள்ள தலைநகரங்கள் மற்றும் துறைமுக நகரங்களின் பெயர்களான கொற்கை. வஞ்சி. தொண்டி. மதுரை. உறையூர். கூடல். கோழி. பூம்புகார் ஆகியவற்றை நினைவுபடுத்துகின்றன.

Lord Rama, whose name is found in the  Sumerian King List as a King of Sumer,along with Dasaratha and Bharata, fought a war against Atlantis people to help Horus , on of Osiris,.

Leading Osiris’s Egyptian armies was Osiris’ eldest son Horus. After Osiris’ unfortunate ‘death’, Horus succeeded his father as king of the Libyan/Egyptian Empire. Intuitively, Horus knew what would happen when they landed in Libya. He completely distrusted his uncle. Horus persistently warned his father about Seth’s stubbornness and treachery. Osiris, believing in the goodness of the human heart, initially ignored his son’s advice. Subsequently, Osiris landed in Libya and after Seth’s abdication became Emperor’

After the demise of Osiris, his son Horus entered into a pact with Rama Empire(Emperor Zata’ar’s eldest son, Prince Rama.) to defeat Seth, the usurper.’

The Atlantis army met with Rama’s Army in Rishi City, now in Pakistan…..

There were four ancient empires.

Rama’s Empire,

Atlantis Empire,

Uighur Empire and

Lemurian Empire.

Of these Uighur was not very advanced and Lemuria which had been on the wane was trying to recoup.

They were suppressed by the Atlantis people.

In the Atlantis, Osiris’ son Horus entered into an alliance with Rama to defeat Seth who was trying to become independent in the Sumerian valley.

Rama Dropped Atom Bomb Mohenjo daro

This means that Mohenjo Daro was a flourishing civilization before the Rama War with Atlantis people.

Yet there was a  Chola King much before the advent of Rama.

The contention of Dr Parpola and the Dravidian politicians of Tamilnadu is that Tamils have descended form the IVC locations of North India. The verse by poet Kapilar in fact traces the origins of the King IrungoveL to Dwaraka. He says that he belonged to the 49th generation of the king who was born of the Sacrificial Fire conducted by the sage of the North. This king ruled Dwaraka, so says the poet. Reserving the other details of this verse for a future post, I am now concentrating on another description in that song.

( There is another interpretation on the interpretatiion of  the term Sacrificial fire

Kapilar describes Dwaraka as being surrounded by walls made of copper.

நீயே, வடபால் முனிவன் தடவினுள் தோன்றிச்,
செம்பு புனைந்து இயற்றிய சேண்நெடும் புரிசை,
உவரா ஈகைத், துவரை ஆண்டு,
நாற்பத்து ஒன்பது வழிமுறை வந்த
வேளிருள் வேளே!
This means “O king IrungoveL! you were the 49th king in the lineage of the king, who was born of the sacrificial fire conducted by the sage and ruled Dwarka which was surrounded by long / tall walls of copper.”

From the commentary that Dr U.Ve.Sa found out form the palm leaf manuscripts :-
“நீ தான் வட பக்கத்து முனிவனுடைய ஓம குண்டத்தின் கண் தோன்றிச் செம்பால் புனைத்து செய்தாலொத்த சேய்மையை உடைத்தாகிய நெடிய மதிலை உடைய துவராவதி என்னும் படை வீட்டை ஆண்டு, வெறுப்பில்லாத கொடையினை உடையராய் நாற்பத்தொன்பது தலைமுறை தொன்றுபட்டு வந்த வேள்களுள் வைத்து வேளாய்உள்ளாய்!”..

 ‘This king was not in Dwaraka when Kapilar met him and sang this verse. He was ruling some part of the western ghats in present day’s Karnataka. This Vel’s kingdom was different from the Tamil lands of the 3 kings (Chera, Chola and Pandya). The next verse was on the same king sung by Kapilar in which he describes his land in the hills.
This king’s palace was not surrounded by walls of copper. Copper walls were there in the kingdom of his ancestors in Dwaraka.Assuming that 3 kings lived per century, we can say that 1600 years have passed by the time this 49th king had come into being. The period of this king is not exactly known, but can be deciphered from Kapilar’s other connections. Kapilar was a close friend of another VeL king, Paari who was killed by the 3 Tamil kings. Kapilar took care of Parri’s orphaned daughters and approached another Vel king, IrungoveL to request him to marry the two daughters of Paari. This verse contains that request.


 So there seems to be a Dynasty belonging to Suryavansh in the North and it declined or swallowed by Tsunami from the Arabian Sea, this could have  either the second or the  first Great flood mentioned in the Tamil Classics.

And we have references to Sage Agastya, settling the people from the sinking Dwaraka  in Tamil Nadu and the present Karnataka.

Considering all this I proposed that there could have been two Tamil Empires.

As t whether Tamils came from the Sanatana Dharma people or vice versa, it is difficult t postulate.

I am providing an abstract from one theory on this.


Can Sankam corpus, the ancient extant Dravidian literature, be a source to identify the language of the Indus script; a collateral evidence to estimate the ethno-linguistic composition of Indus Civilization? I seek to answer this question in affirmative.

I have located a group of place names in the Indus –Harappan geographies (modern Pakistan and adjoining regions), which I choose to call as “Korkay, Vanji, Tondi Complex.” This ‘complex’ contains perfect parallels to “Korkai-Vanji-Tondi” and many other geographical names and anthroponyms attested in Sankam Tamil texts.

I propose that these identical name-heritage complexes of the north-western geographies and the extreme south provide reliable markers for the probable migration of Dravidians following the collapse of Indus Valley Civilization. I call in the evidence of “bone-eating camel” described in Akananooru as a testimony for the earlier presence of Dravidians in the north-western geographies (particularly Gujarat).

And, I conclude that the Sankam corpus in part represents the ‘carried forward memories’ of a remote past, the coordinates of which can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization and late Harappan cultures and relevant geographies.’


My view is that there were two cultures, Tamil and Sanatana Dharma coexisting , thugh slightly different in their approach to Life.

That these two acknowledge their differences yet respected each other i a great lesson for us.

References and citations.





Vedic Civilization Two Million Sq.KM 2000 Sites

Seven Rivers are mentioned in Hindu Texts.






Sindu, and


Of these seven, exhaustive research is being done around Ganges,Sarasvathi and Sind…Two thousand sites unearthed relating to Harappa reveal that the Hindu culture extended for Two Million Square Millions, which included the present Pakistan and Iran.

Archaeological Report.

Most of the discoveries relating to ancient India made  remain unknown.

It is an accepted fact that civilizations flourished on the banks of Rivers, be it in India, or Sumeria, Minoa or Africa.

In India wee seem to be hearing only bout the civilizations that flourished long the banks of Ganges, Sind and Saraswathy.

Not much is known or even attempted about the other four River basins of India.

Seven Rivers are mentioned in Hindu Texts.






Sindu, and


Of these seven, exhaustive research is being done around Ganges,Sarasvathi and Sind.

On Yamuna the research seems to have been restricted to sites relation to Mahabharata and Krishna.

On the Narmada area only Dwaraka seems to have been concentrated upon.

My research shows we have equally ancient finds around the other river basins..

Time that we concentrate on these area as well.

In addition to this, we have references to other ancient rivers like Vigai, near Madurai, Tamil Nadu,Tamraparani, near deep down south Tirunelveli nd there are are references to to other rivers like Pahruli.

The last one belonged to Tamil Sangam Age which flowed and joined the sea near Madagascar.

I had written on the fact that Vaiwaswatha Manu, ancestor of Lord Rama meditated  near Madagascar!

No to the site of Harappa named 4 MSR.

Two thousand sites unearthed relating to Harappa reveal that the Hindu culture extended for Two Million Square Millions, which included the present Pakistan and Iran.

Archaeological  Report.

Sites of ancient India around Harappa.
Ancient sites of Indian Civilization, Harappa.

“The purpose of the present excavation at 4MSR is to learn about the Early Harappan deposits, 4MSR’s relationship with other contemporary sites and to fill the gap between the Late Harappan phase and the painted grey ware [PGW] culture. We should know about the early farming phase [that existed in the pre-Harappan period]. It is also important to know the continuity of the sequence from the Late Harappan phase to the PGW culture. That is why we have taken up explorations and excavations in this entire area.”

At its height, the Harappan civilisation flourished over 2.5 million sq. km in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. About 2,000 sites have been found, from Sutkagendor in the Makran coast of Balochistan to Alamgirhpur in the east in Uttar Pradesh and from Manda in Jammu to Daimabad in Maharashtra.

The Harappan civilisation is divided into three phases: Early (3000 BCE-2600 BCE), Mature (2600 BCE -1900 BCE) and Late (1900 BCE-1500 BCE). The PGW culture came later and is datable to circa 1200 BCE and belongs to the early historical period.

After Partition, big Harappan sites such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Ganweriwala fell on the Pakistani side. Between 1972 and 1974, M.R. Mughal, former Director General of Archaeology and Museums, Pakistan, explored Bahawalpur in the Cholistan region of Punjab, situated on the border with Rajasthan. Mughal found a lot of pottery on the surface there and named it Hakra ware after the Hakra river which flows there and which is called Ghaggar in India. Originating in the Himalayas, the Ghaggar flows through Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat before joining the Arabian Sea near the Rann of Kutch.

If the cornucopia of artefacts thrown up from the current excavation is any indication, 4MSR has all the characteristics of having been an Early Harappan and Mature Harappan site like Kalibangan situated 120 km away. There are no indications that a Late Harappan phase existed. “A special feature of 4MSR is the discovery of a perforated jar, a perforated bowl with a hole at the bottom and a perforated pot, confirming its status as a Mature Harappan site,” asserted Pandey. What fascinated him was the discovery of pots with handles. “In a nutshell, our excavations have yielded pre-Harappan Hakra ware, Early Harappan pottery and Mature Harappan ceramics,” he said.

What stands out in the excavation is the bonanza of Early Harappan pottery with beautifully painted figures of peacocks, a lion, birds, pipal leaves and fish-net designs. Another discovery, a beautiful pot with a pencil mouth, could have been used to keep precious liquids or perfume.

Other important artefacts obtained from the site are beads made of carnelian, lapis lazuli, steatite, agate and terracotta; copper, shell and terracotta bangles; copper rings and fish hooks; terracotta spindles and whorls; weights made out chert stone; terracotta sling balls, toy-cart frames, figurines of humped bulls, and arrowheads. Two horns of nilgai were found in a trench. Of particular interest is a potsherd with the impression of a fabric. Besides the seal, a sealing (impression of a seal) was found. The centrepiece of the discoveries is a fragment of a gold ornament for the ear. It is rare to find gold ornaments in Harappan sites although tubular gold beads have been found in Khirsara and Lothal, both Harappan sites in Gujarat.

One trench yielded a skeleton, perhaps that of a female, about 40 years old. The ASI team is in the process of identifying the presence of grave goods in the trench to determine the period to which it belongs.

What has come as a bonus is the discovery of a fire altar, with a yasti (a shaft) in the middle. “The yasti is an indication that rituals were performed at the altar,” said Manjul. The yasti here is an octagonal, burnt brick. Although bones were found in the upper level of the deposits in this trench, it could not be ascertained whether they were sacrificial bones. The ASI team traced mud and ash layers at the lower level in the trench and also found a bead inside the fire altar. Pandey said fire altars had been found in Kalibangan and Rakhigarhi, and the yastis were octagonal or cylindrical bricks. There were “signatures” indicating that worship of some kind had taken place at the fire altar here.

Rakhigarhi Rediscovered.

According to Manjul, an important reason why so many Harappan settlements came up in the then Saraswati valley was its fertile alluvial plains. Besides, raw materials such as chert, clay and copper were available in the nearby areas.

It was puzzling, Manjul said, that while a lot of pottery belonging to the Mature Harappan period was found at Kalibangan, Baror, Binjor and 4MSR, no pottery belonging to the Late Harappan phase had been found in these and other nearby sites. “The Harappans deserted 4MSR, Binjor and Baror after the Mature Harappan phase. Why?” he asked. Another puzzle was that only the Late Harappan culture existed in the Suratgarh region in Rajasthan. “There is no continuity of the Harappan phases in the Ghaggar river valley. Did a migration take place towards Suratgarh after the Mature Harappan period? We have to find out the reasons why it happened,” Manjul said. (Baror, Binjor and 4MSR are contiguous sites. While Baror is about 20 km from Binjor and 4MSR, Kalibangan is 120 km from 4MSR. Kalibangan is 25 km from Suratgarh).,

Reference and citation.


Image credit.




Harappa Rakhigarhi Older By 3000 Years Pre Egypt Babylon.

Yet we would date the Rig Veda around 5000 BC!

Now there is a find in Rakhigarhi, Haryana which is dated around 6000 BC.

Well, some people might be happy date Indian History by 1600 when the British came to India!

Thiruvannamalai is about a Billion years old,Tirupati 2100 Million Years, An archeological site near Chennai containing Advanced Tamil Civilization, Agastya crossed Vindhyas around 5000 BC,

Tamil language is estimated to be 74, 0000 years old(It should be dated earlier on the available evidence) and they quote the Vedas, they in turn Tamil!

Yet we would date  the  Rig Veda around 5000 BC!

Now there is a find in Rakhigarhi, Haryana which is dated around 6000 BC.

Well, some people might be happy to date Indian History by 1600 AD when the British came to India!

Rakhigarhi, Haryana, Harappan site,India.jpg Rakhigarhi, Haryana, Harappan site,India.

Latest research has put the date of the origin of the Indus Valley Civilisation at 6,000 years before Christ, which contests the current theory that the settlements around the Indus began around 3750 BC.

Ever since the excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro in the early 1920s, the civilisation was considered almost as old as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.

The finding was announced at the “International Conference on Harappan Archaeology”, recently organised by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in Chandigarh.

Based on their research, BR Mani, ASI joint director general, and KN Dikshit, former ASI joint director general, said in a presentation: “The preliminary results of the data from early sites of the Indo-Pak subcontinent suggest that the Indian civilisation emerged in the 8th millennium BC in the Ghaggar-Hakra and Baluchistan area.”

“On the basis of radio-metric dates from Bhirrana (Haryana), the cultural remains of the pre-early Harappan horizon go back to 7380 BC to 6201 BC.”
Excavations had been carried out at two sites in Pakistan and Bhirrana, Kunal, Rakhigarhi and Baror in India.


The Harappan or Indus Valley Civilisation is one of the three oldest urban civilisations, along with Egypt and Mesopotamia, but it is the least understood. Its script is yet to be deciphered, and the knowledge of social structures and life during that period is scant. Rakhigarhi promises to change this as new discoveries continue to be made. It is one of the few Harappan sites which has an unbroken history of settlement—Early Harappan farming communities from 6000 to 4500 BC, followed by the Early Mature Harappan urbanisation phase from 4500 to 3000 BC, and then the highly urbanised Mature Harappan era from 3000 BC to the mysterious collapse of the civilisation around 1800 BC. That’s more than 4,000 years of ancient human history packed into its rich soil.

Until now, experts believed that Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan was the largest among the 2,000 Harappan sites known to exist in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The archaeological remains at Mohenjo-daro extend around 300 hectares. However, with the discovery of two more mounds, adding to the seven mounds already discovered, the total area of the archaeological site of Rakhigarhi now measures 350 hectares. The two newly-discovered mounds spread over 25 hectares each and are situated to the east and west of the main site. Unfortunately, much of the mounds have been destroyed for cultivation.


The Indus Valley Tradition is divided into four eras, and each era can be divided into various phases. A phase is an archaeological unit possessing traits sufficiently characteristic to distinguish it from all other units similarly conceived Each phase can be subdivided into interaction systems.

Date range (BCE) Phase Era
7570-6200 Bhirrana (aceramic Neolithic) Early Food Producing Era
7000-5500 Mehrgarh I (aceramic Neolithic)
5500-3300 Mehrgarh II-VI (ceramic Neolithic) Regionalisation Era
3300-2600 Early Harappan
3300-2800 Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase)
2800-2600 Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase, Nausharo I, Mehrgarh VII, Rakhigarhi)
2600-1900 Mature Harappan (Indus Valley Civilization) Integration Era
2600-2450 Harappan 3A (Nausharo II)
2450-2200 Harappan 3B
2200-1900 Harappan 3C
1900-1300 Late Harappan (Cemetery H); Ochre Coloured Pottery Localisation Era
1900-1700 Harappan 4
1700-1300 Harappan 5
1300-300 Painted Gray Ware, Northern Black Polished Ware (Iron Age) Indo-Gangetic Tradition






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