## Gravity Assumptions Galore.

Gravity is the Force that appears to attract Physical Bodies towards each other’.

Let’s see how much we know about it.

Note the Definition, ‘appears to attract’ – We are not sure.

Einstein’s Views -‘Theory of  General Relativity‘ as applied to Gravity.

Space and Time , Spacetime condition Gravity.

General relativity, or the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916[1] and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalises special relativity and Newton’s law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations.”…

Some predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics, especially concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light. Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilationgravitational lensing, the gravitational redshift of light, and the gravitational time delay. The predictions of general relativity have been confirmed in all observations and experiments to date. Although general relativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity, it is the simplest theory that is consistent with experimental data. However, unanswered questions remain, the most fundamental being how general relativity can be reconciled with the laws of quantum physics to produce a complete and self-consistent theory of quantum gravity.

(wiki)

Space is curved(please read my blogs under Astrophysics).

Have we defined Space, Tie?

No.

Consequently Gravitation as influenced by Spacetime,at best, remains a conjecture.

Newton on Gravity(theory discared, yet being used in Calculations)

” “I deduced that the forces which keep the planets in their orbs must [be] reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve: and thereby compared the force requisite to keep the Moon in her Orb with the force of gravity at the surface of the Earth; and found them answer pretty nearly’…

Although Newton’s theory has been superseded, most modern non-relativistic gravitational calculations are still made using Newton’s theory because it is a much simpler theory to work with than general relativity, and gives sufficiently accurate results for most applications involving sufficiently small masses, speeds and energies.’

Irrespective of the fact whether our Theory is Right or Wrong, Principles of Nature work,so much for Science.

By the way , can some one forward me the exact definition of Nature?

Earth’s Gravity.

a) Earth is ‘assumed’ to be surrounded by its own Gravitational Filed, which exerts an attractive force on all objects. Assuming a spherically symmetrical planet, the strength of this field at any given point is proportional to the planetary body’s mass and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the center of the body….

The fundamental is an Assumption.

Again, ‘ This means that, ignoring air resistance, an object falling freely near the Earth’s surface increases its velocity by 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s or 22 mph) for each second of its descent. Thus, an object starting from rest will attain a velocity of 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s) after one second, 19.62 m/s (64.4 ft/s) after two seconds, and so on, adding 9.81 m/s (32.2 ft/s) to each resulting velocity. Also, again ignoring air resistance, any and all objects, when dropped from the same height, will hit the ground at the same time.

Assumptions.

‘The strength of the gravitational field is numerically equal to the acceleration of objects under its influence, and its value at the Earth’s surface, denoted g, is approximately expressed below as thestandard average.

g = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2′

We want to know Earth’s Gravitation, that is what we want to prove.

Acceleration of Bodies is determined the force of Gravitation.

So when we rely on the Acceleration of Objects under the influence of the Earths’ gravitation , have we not already assumed Earth’s  Gravity?

We also ignore the effect of Electromagnetism and other forces at work,EM being dependent on Gravitation or is the other way around?

The Theory is riddled with Assumptions and leaping to conclusions.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitation#Newton.27s_theory_of_gravitation

Chinese Scientists have found a way to measure Gravity and it throws Spanner in the works.

‘By conducting six observations of total and annular solar eclipses, as well as Earth tides, a team headed by Tang Keyun, a researcher with the Institute of Geology and Geophysics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), found that the Newtonian Earth tide formula includes a factor related to the propagation of gravity.

“Earth tide” refers to a small change in the Earth’s surface caused by the gravity of the moon and sun.

Based on the data, the team, with the participation of the China Earthquake Administration and the University of the CAS, found that gravitational force released from the sun and gravitational force recorded at ground stations on Earth did not travel at the same speed, with the time difference exactly the same as the time it takes for light to travel from the sun to observation stations on Earth.

[…] By applying the new data to the propagation equation of gravity, the team found that the speed of gravity is about 0.93 to 1.05 times the speed of light with a relative error of about 5 percent, providing the first set of strong evidence showing that gravity travels at the speed of light.”

## Time ,Non-Linear Theory. Indian Thoughts 1

Time is a very difficult topic ,so is Space.

No clear definition of Time has been set as of Date.

The interchange of the Terms Space and Time is a challenge to the known laws of Physics.

When you observe the Black Holes  where time stops and runs backwards ;

when you notice the movement of extra particles in the sub atomic ranges as in Bosun experiment;

when you have Time Warp proved by Quantum Theory and Mechanics;

when you find the that the receiving by the earth the light from the Star does not prove its existence, rather that it did exist depending on the time taken by the light to reach the earth,

you are astounded and you are forced to reexamine your known Theories of Physics.

Well Indian Philosophy was aware of this fact and it has observed that the .OBSERVER HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE AS THE OBSERVED, FOR TO OBSERVE SOMETHING THAT TRAVELS AT A VELOCITY THAN THAT OF LiGHT, THE OBSERVER NEEDS TO MOVE INTO THAT PLANE OR the results will not be correct.

Instead of looking at the Universe from  the outside Indian Philosophy looks at the instrument that perceives these phenomena;one such instrument is the Mind, which also has the elements that make up the Universe..

Mind is treated as on sense organ(for details please read my blogs on Hinduism).

Now let us look into the concept of Time.

Different perspective of Time.

Changing views of Space and Time along the world line  of a rapidly changing Observer.

In this animation, the vertical direction indicates time and the horizontal direction indicates distance, the dashed line is the spacetime trajectory (“world line”) of an accelerating observer. The small dots are arbitrary events in spacetime that are stationary relative to each other. The events passing the two diagonal lines in the lower half of the picture (the past light cone of the observer) are those that are visible to the observer.

World Line Change.

The slope of the world line (deviation from being vertical) gives the relative velocity to the observer. Note how the view of spacetime changes when the observer accelerates. In particular, absolute time is a concept not applicable in Lorentz’s spacetime: events move up-and-down in the figure depending on the acceleration of the observer.

Indian Philosophy recognizes the limitations of human mind and abilities. It knows that one is restricted by space and time, which does not afford him the luxury of understanding things as they are. Any perception or understanding is conditioned by the twin spectacles of Space and Time (Immanuel Kant in Critique of Pure Reason.)

To understand things as they are is beyond human ability. Let us say that we want to know whether there are any particles that travel at a higher velocity than light. (It has been proved theoretically that they exist).If we want to prove them by direct experience rather than inference, we need to be in motion in tune with the particle traveling faster than the velocity of light (Einstein circumvented this problem by theorizing that if an object were to travel at a higher velocity than that of light, it would no longer remain matter. (Theory of Relativity.)

Imagine, we travel at a higher velocity than the velocity of light, not withstanding the fact that we may no longer remain as matter, what happens?
We may be able to observe the particle traveling at a higher velocity than light. But, in the process of observing this phenomenon, we no longer remain in our normal original state. That is to say we have changed our plane of existence to that of the object traveling at a higher velocity.
This means to understand, in the realms of Higher Physics, if one needs to observe things of a different coordinates, one needs to move to the same level of existence.
That is to say our existence coordinates or parameters vary. This leads to different level of Time as this involves motion at a higher velocity than the one we are in. This admits the differentiation of time, determined by two factors-the point from which one observes and the point at which the observable exists. In short to understand higher velocities one needs to be at the same velocity to observe in real-time.

## Einstein Dieu manuscrit. Athée ou agnostique?

Albert Einstein comme tous les grands penseurs croyaient en une Puissance supérieure à nous.

Des dix qu’il a utilisé pour s’émerveiller de la complexité de la nature nd express awe t la réalité ou ce que beaucoup de s appeler Dieu.

Encore Einstein vues sur Dieu ne sont pas vraiment connus.

Il est également perçu comme un agnostique.
Maintenant une note écrite à la main par Einstein avait surface où il dit explicitement “le mot Dieu est “rien de plus que l’expression des faiblesses humaines”.

“Une lettre manuscrite par Albert Einstein dans laquelle il appelle la religion ‘enfantin’ est d’être vendus aux enchères, avec un prix de départ de £ 1,85 millions de dollars.
Le lauréat du Prix Nobel scientifique questions l’existence de Dieu dans une lettre écrite au philosophe Eric Gutkind en 1954.

Les agnostiques juif va sur pour dire que la Bible est un “recueil d’honorable, mais encore les légendes primitives qui sont néanmoins assez puériles”.
Il ajoute: “Pour moi, la religion juive comme toutes les autres religions est l’incarnation des plus puériles superstitions.

“Et le peuple juif à qui j’ai volontiers appartenir et avec dont la mentalité J’ai une profonde affinité n’ont aucune qualité différente pour moi que toutes les autres personnes.

Il a ajouté: “En ce qui concerne mon expérience, ils sont aussi le meilleur que les autres groupes humains, bien qu’ils sont protégés des pires cancers par un manque de puissance.
“Sinon, je ne vois rien “choisi” à leur sujet.”

La Science vs le divin : Malgré bien être agnostique, Einstein a estimé une ” d’affinité” au peuple juif

la lettre, écrite un an avant l’allemand est mort en 1955, est communément appelé “le Dieu lettre”.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2213513/Albert-Einstein-letter-uses-say-religion-childish-goes-auction-1-85MILLION.html#ixzz28WBq9Sw1

## Greater Gravitation, Live Indefinitely

Einstein’s Theory that Time is not a Constant and and that it Dilates, relative to Gravitation has been proved.

If the Gravitation pull is less you age slower and if more  you age faster.

Let’s extend this Logic further.

If you keep on increasing the G, your longevity increases.

So at a particular point of Gravitation, you would live indefinitely.

But the question is shall the object that exerts Gravitation  change with increase in Gravitational pull?

Does it pull itself?

What are its states vis-a-vis change in Pull?

Does the object it pulls change its state based on the Pull exerted on it?

To understand the seemingly paradoxical Nature of Time please read my Blog

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/einsteins-theory-is-proved–and-it-is-bad-news-if-you-own-a-penthouse-2088195.html  and check blogs under Time/Astrophysics.

Story:

The world’s most accurate clock has neatly shown how right Albert Einstein was 100 years ago, when he proposed that time is a relative concept and the higher you live above sea level the faster you should age.

Einstein’s theory of relativity states that time and space are not as constant as everyday life would suggest. He suggested that the only true constant, the speed of light, meant that time can run faster or slower depending on how high you are, and how fast you are travelling.

Now scientists have demonstrated the true nature of Einstein’s theory for the first time with an incredibly accurate atomic clock that is able to keep time to within one second in about 3.7 billion years – roughly the same length of time that life has existed on Earth.

James ChinWen Chou and his colleagues from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, found that when they monitored two such clocks positioned just a foot apart in height above sea level, they found that time really does run more quickly the higher you are – just as Einstein predicted.

“These precise clocks reveal the effects of gravitational pull, so if we position one clock closer to a planet, you also increase the gravitational pull and time actually runs slower than for another, similar clock positioned higher up,” Dr Chou said. “No one has seen such effects before with clocks which is why we wanted to see if these effects are there. We would say our results agree with Einstein’s theory – we weren’t expecting any discrepancies and we didn’t find any,” he explained.

Related:

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2012/06/19/time-will-stop-completely/

## Death Not Possible-BioCentrism,Quantum Confirm

1.Matter can never be Destroyed nor Created

2.Quantum has proved the Existence of Multi verses.

3.Birth/Death relates to Time and Space.Time/Space is non linear and Cyclical.Plese read my blog On Time

.4.Indian Philosophy has confirmed this long back.

1.Matter can never be Destroyed nor Created

2.Quantum has proved the Existence of Multi verses.

3.Birth/Death relates to Time and Space.Time/Space is non linear and Cyclical.Plese read my blog On Time

.4.Indian Philosophy has confirmed this long back.

Many of us fear death. We believe in death because we have been told we will die. We associate ourselves with the body, and we know that bodies die. But a new scientific theory suggests that death is not the terminal event we think.

Although individual bodies are destined to self-destruct, the “I” feeling is just a fountain of energy operating in the brain. But this energy doesn’t just go away at death.

One well-known aspect of quantum physics is that certain observations cannot be predicted absolutely. Instead, there is a range of possible observations each with a different probability. One mainstream explanation, the “many-worlds” interpretation, states that each of these possible observations corresponds to a different universe (the ‘multiverse’). A new scientific theory – called biocentrism – refines these ideas. There are an infinite number of universes, and everything that could possibly happen occurs in some universe. Death does not exist in any real sense in these scenarios. All possible universes exist simultaneously, regardless of what happens in any of them. Although individual bodies are destined to self-destruct, the alive feeling – the ‘Who am I?’- is just a 20-watt fountain of energy operating in the brain. But this energy doesn’t go away at death. One of the surest axioms of science is that energy never dies; it can neither be created nor destroyed. But does this energy transcend from one world to the other?

Consider an experiment that was recently published in the journalScience showing that scientists could retroactively change something that had happened in the past. Particles had to decide how to behave when they hit a beam splitter. Later on, the experimenter could turn a second switch on or off. It turns out that what the observer decided at that point, determined what the particle did in the past. Regardless of the choice you, the observer, make, it is you who will experience the outcomes that will result. The linkages between these various histories and universes transcend our ordinary classical ideas of space and time. Think of the 20-watts of energy as simply holo-projecting either this or that result onto a screen. Whether you turn the second beam splitter on or off, it’s still the same battery or agent responsible for the projection.

According to Biocentrism, space and time are not the hard objects we think. Wave your hand through the air – if you take everything away, what’s left? Nothing. The same thing applies for time. You can’t see anything through the bone that surrounds your brain. Everything you see and experience right now is a whirl of information occurring in your mind. Space and time are simply the tools for putting everything together.

Death does not exist in a timeless, spaceless world. In the end, even Einstein admitted, “Now Besso” (an old friend) “has departed from this strange world a little ahead of me. That means nothing. People like us…know that the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.” Immortality doesn’t mean a perpetual existence in time without end, but rather resides outside of time altogether.

This was clear with the death of my sister Christine. After viewing her body at the hospital, I went out to speak with family members. Christine’s husband – Ed – started to sob uncontrollably. For a few moments I felt like I was transcending the provincialism of time. I thought about the 20-watts of energy, and about experiments that show a single particle can pass through two holes at the same time. I could not dismiss the conclusion: Christine was both alive and dead, outside of time.

Christine had had a hard life. She had finally found a man that she loved very much. My younger sister couldn’t make it to her wedding because she had a card game that had been scheduled for several weeks. My mother also couldn’t make the wedding due to an important engagement she had at the Elks Club. The wedding was one of the most important days in Christine’s life. Since no one else from our side of the family showed, Christine asked me to walk her down the aisle to give her away.

Soon after the wedding, Christine and Ed were driving to the dream house they had just bought when their car hit a patch of black ice. She was thrown from the car and landed in a banking of snow.

“Ed,” she said “I can’t feel my leg.”

She never knew that her liver had been ripped in half and blood was rushing into her peritoneum.

After the death of his son, Emerson wrote “Our life is not so much threatened as our perception. I grieve that grief can teach me nothing, nor carry me one step into real nature.”

Whether it’s flipping the switch for the Science experiment, or turning the driving wheel ever so slightly this way or that way on black-ice, it’s the 20-watts of energy that will experience the result. In some cases the car will swerve off the road, but in other cases the car will continue on its way to my sister’s dream house.

Christine had recently lost 100 pounds, and Ed had bought her a surprise pair of diamond earrings. It’s going to be hard to wait, but I know Christine is going to look fabulous in them the next time I see her.

http://www.robertlanzabiocentrism.com/does-death-exist/

## Einstein Wrong? NO.

These apparent contradictions are due to the assumption Light is the fastest particle known to us.

This assumption need not be correct.

I remember having read somewhere Einstein having said that if a particle were to travel faster than Light it no longer remains Matter.

An interesting observation.

The observable Universe/Light is possible when the Observer and the Observed remain in the same plane.

If the velocity of the Observed is greater than the Observer He can not observe it, but can only deduce it.

In that case it does not stand to verification by strict scientific standards.

It moves then to the Realm of Philosophy, the Mother of Sciences.

The present concept can be better understood if one were to accept the Cyclic Theory of Time,which allows for particles to exist at different planes,different velocities.

Findings of Quantum Theory supports this Concept..

Please read my blog, Time-non linear theory.

Another point.

What we perceive is conditioned by Perception.

The Concept of Perception is still not very clear.

Hence what we perceive is  limited by Space and Time.

None can form a thought with out reference to Space and Time.

And we are yet to define Space and Time correctly.!

So our knowledge is limited..

Any Theory we have of anything is of Utilititarian value only.

Our perception of the Universe does not change  the Universe and the frequent reversal of our theories of Physical Laws do not affect the Universe in the least .

However all Theories are correct from their Perspective, including Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and Finite Theory..

If a finding released Thursday by scientists in Geneva proves to be true, the world’s most famous equation – Albert Einstein‘sE=MC2 – could be moot, undoing our current understanding of the physical world.

Einstein revealed that equation in his special theory of relativityreleased in 1905. It asserted that energy equals mass times the speed of light squared, and helped shape our understanding of the physical world.

The scientists in Geneva fired a beam of neutrinos – elementary particles which don’t hold an electrical charge and pass through ordinary matter with virtually no interaction – from CERN‘S particle accelerator to a lab in Italy about 730 kilometers away.

The speed of light is 299,792.458 kilometers per second. The Geneva scientists found their sub-atomic particles traveled to Italy 60 nanoseconds faster than the speed of light – or 300,006 kilometers per second.

That appears to break the limit set by Einstein.

http://blogs.voanews.com/science-world/2011/09/23/was-einstein-wrong/

Related.

## Theoretical Basis for Special Relativity

Einstein’s theory of special relativity results from two statements — the two basic postulates of special relativity:

1. The speed of light is the same for all observers, no matter what their relative speeds.
2. The laws of physics are the same in any inertial (that is, non-accelerated) frame of reference. This means that the laws of physics observed by a hypothetical observer traveling with a relativistic particle must be the same as those observed by an observer who is stationary in the laboratory.

Given these two statements, Einstein showed how definitions of momentum and energy must be refined and how quantities such as length and time must change from one observer to another in order to get consistent results for physical quantities such as particle half-life.  To decide whether his postulates are a correct theory of nature, physicists test whether the predictions of Einstein’s theory match observations. Indeed many such tests have been made — and the answers Einstein gave are right every time!

### The Speed of Light is the same for all observers.

The first postulate — the speed of light will be seen to be the same relative to any observer, independent of the motion of the observer — is the crucial idea that led Einstein to formulate his theory. It means we can define a quantity c, the speed of light, which is a fundamental constant of nature.

Note that this is quite different from the motion of ordinary, massive objects. If I am driving down the freeway at 50 miles per hour relative to the road, a car traveling in the same direction at 55 mph has a speed of only 5 mph relative to me, while a car coming in the opposite direction at 55 mph approaches me at a rate of 105 mph. Their speed relative to me depends on my motion as well as on theirs.

### Physics is the same for all inertial observers.

This second postulate is really a basic though unspoken assumption in all of science — the idea that we can formulate rules of nature which do not depend on our particular observing situation. This does not mean that things behave in the same way on the earth and in space, e.g. an observer at the surface of the earth is affected by the earth’s gravity, but it does mean that the effect of a force on an object is the same independent of what causes the force and also of where the object is or what its speed is.

Einstein developed a theory of motion that could consistently contain both the same speed of light for any observer and the familiar addition of velocities described above for slow-moving objects. This is called the special theory of relativity, since it deals with the relativemotions of objects.

http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/relativity.html

## Theory of Relativity visualized.

Visuals of Theory of Relativity …