OM Earth’s Breath 7.83 Hz,Schumann Resonance

The sound OM (A,U,M) is the sacred chant of Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism.

OM.jpg OM

Sounds originate from three points in the Human Body.

From the Mouth,

Throat and


The alphabets of any and every Language must have these letters.

Schumann Resonance.In the Brain.jpg Schumann Resonance.In the Brain

These letters constitute the entire Universe by their vibrations.

The Universe Vibrates.

Universe is always in Motion.

Motion produces Vibration.

There is a controversy about Vibration and Sound.

Which precedes or causes the other?

Does sound cause Vibration or is it the other way around?

We can observe sound creating vibration and vibration causing sound.

Not all vibrations can cause observable sound.

These vibrations exist in the Universe and within ourselves.

The vibrations can be studied by Spectroscopy.

These vibrations have a direct effect on Electromagnetism.

Our Brain and our nervous system, as we all know, consist of Nerve cells.

Nerve Cells transmit messages to the Brain

Nerve Cells consist of Axon,Dendrites and Nuclei.

When we receive a message or a stimulation of our senses these sensations are carried to the brain by a chain of nerve cells,one transmitting to another.

But there is a microscopic gap between one Nerve( I have used this term so that people can understand-Axon and Dendrites terms are not used in the article.Those interested may read a chapter on Nervous system from any standard text-book for Class x/xii). and another.

This gap is called the Synaptic Gap.

Earlier it was believed that the messages from one nerve to another is being transmitted by a chemical in the Gap.

Now it is found that the messages pass through this gap electromagnetically.

That is your stimuli is converted into electro magnetic wave and is sent across and this is received by the Brain and it decodes and assigns the messages to their respective slots in the Brain.


Now any and everything in the Universe vibrates from the Atom to the Galaxies.

So when the is a stimuli there is electro magnetic activity.

Ultimately our brain decodes everything electro magnetically and it is converted into understandable message when they are processed and sent back.

These vibrations as understood  in the light of electromagnetism has thrown some interesting results.

As said earlier, every thing vibrates, including the Earth.

And Vibration causes resonance.

Earth moves, is in Motion and hence Vibrates.

So it ought to produce Electro Magnetic Waves.

Schumann Resonance.

‘The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low-frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth’s electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, generated and excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth’s surface and the ionosphere…

Lightning discharges are considered to be the primary natural source of Schumann resonance excitation; lightning channels behave like huge antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy at frequencies below about 100 kHz.These signals are very weak at large distances from the lightning source, but the Earth–ionosphere waveguidebehaves like a resonator at ELF frequencies and amplifies the spectral signals from lightning at the resonance frequencies.

In an ideal cavity, the resonant frequency of the n-th mode f_{n} is determined by the Earth radius a and the speed of light c.

f_{n} =\frac{c}{2 \pi a}\sqrt{n(n+1)}

The real Earth–ionosphere waveguide is not a perfect electromagnetic resonant cavity. Losses due to finite ionosphere electrical conductivity lower the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in the cavity, resulting in a resonance frequency that is lower than would be expected in an ideal case, and the observed peaks are wide. In addition, there are a number of horizontal asymmetries – day-night difference in the height of the ionosphere, latitudinal changes in the Earth’s magnetic field, sudden ionospheric disturbances, polar cap absorption, variation in the Earth radius of ± 11 km from equator to geographic poles, etc. that produce other effects in the Schumann resonance power spectra…

This global electromagnetic resonance phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. Schumann resonances occur because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a closed waveguide. The limited dimensions of the Earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The cavity is naturally excited by electric currents in lightning. Schumann resonances are the principal background in the electromagnetic spectrum beginning at 3 Hz and extending to 60 Hz, and appear as distinct peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.83 (fundamental),14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.

In the normal mode descriptions of Schumann resonances, the fundamental mode is a standing wave in the Earth–ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. This lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 7.83 Hz, but this frequency can vary slightly from a variety of factors, such as solar-induced perturbations to the ionosphere, which comprises the upper wall of the closed cavity.[citation needed] The higher resonance modes are spaced at approximately 6.5 Hz intervals

Schumann Resonance.

Studies indicate the chanting of OM produces the same frequency as that of Earth, 7.83 Hz.

Resonances of earth, ie, 7.83,  13.7, 19.6, 25.5, 31.4, 37.3 and 43.2 Hertz of earth. We all know 7.83 hz being the strongest of all, OM or Schumann frequency.

Ohm- 7.83Hz
Gam – 13.7Hz
Hleem – 19.6Hz
Hreem – 25.5Hz
Kleem – 31.4Hz
Krowm – 37.3Hz
Sreem – 43.2Hz

The Schumann Resonances are the result of cosmic energy build-up within the cavity that exists between Earth’s highly conductive surface and the conducting layer in the upper atmosphere called the ionosphere. the space between the surface of the earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a waveguide. The cavity is naturally excited by energy from lightning strikes. This ionospheric charge creates an electrical shield around the Earth.. The atmosphere is a dielectric insulator, which separates the two. Thus a spherical capacitor as well as a spherical resonator is created and maintained. Electrical signals of sufficient wavelength (low-frequency) are wave-guided around and around between this “sphere within a sphere” and is the base Schumann Resonance of 7.8Hz mainly traveling from West to East.

7.83 HZ or the ALPHA frequency  is the gateway that leads into deeper states of consciousness.

Most people are in an alpha state during the short time immediately before they fall asleep and when the conscious nervous system switches over to the subconscious.

Citation.Ajit Vadakayil . An Erudite Blog, suggest you read this.

The Vibration of OM is the Vibration Of Earth.

More to follow on this and Atomic Vibration.


Earth seen from Apollo .jpg

Shiva Thiruvannamalai At The Instant Of Earth’s Creation By Brahma

The Puranas speak of Time on a Huge scale.

There are four Yugas and they are created, destroyed and recreated.

According to Hinduism, destruction is a misnomer.

It is hidden.

Curious enough modern Quantum Physics calls it in a different way as projection of Multi Verses.

Aarati to Tirupati Balaji Moolavar.jpg

Aarati to Tirupati Balaji Moolavar.

I have written a couple of articles on Multi verses in Hinduism.

The Time scale of Sanatana Dharma has the following points.

  1. The Universe is created, hidden and re projected.
  2. This happens at three-time frames called  Manvantara, Kalpa and Yuga.
  3. Three kinds of cataclysms take place.One is water, Another by Fire and another is total darkness each of these correspond to the dissolution at the end of Manvantara, Kalpa and yuga.
  4. The Universe is eternal.
  5. Time is eternal.
  6. Time is non linear.
  7. Time is Cyclic.
Arunachala Mountaion, Pre historic.jpg

Arunachala Mountaion, Pre historic.

Brahma’s day is divided in one thousand cycles (Maha Yuga, or the Great Year). Maha Yuga, during which life, including the human race appears and then disappears, has 71 divisions, each made of 14 Manvantara (1000) years. Each Maha Yuga lasts for 4,320,000 years.

Manvantara is Manu’s cycle, the one who gives birth and governs the human race. before & after each manvantara there’s a sandhikal as long as krutyuga & in that time there is all water on earth.

Each Maha Yuga consists of a series of four shorter yugas, or ages.

The yugas get progressively worse from a moral point of view as one proceeds from one yuga to another. As a result, each yuga is of shorter duration than the age that preceded it.

The current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar (Year 6898 of the Holocene Era.) kalpa=ahoratra of brahma. Space and time are considered to be maya (illusion). What looks like 100 years in the cosmos of Brahma could be thousands of years in other worlds, millions of years in some other worlds and 311 trillion and 40 billion years for our solar system and earth. The life span of Lord Brahma, the creator, is 100 ‘Brahma-Years’.

One day in the life of Brahma is called a Kalpa or 4.32 billion years.Every Kalpa creates 14 Manus one after the other, who in turn manifest and regulate this world. Thus, there are fourteen generations of Manu in each Kalpa. Each Manu’s life (Manvantara) consists of 71 Chaturyugas (quartets of Yugas or eras). Each Chaturyugais composed of four eras or Yugas: Satya, Treta, Dwapara and Kali. if we add all manvantaras(4320000x71x14)as long as 4 chaturyuga will be missing its because sandhikaal.after & before each manvantara so 15 sandhikaal The span of the Satya Yuga is 1,728,000 human years, Treta Yuga is 1,296,000 human years long, the Dwapara Yuga 864,000 human years and the Kali Yuga432,000 human years.[8] When Manu perishes at the end of his life, Brahma creates the next Manu and the cycle continues until all fourteen Manus and the Universe perish by the end of Bramha’s day. When ‘night’ falls, Brahma goes to sleep for a period of 4.32 billion years, which is a period of time equal one day (of Brahma) and the lives of fourteen Manus. The next ‘morning’, Brahma creates fourteen additional Manus in sequence just as he has done on the previous ‘day’. The cycle goes on for 100 ‘divine years’ at the end of which Brahma perishes and is regenerated. Bramha’s entire life equals 311 trillion, 40 billion years. Thus a second of Brahmā is 98,630 years. Once Brahma dies there is an equal period of unmanifestation for 311 trillion, 40 billion years, until the next Bramha is created. During one life of Brahma there are 504 000 Manus (Vedic “Adams”) are changing, there are 5040 Manus are changing during one year of Brahma, and 420 Manus manifest during one month of Brahmā. (See: List of numbers in Hindu scriptures for more such numeric details).

During the course of my research into Sanatana Dharma I stumbled across these facts which are authenticated by Modern Science.

  1. Thiruvannamali in Tamil Nadu, India is over 3.5 Billion Years old.
  2. Shiva Uma Marraige took place 40 Millionyeas ago.
  3. Tirupati is over 2100 million years old.
  4. An ancient site is Chennai, Tamil Nadu is dated around a Million years
  5. Jwalapuram ,Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India is dated around 74,000 years

I wanted to look into this taking into account these points,The Age of Earth as stated by the Hindu Puranas and by Modern science.

Now according to Hindu Cosmology, the earth is .4.32 Billion years old.

The puranic view asserts that the universe is created, destroyed, and re-created in an eternally repetitive series of cycles. In Hindu cosmology, a universe endures for about 4,320,000,000 years (one day of Brahma, the creator or kalpa) and is then destroyed by fire or water elements. At this point, Brahma rests for one night, just as long as the day. This process, named pralaya (literallyespecial dissolution in Sanskrit, commonly translated as Cataclysm), repeats for 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Human Years) that represents Brahma’s lifespan. Brahma is regarded as a manifestation of Brahman as the creator.

Modern scientific view is that the earth is…4.54 Billion years + or – 5 Billion years!

The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years (4.54 × 109 years ± 1%). This age is based on evidence from radiometric age dating of meteorite material and is consistent with the radiometric ages of the oldest-known terrestrial and lunar samples.

Following the scientific revolution and the development of radiometric age dating, measurements of lead in uranium-rich mineralsshowed that some were in excess of a billion years old.The oldest such minerals analyzed to date—small crystals of zircon from the Jack Hills of Western Australia—are at least 4.404 billion years old. Comparing the mass and luminosity of the Sun to those of other stars, it appears that the Solar System cannot be much older than those rocks. Calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions  – the oldest known solid constituents within meteorites that are formed within the Solar System – are 4.567 billion years old, giving an age for the solar system and an upper limit for the age of Earth.

It is hypothesised that the accretion of Earth began soon after the formation of the calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions and themeteorites. Because the exact amount of time this accretion process took is not yet known, and the predictions from different accretion models range from a few millions up to about 100 million years, the exact age of Earth is difficult to determine. It is also difficult to determine the exact age of the oldest rocks on Earth, exposed at the surface, as they are aggregates of minerals of possibly different ages..

Now Thiruvannamalai,Tamil Nadu, India is 3.5 Billion years old!

In Puranic version of Brahma’s creation, the first creation for this kalpa was around 4.32 Billion Years.

In such great stretches of Time 5 to 10 billion years is allowed in calculation.

Hence it is probable Shiva was at Thiruvannamalai when Brahma created the world around 4.32 Billion Years ago!

I shall be exploring this data from other angles as well.








Why Moon Is Not Bathed In Earth-shine In Solar Eclipse?

A solar eclipse is a natural event that takes place on Earth when the Moon moves in its orbit between Earth and the Sun (this is also known as an occultation). It happens at New Moon, when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction with each other. If the Moon was only slightly closer to Earth, and orbited in the same plane and its orbit was circular, we would see eclipses each month. The lunar orbit is elliptical and tilted with respect to Earth’s orbit, so we can only see up to 5 eclipses per year. Depending on the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth, the Sun can be totally blocked, or it can be partially blocked.

Solar Eclipse.Image.jpg

Solar Eclipse.

Lunar Eclipse.

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its umbra (shadow). This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned (in “syzygy”) exactly, or very closely so, with the Earth in the middle. Hence, a lunar eclipse can only occur the night of a full moon. The type and length of an eclipse depend upon the Moon’s location relative to its orbital nodes.

On a full moon night you can very clearly see everything. Of course it is not as bright as the sunshine, but everything is very clearly visible. And if you were to view the earth from space on a full moon night it would not be dark. It would be illuminated by the moonshine and all the features of the earth would be clearly visible.

As there is ‘moonshine’ there must also be ‘earthshine’. Much of the earth is covered by water which is a good reflector of sunlight. In fact the scientists say ‘earthshine’ is much brighter than ‘moonshine’. And according to our understanding the earth is enormous in comparison to the size of the moon. So if the moonshine can completely illuminate this earth on a full moon night then the earthshine can completely illuminate the moon.

The ‘earthshine’ bombarding the moon at the time of a total solar eclipse would be at least ten times brighter than the moonshine on the earth on a full moon night.

If Western astronomers are correct the solar eclipse would be the prefect time to see the moon illuminated by earthshine. The shadow created which causes the solar eclipse on earth is, according to NASA, at most 167 miles wide. So if you were sitting on the moon during a solar eclipse you would see an extremely bright earth planet with a dark circle of only 167 miles wide. This is not enough to diminish the earthshine in any significant way. So  even though the sun is behind the moon, the full force of the sunshine is hitting the earth and reflecting off those shiny blue oceans and reflecting off the land also’

On checking up I found that earth shine is not much and hence not visible.

Science talks about Albedo and distances, but that does seem to me a lot of suppositions and wishful thinking.

Earthshine is a soft, faint glow on the shadowed part of the moon caused by the reflection of sunlight from the Earth.

Specifically, Earthshine happens when the light from the sun is reflected from the Earth’s surface, to the moon, and then back to our eyes. Because of this double reflection of light, Earthshine is many, many times dimmer than the direct light of the sun on the moon. Earthshine is even more faint because the moon’s “albedo” (a specific kind of reflectivity) is less than Earth’s. Even though this dim light is only a reflection it can still illuminate some features of the moon.

Earthshine can be best seen during the crescent phases (the 1-5 day period before or after a New Moon). During this time the sun is mostly behind the moon from our perspective and bathing the Earth in a lot of direct light that is reflected onto the shadowed parts of the moon.

Moons orbiting other planets can also experience this phenomenon, generally called “planetshine”

Albedo (/ælˈbd/), or reflection coefficient, derived from Latin albedo “whiteness” (or reflected sunlight) in turn from albus “white”, is thediffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface.

It is the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it. Its dimensionless nature lets it be expressed as a percentage and is measured on a scale from zero for no reflection of a perfectly black surface to 1 for perfect reflection of a white surface.

Albedo depends on the frequency of the radiation. When quoted unqualified, it usually refers to some appropriate average across the spectrum of visible light. In general, the albedo depends on the directional distribution of incident radiation, except for Lambertian surfaces, which scatter radiation in all directions according to a cosine function and therefore have an albedo that is independent of the incident distribution. In practice, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) may be required to accurately characterize the scattering properties of a surface, but albedo is very useful as a first approximation.

The albedo is an important concept in climatology, astronomy, and calculating reflectivity of surfaces in LEED sustainable-rating systems for buildings. The average overall albedo of Earth, its planetary albedo, is 30 to 35% because of cloud cover, but widely varies locally across the surface because of different geological and environmental features.[1]

The term was introduced into optics by Johann Heinrich Lambert in his 1760 work Photometria.

Will some one clarify in simple terms?

Or is this the same as what Science calls as Axioms, not to be questioned?





Hinduism, Science

How The First DNA Evolved Vedas, Research Result

Asking for the first cause in Science is akin to a serious sin

As Science, with its self-made rules, which takes only Perception as the tool of Knowledge ,always flounders  on this issue, Philosophy comes to its rescue.

Though Scientists may ridicule Intuition  in Public, they accept it in Private.

One may recall that many  discoveries in Science were because of a flash of inspiration, from Newton’s Laws of Motion, Clarks’ Table to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity all have been a result of a flash of Imagination.

This is called Intuition.

The Purusha Suktha expalins the evolution of Universe at the Universal Level.

The Reality is described , explaining the evolution of Seasons, Laws etc.

The Purusha Suktha is loaded with energy and the first two lines have produced electricity.

Please read my post on this.

As is a fact in Hinduism, what is in the Macrocosm and vice versa.

Research , applying this , along with the verses in the Rig and Yajur Vedas have delivered stunning results, including the origin of the DNA .

Every thing must have a cause even in Science.

When one tries to explain the First Cause, science fails.

It dictates that you should accept axioms which can not be proved!

But Indian Philosophy and Seers(Rishis) found out the Truth and First Cause, accepting Intuition as a source of Knowledge.

And Science to-day has validated most of the by the experimental method.

Structure of DNA.Image.jpg

Structure of DNA.

Now to the Study of DNA with the help of the Vedas.

The life on the earth has evolved from the fundamental energy Figure 1, the ;life is supported by the three important factors. The – ozone layer in the mid atmosphere, the water on the earth, the conversion of hydrogen into helium. Figure 4 the first life has originated in the water. The beginning of the photosynthesis with recombination of the genetic material has opened the door for the organic evolution on the earth. Figure 3,4

The life on the earth has evolved from fundamental energy under the laws of thermodynamics and genetic inheritance. The physical basis of life is cell. Figure 3. The life on the earth is supported by t he ozone O3 layer in the mid atmosphere, the source of energy is the conversion of hydrogen into helium H3 on the surface of the sun. The water molecule H2O = 3 is life resource.

The first-created: water consists of H2O, it has been expressed by three warm the Earth while holding water reservoir, and from their separation came the letter, and two of these convey the murmuring moisture is H+ & OH־ ions.  It expresses the phenomena of ionization Rig-Veda 10- 27-23 .

The DNA replication is regulated by the Triple bond of Hydrogen  H ≡ H Rig-Veda 1-163 1,2,3,4  Figure 7

Prof. C.P. Trivedi,  109,111, C-Block, Sagar Apt.
Former Senior Fellow, Department of Culture, Govt. of India, 17/1, Old   Palasia, Indore 452001, Ph.0731-2544436                    

Decipherment of Indus Valley Vedic Seals in Modern Science 


The Indus Valley Civilization was scientifically developed. It has generated a quest to know their source of scientific development. It has been observed that the excavated seals and the tablets are the hoofs of their traces. The Vedic metaphors have been engraved on the seals. The symbols have vast ocean of knowledge in background. They explore the reactions at molecular level. Its literary evidences can be traced in the Vedic hymns, where a picture of well developed society has been explored Rig-Veda 1-164. With this knowledge the cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-daro can be developed. The symbols narrates the origin and evolution of the creation from the fundamental energy Rig-Veda 10-90, Bell’s theorem 1972 Clauser, Freedman, David Boehm, and Alain Aspect1985

Material and Method

  1. Max Müller, who has the credit to introduce Vedas in the world, with his logical approach,  “What can be more tedious than the Veda, and yet what can be more interesting, if once we know that it is the first word spoken by the Aryan man?” It has been expressed that the Vedas represent first word spoken by the civilized man on the on the earth.

Nature April 2006  the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e., in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh.

The Vedas are the book of Science, The Vedic language is a symbolic language, where words are only the indicator of the phenomena, having vast ocean of knowledge in the background. If one knows the related phenomena than only he can give the answers related with the symbols. The Vedic seers were the head of the contemporary Institutes of education, the metaphors and the riddles reflect their examination system. To get the answer from the students the pictographs have been engraved on the seals.

Vedic Science viz – a – viz Modern Science

The building block of the Creation is Atom and the building block of the living-beings is DNA De oxy ribose Nucleic Acid Rig-Veda 4-58. The Creation has evolved from the single unified force- fundamental energy under the laws of thermodynamics Rig-Veda 10-90.

The first life has generated in water Rig-Veda 1-163-1.

The living-beings have evolved from the DNA with genetic recombination and the Mendel’s laws of inheritance. The life on the earth is supported by the ozone layer O 3.   The conversion of the hydrogen into Helium H 3 on the surface of the sun, and the water molecules H 2 O.

The triple bond of Hydrogen H Ξ H  has the key for the genetic recombination of the DNA Rig-Veda 1-163- 2,3,4.

The creation has evolved from the fundamental energy with energy transformation. The laws of thermodynamics have been expressed by the three faces of the symbolic Man showing origin.

The horned hood express the synthesis of DNA from the atoms and molecules. They have synthesized the cell and the genomic chromosome. The surrounding animals have been evolved from the single cell with genetic recombination and crossing over.

The U shape structure is the symbol for the genomic chromosome and the fish like structure is a symbol for the cell.

It has been expressed that the life has originated on the earth with synthesis of a cell, it has been expressed by a fish like structure the dot in the centre represent nucleus in the cell. The leaves on the head is a symbol for the photosynthesis,  The genetic recombination with crossing over have given the ways for evolution.

The horned hood expresses the four horned buffalo emitted  Rig-Veda 4-58-1,2,3

The leaves on the head expresses the source of food on the earth is photosynthesis Rig-Veda 1-164-7″

The button seal symbol 

Symbols of early Life.Rig Veda.Image.jpg

Symbols of early Life.Rig Veda

, the button seal indicate origin of the biotic and a-biotic components of the nature from theatmospheric ocean in two different directions. The hollowstructure in the centre is symbolic atmospheric ocean andthe bifurcation of the hollow structure into two differentdirections indicates the evolution of the biotic and a-bioticcomponents in two different directions.
Atharvaveda 13-1-52
2 The hollow space
 – it is the qualm and quiet pre-
cosmic condition of the fundamental energy, when there wasnothing in existence only deep darkness was there. Therewas only one force, which began to disintegrate from infiniteto finite with its back ground in the infinite cosmos Rig-Veda10-129 1, 2, 3.
Rig-Veda 10-129- 2 “

“The kine extract milk from his head; clothing themselves in a wrap, they drunk water with the foot Rig-Veda 1-164-7

The seven figures at the base expresses the phenotypes and genotypes.

It has been expressed that the creation came into the existence with formation of the atmospheric layers of the earth Atharvaveda 14-1-5

Guarded by covering-arrangements, defended by watchmen (?? b ā rhata), O Soma, thou standest hearing the pressing-stones; no earthly one partakes of thee Atharvaveda 14-1-5



Astrophysics, Hinduism

Universe Size 13.7 Billion Light Years Surya Siddhanta Science Agrees

When one talks of Distances in Space one is struck by the sheer magnitude of it.

The distances involved are so huge that the Speed of Light is taken as the base.

Even this is not sufficient to comprehend and measure large numbers involved.

Hence the concept of AU, Astronomical Unit.

Observable Universe.Image.png

Observable Universe.

One AU equals the distance traveled by Light in a Year.

That is 149 597 871 Kilometers.

Definition: An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. In 2012, the International Astronomical Union defined the distance to be 149,597,870,700 meters.(http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/glossary/au.html)

Astronomers have measured the age of the universe to be approximately 13.8 billion years old. Because of the connection between distance and thespeed of light, this means they can look at a region of space that lies 13.8 billion light-years away. Like a ship in the empty ocean, astronomers on Earth can turn their telescopes to peer 13.8 billion light-years in every direction, which puts *Earth inside of an observable sphere with a radius of 13.8 billion light-years. The word “observable” is key; the sphere limits what scientists can see but not what is there.

But though the sphere appears almost 28 billion light-years in diameter, it is far larger. Scientists know that the universe is expanding. Thus, while scientists might see a spot that lay 13.8 billion light-years from Earth at the time of the Big Bang, the universe has continued to expand over its lifetime. Today, that same spot is 46 billion light-years away, making the diameter of the observable universe a sphere around 92 billion light-years

What Surya Siddhnata Siddhantha says.

Saurapakshiya Suryasiddhanta speaks of a mahayuga of 4320000 years, so do the Puranas.

There are 14 universes (Bhuvanas) according to Vedic-Puranic tradition, and our material (physical) Universe is at the middle level. We can see 7 universes at a time in any one direction, but not all 14 simultaneously. *According to Suryasiddhanta 1955885109 years have elapsed (in 2009 AD) since the beginning of Creation. When we see seven universes arranged one after another, we see into (1955885109 * 7 =) 13691 million years of TIME, and into 13691 million light-years of SPACE. Currently, scientists believe the extent of Universe to be of 13.7 billion light years.


Divide 13.7 billion years with 10^42 (10 raised to the power 42, or 42 zeroes after 1).

13.7 billion years = (13,691,195,763 years) * (31558149.61 seconds per year) = 4.320688 * {10^17} seconds

This is the largest QUANTUM of TIME.”

Modern Astronomy confirms this.

* One has to know that Speed and distance are interchangeable while talking of large distance numbers in Space.