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China Urals Mongolia Arctic Aurora Borealis Sugreeva Geography

In Hinduism on February 19, 2015 at 08:41

Accurate geographical reference was provided by Sugreeva to his Vanara Army for the Search of Sita.

Here  I present from the Valmiki Ramayana, the places described by Sugreeva as lying in the North of Kailash and modern Names of these places.

Northern Lights.jpg

Aurora Borealis

I shall post on details of the search for Sita in other directions.

tatra mlecChaan pulindaan ca shuurasenaan tathaiva ca |
prasthaalaan bharataan caiva kuruum ca saha madrakaiH || || 4-43-11
kaa.mboja yavanaan caiva shakaan pattanaani ca |
anviikshya daradaan caiva himavantam vicinvatha || 4-43-12

11, 12. tatra= there – in north; mlecChaan pulindaan ca= Mleccha-s, Pulinda-s – provinces of; tathaiva= like that; shuurasenaan ca= Shurashena, also; prasthaalaan bharataan caiva= Prasthala, Bharata, also, thus; madrakaiH saha = Madraka, along with; kuruum ca= Kuru, also; kaamboja yavanaan caiva= Kaambhoja, Yavana [countries,] also, thus; shakaan pattanaani ca= of Shaka, cities, also; daradaan caiva= Darada, also, thus; anviikshya= on scrutinizing; himavantam vicinvatha= at Himavanta [Himalayas,] search out.

“There in the north, the provinces of Mleccha-s, Pulinda-s, that way Shurashena – Prasthala – Bharata – Kuru – Madraka – Kaambhoja – Yavana shall be scrutinized along with the cities of Shaka and Darada, and then search in Himalayas. [4-43-11,12]

NWFP of Pakistan Now.

tataH soma aashramam gatvaa deva gandharva sevitam |
kaalam naama mahaasaanum parvatam tam gamiSyatha || 4-43-14

14. tataH= then; deva gandharva sevitam= gods, gandharva-s, adored by; soma aashramam gatvaa= to Soma, hermitage, on going; mahaa saanum= great, peaked; kaalam naama= Kala, named; tam parvatam gamiSyatha= to that, mountain, you go.

“You to Soma hermitage, which is adored by the gods and gandharva-s, and then you go to that great-peaked mountain named Mt. Kala. [4-43-14]

ishaalaa nalinii yatra prabhuuta kamalotpalaa |
ha.msa kaaraNDava aakiirNaa apsaro gaNa sevitaa || 4-43-22

22. yatra= where; prabhuuta kamala utpalaa= replete with, lotuses, costuses; hamsa kaaraNDava aakiirNaa= swans, partridges, overrun by; apsaraH gaNa sevitaa= apsara, throngs, adored by; vishaalaa nalinii= expansive, lotus-lake; is there that is the place of Kubera.

“Where an expansive lake is there, which is replete with lotuses and costuses, overrun by swans and partridges, and adored by throngs of apsara-s, that is the place of Kubera, Deity for Wealth-Management. [4-43-22]

From 6498 till 5122 years ago to the Earth has landed Varyag by name Kubera (Cubera) from sort of Cub. Varyags or space navigators were children of the Supreme God – Father, Russian people considering. On Russian like surname of Kubera sounds as Kubarev. It was the first Russian navigator on open spaces of the third planet of the Solar system populated in those days with wild animals and humanoids. Savages had no soul and any civilization, not able to speak, write, build dwelling and to process the ground. As against local population the forefather was high growth – 190 cm, the European appearance, with a white leather and eyes of it were surprising green, emerald color.

Kubera has examined the Earth and has chosen for the beginning the expansion some tribes of humanoids in Mediterranean, including Africa, Europe and Asia, having studied their habits and bents. Among savage it has selected seven most sexual female which could though somehow to draw his man’s attention. Then it has transferred seven foremothers on open spaces of the Volga region where there were the idealist in representation Kubera of a condition for creation of a human tribe. Central Russian upland and the Volga region represent territory which could not undergo to destructive influences of natural cataclysms and possible consequences of thawing of polar ice and flooding during the huge period of time.

krauncam tu girim aasaadya bilam tasya sudurgamam |
apramattaiH praveSTavyam duSpravesham hi tat smR^itam || 4-43-25

25. krauncam tu girim aasaadya= Kraunca, but, mountain, on reaching [thereafter]; su dur gamam= highly, not, passable one; tasya bilam = its, tunnel; a + pramattaiH= without, incautiously [cautiously]; praveSTavyam= is to be entered; tat= that – tunnel; duS pravesham = un, enterable; smR^itam hi= known to be, indeed – they say.

“Thereafter on reaching Mt. Kraunca you shall cautiously enter into a highly impassable tunnel of that mountain to search Seetha. That tunnel, they say, is an un-enterable one. [4-43-25]

Kumara or Skanda, the son of Shiva-Parvati-Ganga made this bore by using His shakti prayoga ‘Divine power.’ This is his birthplace, and the legend of His birth and growth are detailed in Bala Kanda.

Krauncha Parvatah in China..jpg

Krauncha Parvatah in China.

Like Shiva is said  to have brought down the Ganges on to earth (plains of India) from the  heavens (Himalayas), his son or his ‘junior’ Skanda is credited with having chiseled a tunnel through Mt. Krauncha.

One of the best known ancient tunnels in China is the Guolinag Tunnel in the Taihang Mountains. Up until 1972 only an ancient path chiseled through the rocks of this mountain linked the villages in the area to the outside world.


Here are a couple of images of the ancient path of Guolinag, which was improved in 1972, not by the government, but once again by the locals. It took them five years to complete the task.

avR^ikSam kaama shailam ca maanasam vihaga aalayam |
na gatiH tatra bhuutaanaam devaanaam na ca rakSasaam || 4-43-28

28. a +vR^ikSam= without, trees; vihaga aalayam= birds, abode; maanasam= Mt. Maanasa; kaama shailam ca= Kaama, mountain, also; are to be searched; tatra= there; bhuutaanaam gatiH na = for beings, inlet, no; devaanaam ca rakSasaam= for gods, even, for demons; [gatiH= inlet]; na = no.

“The treeless Mt. Kaama and the abode of birds Mt. Maanasa are also to be searched, and there is no inlet for any being, let alone gods or demons. [4-43-28]

These mountains Maanasa and Kaama are said differently in other translations, like ‘the wish-endower Kaama and the bird-less Maanasa Mountains.’ That is to say, ‘even birds cannot enter there then where is the question of entry to other beings…’ If that place is un-enterable even for birds or gods how these few monkeys can enter, is the question that ensues. Sugreeva gives the answer to Rama at the start of this exodus of monkeys, saying that these monkeys can do any undoable task, which is peculiar to these genera.

China Krauncha Mountain.gif

China Krauncha Mountain.Map

The Krauncha of Ramayana could be one of the peaks in the Taihang Range which indicates that the ancient tunnel in there may be the one mentioned in Ramayana. 

The path that Valmiki chalks out is clear. From Kailash (in the Himalayas) to Krauncha (in the Taihang Range), he says there are many other mountain peaks – namely the ‘treeless’ Mt. Kaama and the ‘abode of birds’,Mt. Maanasa, – that the ‘vanaras’ will see. Sugreev instructs them to scour these mountains thoroughly for Sita. These are  the mountains of the Qinling Range which falls between the Himalayas and the Taihang Mountains as the ‘vanaras’ move in the north-east direction from Kailash. (See Map below). The two highest peaks, and therefore most visible, in this chain are the Tuanjie and the Taibai. It is possible that the Ramayana was referring to these two (Kaama and Maanasa)

sa ca sarvaiH vicetavyaH sa saanu prastha bhuudharaH |
krauncam girim atikramya mainaako naama parvataH || 4-43-29

29. sa saanu prastha bhuu dharaH= with, mountainsides, grades, fringe, mountains; saH= that Kraunca mountain; sarvaiH vicetavyaH= by you all, is to be searched; krauncam girim atikramya= from Kraunca, mountain, moving away; mainaakaH naama parvataH= Mainaaka, named, mountain – is there.

“You all have to search Mt. Kraunca inclusive of its mountainsides, grades, and its fringe mountains, and on moving away from that Mt. Kraunca, a mountain named Mainaaka is there. [4-43-29]

This Mainaaka is different from the one that wanted to give hospitality to Hanuma during his flight across ocean in Sundara Kanda.

Then Sugreev mentions another peak called Mt. Mainaaka, which is identified by ‘a massive mansion built by demon architect by the name Maya’. Just as the ‘Ram-Setu’ of Ramayana (also called Adam’s Bridge) lies exactly in the spot mentioned in the Ramayana, and the Gympie Pyramid of Queensland (Australia) referred in Ramayana as ‘a peak like structure built by the celestial architect Vishwakarma’, the ‘Mansion of Maya’ may also be another pre-historical megalithic structure built by unknown ‘celestials’, this time in China.

tat saaraH samatikramya naSTa candra divaakaram |
anakSatra gaNam vyoma niSpayodam anaaaditam || 4-43-35

35b, c. tat saaraH samatikramya= that, lake, on passing over; naSTa candra divaakaram= devoid of, moon, sun; a+ nakSatra gaNam= without, star, clusters; niS payodam= without, clouds; a+ naaaditam= less of, noise [noiseless]; vyoma= sky – is there.

“Passing that lake there will be just sky which will be devoid of moon, or sun, or the clusters of stars, and it will be cloudless and noiseless. [4-43-35b, c]

Valmiki equates the light of ‘Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis‘ to the ‘light that emits from sages who have attained ‘siddhi‘.

In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the aurora borealis (or the northern lights), named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for the north wind, Boreas, by Galileo in 1619.

Auroras are associated with the solar wind, a flow of ions continuously flowing outward from the Sun. The Earth’s magnetic field traps these particles, many of which travel toward the poles where they are accelerated toward Earth. Collisions between these ions and atmospheric atoms and molecules cause energy releases in the form of auroras appearing in large circles around the poles. Auroras are more frequent and brighter during the intense phase of the solar cycle when coronal mass ejections increase the intensity of the solar wind.Auroras result from emissions of photons in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, above 80 km (50 mi), from ionized nitrogen molecules regaining an electron, and oxygen atoms and nitrogen molecules returning from an excited state to ground state.

The last landmark mentioned in Uttara-Kuru is Mt. Soma, which has to be one of the peaks of the Urals.The highest peak in the Urals is the ‘Narodnaya‘ – which in the local language means ‘Mountain of the People‘. In Sanskrit too the word has the same meaning ‘nara‘ means ‘people‘ and ‘udaya‘ means ‘elevation‘..

Narodnaya is the Mountain of Narada.

Please read my post on this.

Citation.

Valmiki Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda

Vedic Cafe

Kubarev 

Indian Tribes In China, Iran Central Asia, Greece

In Hinduism on January 27, 2015 at 10:55

There had been migrations in the world continuously.

The Migration of people into Europe in waves coincides(?) with the Tsunami in Bharatvarsha, as India was then called.

Contrary to what European writers say, the migration to Europe was from India.

If one cares to check the migration dates of various countries and races  in Europe, it will be noticed that it corresponds to the Great Floods that  devoured lands in India.

To get an idea of the ancient tribes of India, I have looked into the Mahabharata, Ramayana and he oldest literature of the World, the Vedas.

Geography during Rig Veda Period.jpg

Geography during Rig Veda Period.”Rigvedic geography” by Dbachmann. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rigvedic_geography.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Rigvedic_geography.jpg

Khambojas,(Iran Tribe)

Tusharas,(Northwest province of Pakistan)

Shakas,(Khambojas of Iran)

Hunas,(Germanic Tribe)

Paradas,( Tribes of Sailoda River in the Xinjiang province of China)

Pahalvas,(Iran)

Yavana,(Greeks)

Daradas,Lohas, Rishikas( Kushanas or Kanishkas )

ParamaKambojas

Uttara Kurus of trans-Himalyan regions.

Lambakas.(Tribes of Manipur)

Gandharis are Gandharas, the Bahlikas are Bactrians, Mujavat (land of Soma) refer to Hindukush–Pamirs (the Kamboja region).

 

Archeological Evidence.

The archaeological excavations in the Amu valley in Southern Uzbekistan, in Afrasiab on north-eastern edge of Samarkand and some other places in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan,Kazakhstan and Tak-mak in Kirghizstan add further evidence of the existence of links between ancient India and Central Asia since remote antiquity.

Further, extensive excavations have been carried out with remarkable results at Kara Tepa, Fayaz Tepa, Dalverzin Tepa, Yer Kurgan, Ak-Beshin, Kranayerezka and Isyk-Ata. The discovery of manuscripts in Xinjiang (China) and many other valuable excavational finds substantively establish that India and eastern Central Asian region of Xinjiang were also in extensive political, cultural and religious intercourse with each other.

Dynasties of India came from Central Asia as invaders and dynasties of Indian origin also ruled in Khotan and other places in Central Asia.

The Shakas were formerly the inhabitants of trans-Hemodos region—the Shakadvipa of the Puranas or the Scythia of the classical writings. Later evidence attests them in Drangiana i.e. Shakasthana (modern Seistan) located south of Herat. 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as well as 2nd century CE Ptolemy evidence also attest Indo-Scythia situated in lower Indus in western India.

The Paradas, the former inhabitants of Oxus and Sailoda (eastern Xinjiang), are noted by Ptolemy as Paradane and are attested to be living in western India in Sindhu or Gedrosia, during 2nd century CE.

The Kambojas and Pahlavas are known to have their original settlements in the east Iranian regions in Central Asia. Some allege the existence some of their settlements in post-Christian times in South-west/Southern India also.[8]

The Rishikas are formerly attested as living in Sakadvipa as neighbors to the Parama-Kambojas of Transoxiana region.[9] But later evidence also locates their section as neighbors to Ashmakas and Vidarbhas in south-west India. This Rishika settlement was located between Godavari and Tapti rivers, east of Nasika, north of Mulaka and west of Vidarbha.

Citation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Asians_in_Ancient_Indian_literature

*list of Rige Vedic Tribes Follows.

Panda Fakes Pregnancy For Better Food Care

In Interesting and funny on August 27, 2014 at 19:06

Often, the joke in tamil Brahmin Brahmin households is that if a woman does not want to attend a religious function like Seemantham, Ayush Homam,Poojas,Sraddha, the excuse is that she is ‘not at Home ‘meaning she is menstruating.

In Hinduism, one is prohibited from attending religious function if one has periods.

Now a Giant Panda in China has resorted to the trick of faking pregnancy to get better food and care!

Pnada faking pregnancy.jpg

Ai Hin had been ‘under observation’ for two months and was scheduled for worlds’ first panda live birth.Ne

 

The world’s first live broadcast of a panda birth has been called off after experts said the “mother” involved may have been faking the pregnancy to receive better treatment.

“Phantom pregnancies” are common among giant pandas – but keepers at her breeding centre in Sichuan province believe six-year-old Ai Hin could be exhibiting learned behaviour that marks her out as smarter than the average bear.

The giant panda started showing signs of pregnancy including reduced appetite and mobility in July, at which point she was chosen to star in a heavily-publicised first ever live birth.

But after two months of observation, experts have told state news agency Xinhua that Ai Hin’s behaviour and physiological tests returned to normal.

Wu Kongju, an expert at the Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Research Centre where Ai Hin is kept, explained that not all “fake” pregnancies among the animals are just down to hormonal changes.

“After showing prenatal signs, the ‘mothers-to-be’ are moved into single rooms with air conditioning and around-the-clock care,” Wu told Xinhua.

“They also receive more buns, fruits and bamboo, so some clever pandas have used this to their advantage to improve their quality of life.”

 

Citation, News, Image.

 

http://www.reddit.com/tb/2epvoa

Human Organ Human Trafficking Price Profits

In Health on July 9, 2014 at 11:58

It is only when, under unfortunate circumstances, one needs an Organ for saving a Life, does one come to know of the scarcity of Organs available for Transplantation and the huge costs involved even in the Legal Market.

 

What many of us do not know is the illegal market in Organ Transplantation.

 

Sale of Body Parts,India.jpg

Sale of Body Parts,India.

 

Here are some facts.

 

Illegal Organ Trade Market:$0.075 Billion ($75 Million)

 

Price of Humans

 

 

Illegal Market for Human Organs,India.

 

Patients, many of whom will go toChinaIndia or Pakistan for surgery, can pay up to $200,000 (nearly £128,000) for a kidney to gangs who harvest organs from vulnerable, desperate people, sometimes for as little as $5,000.

The vast sums to be made by both traffickers and surgeons have been underlined by the arrest by Israeli police last week of 10 people, including a doctor, suspected of belonging to an international organ trafficking ring and of committing extortion, tax fraud and grievous bodily harm. Other illicit organ trafficking rings have been uncovered in India and Pakistan.

The Guardian contacted an organ broker in China who advertised his services under the slogan, “Donate a kidney, buy the new iPad!” He offered £2,500 for a kidney and said the operation could be performed within 10 days.

 

THE TRANSPLANTATION OF HUMAN ORGANS ACT, 1994 ,India
ACT NO. 42 OF 1994
[8th July, 1994.]

An Act to provide for the regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for the prevention of commercial dealings in human organs and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. WHEREAS it is expedient to provide for the regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for the prevention of commercial dealings in human organs; AND WHEREAS in Parliament has no power to make laws for the States with respect to any of the matters aforesaid except as provided in articles 249 and 250 of the Constitution;
AND WHEREAS in pursuance of clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution, resolutions have been passed by all the Houses of the Legislatures of the States of Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra to the effect that the matters aforesaid should be regulated in those States by Parliament by law; 2 BE it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:- CHAP PRELIMINARY CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY
Short title, application and commencement.
1.Short title, application and commencement.- (1) This Act may be called the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994.
(2) It applies, in the first instance, to the whole of the States of Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra and to all the Union territories and it shall also apply to such other State which adopts
this Act by resolution passed in that behalf under clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution.
(3) It shall come into force in the States of Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra and in all the Union territories on such date as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint and in any
other State which adopts this Act under clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution, on the date of such adoption; and any reference in this Act to the commencement of this Act shall, in relation to any State or Union territory, means the date on which this Act comes into force in such State or Union territory.
Definition. 2. Definition.- In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,- (a) “advertisement” includes any form of advertising whether to the public generally or to any section of the public or, individually to selected persons; (b) “Appropriate Authority” means the Appropriate Authority appointed under section 13; (c) “Authorisation Committee” means the committee consti-
tuted under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (4) of section 9; (d) “brain-stem death” means the stage at which all functions of the brain-stem have permanently and irreversibly
ceased and is so certified under sub-section (6) of section 3; (e) “deceased person” means a person in whom permanent dis- appearance of all evidence of life occurs, by reason of brain-stem death or in a cardiopulmonary sense, at any time after live birth has taken place; (f) “donor” means any person, not less than eighteen years of age, who voluntarily authorises, the removal of any of his
human organs for therapeutic purposes under sub-section (1)
or subsection (2) of section 3; (g) “hospital” includes a nursing home, clinic, medical centre, medical or teaching institution for therapeutic purposes and other like institution; (h) “human organ” means any part of a human body consisting of a structured arrangement of tissues which, if wholly re- moved, cannot be replicated by the body; (i) “near relative” means spouse, son, daughter, father, mother, brother or sister; 3 (j) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette; (k) “payment” means payment in money or money’s worth but does not include any payment for defraying or reimbursing; (i) the hcost of removing, transporting or preserving the human organ to be supplied; or (ii) any expenses or loss of earnings incurred by a person so far as reasonably and directly attributable to his supplying any human organ from his body; (l) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; (m) “recipient” means a person into whom any human organ is, or is proposed to be, transplanted; (n) “registered medical practitioner” means a medical practitioner who possesses any recognised medical qualification as defined in clause (h) of section 2 of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, and who is enrolled on a State Medical Register as defined in clause (k) of that section; (o) “therapeutic purposes” means systematic treatment of any disease or the measures to improve health according to any particular method or modality; and (p) “transplantation” means the grafting of any human organ from any living person or deceased person to some other living person for therapeutic purposes.
CHAP AUTHORITY FOR THE REMOVAL OF HUMAN ORGANS CHAPTER II AUTHORITY FOR THE REMOVAL OF HUMAN ORGANS
Authority for removal of human organs.
3. Authority for removal of human organs.- (1) Any donor may, in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, authorise the removal, before his death, of any human organ of his body for therapeutic purposes.
(2) If any donor had, in writing and in the presence of two or more witnesses (at least one of whom is a near relative of such person), unequivocally authorised at any time before his death, the removal of any human organ of his body, after his death, for therapeutic purposes, the person lawfully in possession of the dead body of the donor shall, unless he has any reason to believe that the donor had subsequently revoked the authority aforesaid, grant to a registered medical practitioner all reasonable facilities for the removal, for therapeutic purposes, of that human organ from the dead body of the donor.
(3) Where no such authority as is referred to in sub-section….”

 

Citation.

 

http://giftalife.org/organ-donation-and-the-law

http://www.havocscope.com/tag/organ-trafficking/

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/may/27/kidney-trade-illegal-operations-who

 

Chandra Gupta Megasthanes Never Met History Faked

In Hinduism, History on July 4, 2014 at 09:08

How does one start a Nation’s History?

 

Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta, 335–380 CE.image.

Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta, 335–380 CE

 

What does one base it on?

 

Common sense would tell you to refer to the legends,literature of the Nation, check with contemporary event,s then cross check it with references , if any, if these literature is contemporary or slightly later.

 

Can you imagine a Nation,s History being started solely on the basis of a Character, who has not even met the man he is quoted to have met!

 

Well, this is what has happened to Indian History.

 

Of Chandra Gupta Maurya.

 

The man whose testimony is relied upon is Megasthanes.

 

Megasthanes included, interpolated  Greek Gods and Goddesses( read my post on how History invented Greek Gods).

 

These were later based upon along with the other names in Greek , presumably Indian, was linked to Chandra Gupta.

 

  1. Megasthenes has nowhere mentioned the word Maurya
  2. He makes absolutely no mention of a person called either Chanakya or Kautilya.
  3. Indian historians have recorded two Chandra guptas, one of the Maurya dynasty and another of the Gupta dynasty. Both of them had a grandson called Ashoka. While the Mauryan Chandragupta’ s son was called Bimbasara (sometimes Bindusara), The Gupta Chandragupta had a son called Samudragupta. Interestingly Megasthenese has written that Sandrakuttos had a son called Samdrakyptos, which is phonetically nearer to Samudragupta and not Bindusara.
  4. The king lists given by the Puranas say that 1500 years elapsed from the time of the Kurukshetra war to the beginning of the Nanda dynasty’s rule. If one assumes the Nandas’ period to be 5th century BCE, this would put the Bharatha war around 1900 BCE whereas the traditional view has always been 3100 BCE. This gives a difference of 1200 years which go unaccounted.
  5. Megasthanese himself says 137 generations of kings have come and gone between Krishna and Sandrakuttos, whereas the puranas give around 83 generations only between Jarasandha’s son (Krishna’s contemporary) to the Nandas of the Magadha kingdom.. Assuming an average of 20 to 25 years per generation, the difference of 54 generations would account for the gap of the 1200 years till the time of Alexander.

  1. The Chinese have always maintained that Buddhism came to China from India around 1100 -1200 BCE, whereas the western historians tend to put Buddha at 500 BCE
  2. According to the Greek accounts, Xandrammes was deposed by Sandrokottas and Sandrocyptus was the son of Sandrokottas. In the case of Chandragupta Maurya, he had opposed Dhanananda of the Nanda dynasty and the name of his son was Bindusara. Both these names, Dhanananda and Bindusara, have no phonetic similarity with the names Xandrammes and Sandrocyptus of the Greek accounts.

 

  1. Asoka’s empire was bigger than that of Chandragupta Maurya and he had sent missionaries to the so-called Yavana countries. But both of them are not mentioned. Colebrook has pointed out that the Greek writers did not say anything about the Buddhist Bhikkus though that was the flourishing religion of that time with the royal patronage of Asoka. Roychaudhari also wonders why the Greek accounts are silent on Buddhism.
  1. The empire of Chandragupta was known as Magadha empire. It had a long history even at the time of Chandragupta Maurya. In Indian literature, this powerful empire is amply described by this name but it is absent in the Greek accounts. It is difficult to understand as to why Megasthanese did not use this name and instead used the word Prassi which has no equivalent or counterpart in Indian accounts.
  1. To decide as to whether Pataliputra was the capital of the Mauryas, Puranas is the only source. Puranas inform us that all the eight dynasties that ruled Magadha after the Mahabharata War had Girivraja as their capital. Mauryas are listed as one of the eight dynasties. The name Pataliputra is not even hinted at, anywhere in the Puranas.

In the Greek accounts, Sandrokottas of Palimbothra is described as a contemporary of Alexander of Macedonia who invaded India during 327 BC to 323 BC This decides the approximate date of Chandragupta Maurya. Princep’s research decides the approximate date of Asoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya as in 3rd century BC Both these dates were adjusted with the reign periods of the three successive Magadha kings, Chandragupta, Bindusara and Asoka of the Maurya dynasty given in the Puranas. Thus, the date c. 320 BC was fixed as the date of coronation of Chandragupta Maurya. It is on this date that every other date of Indian history has been constructed.

Max Mueller, in 1859 AD, finalized this identity of Sandrokottas with Chandragupta Maurya and declared c. 320 BC, the date of coronation of Chandragupta Maurya as the Sheet Anchor of Indian history. M. Troyer did not agree with this conclusion and noted this fact in the introduction to his translation of Rajatarangani of Kalhana. He even communicated his views to Prof. Max Mueller in a letter but did not receive a reply from him.

 

Historian V. A. Smith took the chronological identity asserted by the predecessors in this historical hierarchy as the basis for further calculation of the exact dates of the different dynasties that ruled over Magadha after and before the Mauryas. He took the aid of numismatics in addition to epigraphy. He could not however get over, as if by compunction, to follow the Puranas in the enumeration of the kings and their dynasties. But he reduced their reign periods. The total reduction done by these British scholars, from Jones to Smith, comes to 1300 years according to some Indian chronologists.

 

Citation.

http://controversialhistory.blogspot.in/2009/07/did-megasthenes-meet-chandragupta.html#.U7Yec1WSz3S

 

The site mentioned contains great articles.

 

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