Hinduism

Chinese Descendants Of Mahabharata King Pururava?


The origin of Chinese and Japanese are a mystery.

While there are claims that the Japanese descended from the Chinese there is yet to be a conclusion.

One does not find much beyond Buddhism in China , thanks to their self censorship.

However , there are materials available to indicate that Hinduism was in existence in China before the advent of Buddhism.

Chinese worship Hindu Gods.Image.jpg

Chinese worship Hindu Gods.

Please read my post on this.

Now there are references in the Mahabharata that the Chinese  fought on the side of the Kauravas in the Epic Battle of Mahabharata, they, being the friends of Bhagadutta, who was close to Duryodhana.

Vagadatta of Pragyotispur joined the Kurus and we find that the Chinese people sided with Vagadatta, the king of Pragyotispur. It is also found that Vagadatta was present in Yudhisthiras court with many Kirat, Chin, and other soldiers.

However, during the Rajasuya Yaga of Yudhishtra,Bhagadutta agreed to Arjuna to pay Homage to Yudhistra and be his ally.

It is also stated that the Chinese were the descendants of the son of Pururavas,Ayu.

There is a reference in the Chinese tradition that the ancestors of the Chinese people came to China after crossing the high mountain ranges to the South.

Lost Chinese History supports that King named Vikrama conquered all the parts of Modern China.

He gave Chinese culture a new life which was lost due to internal conflicts.

 

This probably refers to Vikramadtiya.

King Yudhisthira wanted to perform the greatest of all sacrifices viz. the Rajasuya sacrifice. This involved military activity along with the usual sacrificial rites. The king’s armies would march under his appointed military generals in four cardinal directions and defeat all the kingdoms encountered in their paths. Any kingdom can chose to accept the sway of the king peacefully or choose to battle against the king’s military general. King Yudhisthira obtained a huge army by defeating the rising Magadha empire of king Jarasandha as Bhima slew Jarasandha in a dual of mace-fight. Taking a portion each of that army, the four brothers of king Yudhisthira, viz. Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva marched from Indraprasthato the four cardinal directions. Arjuna was responsible for the military expedition towards the northern direction.

Like Jarasandha, king Bhagadatta was another impediment for Yudhisthira’s Rajasuya sacrifice. Jarasandha was slain by Bhima by executing the clever strategy formed by Krishna. Bhagadatta was however a friend of Pandu, the father of the five Pandavas. Arjuna chose to use diplomacy to subdue Bhagadatta, rather than slaying him in battle.

Pragjyotisha,Captal of Bhagadatta.

Pragjyotisha is mentioned as a city only once (Mbh.5.48) in Mahabharata. The name Pragjyotisha is applied to the whole of the territory controlled by Bhagadatta, which included the regions north to Indraprastha as well. As a result, confusion arose in the location of the city of Pragjyotisha.Gohati in Assam is usually considered to be the Pragjyotishapura or the city of Pragjyotisha. The location of the city can be in Himachal Pradesh as well. There is a village named Kamaru (Kamru) in Baspa Valley (Sangla Valley) of Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. This is a candidate location of Pragjyotisha city. The name ‘Kamaru’ could be the remnant of the name ‘Kamarupa’ another name of Bhagadatta’s territories. The name Kamarup is however not found in Mahabharata. This name is not used in Mahabharata to denote any territory of Bhagadatta. The name Kamaru or Kamru is also found in Tibet to the north of Bhutan as well. It is not clear if this territory belonged to the Chinas mentioned as allied to Bhagadatta. Mahabharata mentioned about a China territory close to Sindhu river in Tibet as well.

Prag-jyotisha (Praag:- East; jyotisha: light, astronomy) means the eastern light. Hence it lied to the east, but probably from the point of view of the land of the five rivers (Punjab). Mahabharata also mentions another city or territory with similar name viz. Uttarayotisha (Uttara-jyotisha) meaningthe northern light. Jyotisha also means astronomy. It is not clear if these cities has anything to do with astronomy or if Prag-jyotisha and Uttara-jyotisha had some relationship. Uttarayotisha is mentioned as part of Nakula‘s military expedition to the west.

According to French art historian Rene Grousset, the name China comes from “an ancient” Sanskrit name for the regions to the east, and not, as often supposed, from the name of the state of Ch’in,” the first dynasty established by Shih Huang Ti in 221 B.C.

The Sanskrit name Cheena for China could have been derived from the small state of that name in Chan-si in the northwest of China, which flourished in the fourth century B.C. Scholars have pointed out that the Chinese word for lion, shih, used long before the Chin dynasty, was derived from the Sanskrit word, simha, and that the Greek word for China, Tzinista, used by some later writers, appears to be derivative of the Sanskrit Chinasthana. According to Terence Duke, martial arts went from India to China. Fighting without weapons was a specialty of the ancient Ksatriya warriors of India.

The story of Sun Hou Tzu, the Monkey King, and Hsuang Tsang. It is a vicarious and humorous tale, an adventure story akin to the Hindu epic of Ramayana, and like Ramayana, a moral tale of the finer aspects of human endeavor which come to prevail over those of a less worthy nature. The book ends with a dedication to India: ‘I dedicate this work to Buddha’s Pure Land. May it repay the kindness of patron and preceptor, may it mitigate the sufferings of the lost and damned….’

(source: Eastern Wisdom, Michael Jordan, p. 134-151)

Hu Shih, (1891-1962), Chinese philosopher in Republican China. He was ambassador to the U.S. (1938-42) and chancellor of Peking University (1946-48). He said:

“India conquered and dominated China culturally for two thousand years without ever having to send a single soldier across her border.”

Lin Yutang, author of The Wisdom of China and India:

“The contact with poets, forest saints and the best wits of the land, the glimpse into the first awakening of Ancient India’s mind as it searched, at times childishly and naively, at times with a deep intuition, but at all times earnestly and passionately, for the spiritual truths and the meaning of existence – this experience must be highly stimulating to anyone, particularly because the Hindu culture is so different and therefore so much to offer.” Not until we see the richness of the Hindu mind and its essential spirituality can we understand India….”

“I see no reason to doubt,” comments Arthur Waley in his book, The Way and its Power, “that the ‘holy mountain-men’ (sheng-hsien) described by Lieh Tzu are Indian rishi; and when we read in Chuang Tzu of certain Taoists who practiced movements very similar to the asanas of Hindu yoga, it is at least a possibility that some knowledge of the yoga technique which these rishi used had also drifted into China.”

Both Sir L. Wooley and British historian Arnold Toynbee speak of an earlier ready-made culture coming to China. They were right. That was the Vedic Hindu culture from India with its Sanskrit language and sacred scripts. The contemporary astronomical expertise of the Chinese, as evidenced by their records of eclipses; the philosophy of the Chinese, their statecraft, all point to a Vedic origin. That is why from the earliest times we find Chinese travelers visiting India very often to renew their educational and spiritual links.

Citation and References.

http://aryaculture.tripod.com/vedicdharma/id3.html

http://ancientvoice.wikidot.com/travel:arjuna-in-pragjyotisha

http://www.indiadivine.org/news/history-and-culture/the-vedic-roots-of-china-and-japan-r826

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Hinduism

China Urals Mongolia Arctic Aurora Borealis Sugreeva Geography


Accurate geographical reference was provided by Sugreeva to his Vanara Army for the Search of Sita.

Here  I present from the Valmiki Ramayana, the places described by Sugreeva as lying in the North of Kailash and modern Names of these places.

Northern Lights.jpg

Aurora Borealis

I shall post on details of the search for Sita in other directions.

tatra mlecChaan pulindaan ca shuurasenaan tathaiva ca |
prasthaalaan bharataan caiva kuruum ca saha madrakaiH || || 4-43-11
kaa.mboja yavanaan caiva shakaan pattanaani ca |
anviikshya daradaan caiva himavantam vicinvatha || 4-43-12

11, 12. tatra= there – in north; mlecChaan pulindaan ca= Mleccha-s, Pulinda-s – provinces of; tathaiva= like that; shuurasenaan ca= Shurashena, also; prasthaalaan bharataan caiva= Prasthala, Bharata, also, thus; madrakaiH saha = Madraka, along with; kuruum ca= Kuru, also; kaamboja yavanaan caiva= Kaambhoja, Yavana [countries,] also, thus; shakaan pattanaani ca= of Shaka, cities, also; daradaan caiva= Darada, also, thus; anviikshya= on scrutinizing; himavantam vicinvatha= at Himavanta [Himalayas,] search out.

“There in the north, the provinces of Mleccha-s, Pulinda-s, that way Shurashena – Prasthala – Bharata – Kuru – Madraka – Kaambhoja – Yavana shall be scrutinized along with the cities of Shaka and Darada, and then search in Himalayas. [4-43-11,12]

NWFP of Pakistan Now.

tataH soma aashramam gatvaa deva gandharva sevitam |
kaalam naama mahaasaanum parvatam tam gamiSyatha || 4-43-14

14. tataH= then; deva gandharva sevitam= gods, gandharva-s, adored by; soma aashramam gatvaa= to Soma, hermitage, on going; mahaa saanum= great, peaked; kaalam naama= Kala, named; tam parvatam gamiSyatha= to that, mountain, you go.

“You to Soma hermitage, which is adored by the gods and gandharva-s, and then you go to that great-peaked mountain named Mt. Kala. [4-43-14]

ishaalaa nalinii yatra prabhuuta kamalotpalaa |
ha.msa kaaraNDava aakiirNaa apsaro gaNa sevitaa || 4-43-22

22. yatra= where; prabhuuta kamala utpalaa= replete with, lotuses, costuses; hamsa kaaraNDava aakiirNaa= swans, partridges, overrun by; apsaraH gaNa sevitaa= apsara, throngs, adored by; vishaalaa nalinii= expansive, lotus-lake; is there that is the place of Kubera.

“Where an expansive lake is there, which is replete with lotuses and costuses, overrun by swans and partridges, and adored by throngs of apsara-s, that is the place of Kubera, Deity for Wealth-Management. [4-43-22]

From 6498 till 5122 years ago to the Earth has landed Varyag by name Kubera (Cubera) from sort of Cub. Varyags or space navigators were children of the Supreme God – Father, Russian people considering. On Russian like surname of Kubera sounds as Kubarev. It was the first Russian navigator on open spaces of the third planet of the Solar system populated in those days with wild animals and humanoids. Savages had no soul and any civilization, not able to speak, write, build dwelling and to process the ground. As against local population the forefather was high growth – 190 cm, the European appearance, with a white leather and eyes of it were surprising green, emerald color.

Kubera has examined the Earth and has chosen for the beginning the expansion some tribes of humanoids in Mediterranean, including Africa, Europe and Asia, having studied their habits and bents. Among savage it has selected seven most sexual female which could though somehow to draw his man’s attention. Then it has transferred seven foremothers on open spaces of the Volga region where there were the idealist in representation Kubera of a condition for creation of a human tribe. Central Russian upland and the Volga region represent territory which could not undergo to destructive influences of natural cataclysms and possible consequences of thawing of polar ice and flooding during the huge period of time.

krauncam tu girim aasaadya bilam tasya sudurgamam |
apramattaiH praveSTavyam duSpravesham hi tat smR^itam || 4-43-25

25. krauncam tu girim aasaadya= Kraunca, but, mountain, on reaching [thereafter]; su dur gamam= highly, not, passable one; tasya bilam = its, tunnel; a + pramattaiH= without, incautiously [cautiously]; praveSTavyam= is to be entered; tat= that – tunnel; duS pravesham = un, enterable; smR^itam hi= known to be, indeed – they say.

“Thereafter on reaching Mt. Kraunca you shall cautiously enter into a highly impassable tunnel of that mountain to search Seetha. That tunnel, they say, is an un-enterable one. [4-43-25]

Kumara or Skanda, the son of Shiva-Parvati-Ganga made this bore by using His shakti prayoga ‘Divine power.’ This is his birthplace, and the legend of His birth and growth are detailed in Bala Kanda.

Krauncha Parvatah in China..jpg

Krauncha Parvatah in China.

Like Shiva is said  to have brought down the Ganges on to earth (plains of India) from the  heavens (Himalayas), his son or his ‘junior’ Skanda is credited with having chiseled a tunnel through Mt. Krauncha.

One of the best known ancient tunnels in China is the Guolinag Tunnel in the Taihang Mountains. Up until 1972 only an ancient path chiseled through the rocks of this mountain linked the villages in the area to the outside world.


Here are a couple of images of the ancient path of Guolinag, which was improved in 1972, not by the government, but once again by the locals. It took them five years to complete the task.

avR^ikSam kaama shailam ca maanasam vihaga aalayam |
na gatiH tatra bhuutaanaam devaanaam na ca rakSasaam || 4-43-28

28. a +vR^ikSam= without, trees; vihaga aalayam= birds, abode; maanasam= Mt. Maanasa; kaama shailam ca= Kaama, mountain, also; are to be searched; tatra= there; bhuutaanaam gatiH na = for beings, inlet, no; devaanaam ca rakSasaam= for gods, even, for demons; [gatiH= inlet]; na = no.

“The treeless Mt. Kaama and the abode of birds Mt. Maanasa are also to be searched, and there is no inlet for any being, let alone gods or demons. [4-43-28]

These mountains Maanasa and Kaama are said differently in other translations, like ‘the wish-endower Kaama and the bird-less Maanasa Mountains.’ That is to say, ‘even birds cannot enter there then where is the question of entry to other beings…’ If that place is un-enterable even for birds or gods how these few monkeys can enter, is the question that ensues. Sugreeva gives the answer to Rama at the start of this exodus of monkeys, saying that these monkeys can do any undoable task, which is peculiar to these genera.

China Krauncha Mountain.gif

China Krauncha Mountain.Map

The Krauncha of Ramayana could be one of the peaks in the Taihang Range which indicates that the ancient tunnel in there may be the one mentioned in Ramayana. 

The path that Valmiki chalks out is clear. From Kailash (in the Himalayas) to Krauncha (in the Taihang Range), he says there are many other mountain peaks – namely the ‘treeless’ Mt. Kaama and the ‘abode of birds’,Mt. Maanasa, – that the ‘vanaras’ will see. Sugreev instructs them to scour these mountains thoroughly for Sita. These are  the mountains of the Qinling Range which falls between the Himalayas and the Taihang Mountains as the ‘vanaras’ move in the north-east direction from Kailash. (See Map below). The two highest peaks, and therefore most visible, in this chain are the Tuanjie and the Taibai. It is possible that the Ramayana was referring to these two (Kaama and Maanasa)

sa ca sarvaiH vicetavyaH sa saanu prastha bhuudharaH |
krauncam girim atikramya mainaako naama parvataH || 4-43-29

29. sa saanu prastha bhuu dharaH= with, mountainsides, grades, fringe, mountains; saH= that Kraunca mountain; sarvaiH vicetavyaH= by you all, is to be searched; krauncam girim atikramya= from Kraunca, mountain, moving away; mainaakaH naama parvataH= Mainaaka, named, mountain – is there.

“You all have to search Mt. Kraunca inclusive of its mountainsides, grades, and its fringe mountains, and on moving away from that Mt. Kraunca, a mountain named Mainaaka is there. [4-43-29]

This Mainaaka is different from the one that wanted to give hospitality to Hanuma during his flight across ocean in Sundara Kanda.

Then Sugreev mentions another peak called Mt. Mainaaka, which is identified by ‘a massive mansion built by demon architect by the name Maya’. Just as the ‘Ram-Setu’ of Ramayana (also called Adam’s Bridge) lies exactly in the spot mentioned in the Ramayana, and the Gympie Pyramid of Queensland (Australia) referred in Ramayana as ‘a peak like structure built by the celestial architect Vishwakarma’, the ‘Mansion of Maya’ may also be another pre-historical megalithic structure built by unknown ‘celestials’, this time in China.

tat saaraH samatikramya naSTa candra divaakaram |
anakSatra gaNam vyoma niSpayodam anaaaditam || 4-43-35

35b, c. tat saaraH samatikramya= that, lake, on passing over; naSTa candra divaakaram= devoid of, moon, sun; a+ nakSatra gaNam= without, star, clusters; niS payodam= without, clouds; a+ naaaditam= less of, noise [noiseless]; vyoma= sky – is there.

“Passing that lake there will be just sky which will be devoid of moon, or sun, or the clusters of stars, and it will be cloudless and noiseless. [4-43-35b, c]

Valmiki equates the light of ‘Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis‘ to the ‘light that emits from sages who have attained ‘siddhi‘.

In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the aurora borealis (or the northern lights), named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for the north wind, Boreas, by Galileo in 1619.

Auroras are associated with the solar wind, a flow of ions continuously flowing outward from the Sun. The Earth’s magnetic field traps these particles, many of which travel toward the poles where they are accelerated toward Earth. Collisions between these ions and atmospheric atoms and molecules cause energy releases in the form of auroras appearing in large circles around the poles. Auroras are more frequent and brighter during the intense phase of the solar cycle when coronal mass ejections increase the intensity of the solar wind.Auroras result from emissions of photons in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, above 80 km (50 mi), from ionized nitrogen molecules regaining an electron, and oxygen atoms and nitrogen molecules returning from an excited state to ground state.

The last landmark mentioned in Uttara-Kuru is Mt. Soma, which has to be one of the peaks of the Urals.The highest peak in the Urals is the ‘Narodnaya‘ – which in the local language means ‘Mountain of the People‘. In Sanskrit too the word has the same meaning ‘nara‘ means ‘people‘ and ‘udaya‘ means ‘elevation‘..

Narodnaya is the Mountain of Narada.

Please read my post on this.

Citation.

Valmiki Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda

Vedic Cafe

Kubarev 

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Hinduism

Indian Tribes In China, Iran Central Asia, Greece


There had been migrations in the world continuously.

The Migration of people into Europe in waves coincides(?) with the Tsunami in Bharatvarsha, as India was then called.

Contrary to what European writers say, the migration to Europe was from India.

If one cares to check the migration dates of various countries and races  in Europe, it will be noticed that it corresponds to the Great Floods that  devoured lands in India.

To get an idea of the ancient tribes of India, I have looked into the Mahabharata, Ramayana and he oldest literature of the World, the Vedas.

Geography during Rig Veda Period.jpg

Geography during Rig Veda Period.”Rigvedic geography” by Dbachmann. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rigvedic_geography.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Rigvedic_geography.jpg

Khambojas,(Iran Tribe)

Tusharas,(Northwest province of Pakistan)

Shakas,(Khambojas of Iran)

Hunas,(Germanic Tribe)

Paradas,( Tribes of Sailoda River in the Xinjiang province of China)

Pahalvas,(Iran)

Yavana,(Greeks)

Daradas,Lohas, Rishikas( Kushanas or Kanishkas )

ParamaKambojas

Uttara Kurus of trans-Himalyan regions.

Lambakas.(Tribes of Manipur)

Gandharis are Gandharas, the Bahlikas are Bactrians, Mujavat (land of Soma) refer to Hindukush–Pamirs (the Kamboja region).

 

Archeological Evidence.

The archaeological excavations in the Amu valley in Southern Uzbekistan, in Afrasiab on north-eastern edge of Samarkand and some other places in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan,Kazakhstan and Tak-mak in Kirghizstan add further evidence of the existence of links between ancient India and Central Asia since remote antiquity.

Further, extensive excavations have been carried out with remarkable results at Kara Tepa, Fayaz Tepa, Dalverzin Tepa, Yer Kurgan, Ak-Beshin, Kranayerezka and Isyk-Ata. The discovery of manuscripts in Xinjiang (China) and many other valuable excavational finds substantively establish that India and eastern Central Asian region of Xinjiang were also in extensive political, cultural and religious intercourse with each other.

Dynasties of India came from Central Asia as invaders and dynasties of Indian origin also ruled in Khotan and other places in Central Asia.

The Shakas were formerly the inhabitants of trans-Hemodos region—the Shakadvipa of the Puranas or the Scythia of the classical writings. Later evidence attests them in Drangiana i.e. Shakasthana (modern Seistan) located south of Herat. 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as well as 2nd century CE Ptolemy evidence also attest Indo-Scythia situated in lower Indus in western India.

The Paradas, the former inhabitants of Oxus and Sailoda (eastern Xinjiang), are noted by Ptolemy as Paradane and are attested to be living in western India in Sindhu or Gedrosia, during 2nd century CE.

The Kambojas and Pahlavas are known to have their original settlements in the east Iranian regions in Central Asia. Some allege the existence some of their settlements in post-Christian times in South-west/Southern India also.[8]

The Rishikas are formerly attested as living in Sakadvipa as neighbors to the Parama-Kambojas of Transoxiana region.[9] But later evidence also locates their section as neighbors to Ashmakas and Vidarbhas in south-west India. This Rishika settlement was located between Godavari and Tapti rivers, east of Nasika, north of Mulaka and west of Vidarbha.

Citation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Asians_in_Ancient_Indian_literature

*list of Rige Vedic Tribes Follows.

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Interesting and funny

Panda Fakes Pregnancy For Better Food Care


Often, the joke in tamil Brahmin Brahmin households is that if a woman does not want to attend a religious function like Seemantham, Ayush Homam,Poojas,Sraddha, the excuse is that she is ‘not at Home ‘meaning she is menstruating.

In Hinduism, one is prohibited from attending religious function if one has periods.

Now a Giant Panda in China has resorted to the trick of faking pregnancy to get better food and care!

Pnada faking pregnancy.jpg

Ai Hin had been ‘under observation’ for two months and was scheduled for worlds’ first panda live birth.Ne

 

The world’s first live broadcast of a panda birth has been called off after experts said the “mother” involved may have been faking the pregnancy to receive better treatment.

“Phantom pregnancies” are common among giant pandas – but keepers at her breeding centre in Sichuan province believe six-year-old Ai Hin could be exhibiting learned behaviour that marks her out as smarter than the average bear.

The giant panda started showing signs of pregnancy including reduced appetite and mobility in July, at which point she was chosen to star in a heavily-publicised first ever live birth.

But after two months of observation, experts have told state news agency Xinhua that Ai Hin’s behaviour and physiological tests returned to normal.

Wu Kongju, an expert at the Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Research Centre where Ai Hin is kept, explained that not all “fake” pregnancies among the animals are just down to hormonal changes.

“After showing prenatal signs, the ‘mothers-to-be’ are moved into single rooms with air conditioning and around-the-clock care,” Wu told Xinhua.

“They also receive more buns, fruits and bamboo, so some clever pandas have used this to their advantage to improve their quality of life.”

 

Citation, News, Image.

 

http://www.reddit.com/tb/2epvoa

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Health

Human Organ Human Trafficking Price Profits


It is only when, under unfortunate circumstances, one needs an Organ for saving a Life, does one come to know of the scarcity of Organs available for Transplantation and the huge costs involved even in the Legal Market.

 

What many of us do not know is the illegal market in Organ Transplantation.

 

Sale of Body Parts,India.jpg

Sale of Body Parts,India.

 

Here are some facts.

 

Illegal Organ Trade Market:$0.075 Billion ($75 Million)

 

Price of Humans

 

 

Illegal Market for Human Organs,India.

 

Patients, many of whom will go toChinaIndia or Pakistan for surgery, can pay up to $200,000 (nearly £128,000) for a kidney to gangs who harvest organs from vulnerable, desperate people, sometimes for as little as $5,000.

The vast sums to be made by both traffickers and surgeons have been underlined by the arrest by Israeli police last week of 10 people, including a doctor, suspected of belonging to an international organ trafficking ring and of committing extortion, tax fraud and grievous bodily harm. Other illicit organ trafficking rings have been uncovered in India and Pakistan.

The Guardian contacted an organ broker in China who advertised his services under the slogan, “Donate a kidney, buy the new iPad!” He offered £2,500 for a kidney and said the operation could be performed within 10 days.

 

THE TRANSPLANTATION OF HUMAN ORGANS ACT, 1994 ,India
ACT NO. 42 OF 1994
[8th July, 1994.]

An Act to provide for the regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for the prevention of commercial dealings in human organs and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. WHEREAS it is expedient to provide for the regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for the prevention of commercial dealings in human organs; AND WHEREAS in Parliament has no power to make laws for the States with respect to any of the matters aforesaid except as provided in articles 249 and 250 of the Constitution;
AND WHEREAS in pursuance of clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution, resolutions have been passed by all the Houses of the Legislatures of the States of Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra to the effect that the matters aforesaid should be regulated in those States by Parliament by law; 2 BE it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:- CHAP PRELIMINARY CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY
Short title, application and commencement.
1.Short title, application and commencement.- (1) This Act may be called the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994.
(2) It applies, in the first instance, to the whole of the States of Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra and to all the Union territories and it shall also apply to such other State which adopts
this Act by resolution passed in that behalf under clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution.
(3) It shall come into force in the States of Goa, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra and in all the Union territories on such date as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint and in any
other State which adopts this Act under clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution, on the date of such adoption; and any reference in this Act to the commencement of this Act shall, in relation to any State or Union territory, means the date on which this Act comes into force in such State or Union territory.
Definition. 2. Definition.- In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,- (a) “advertisement” includes any form of advertising whether to the public generally or to any section of the public or, individually to selected persons; (b) “Appropriate Authority” means the Appropriate Authority appointed under section 13; (c) “Authorisation Committee” means the committee consti-
tuted under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (4) of section 9; (d) “brain-stem death” means the stage at which all functions of the brain-stem have permanently and irreversibly
ceased and is so certified under sub-section (6) of section 3; (e) “deceased person” means a person in whom permanent dis- appearance of all evidence of life occurs, by reason of brain-stem death or in a cardiopulmonary sense, at any time after live birth has taken place; (f) “donor” means any person, not less than eighteen years of age, who voluntarily authorises, the removal of any of his
human organs for therapeutic purposes under sub-section (1)
or subsection (2) of section 3; (g) “hospital” includes a nursing home, clinic, medical centre, medical or teaching institution for therapeutic purposes and other like institution; (h) “human organ” means any part of a human body consisting of a structured arrangement of tissues which, if wholly re- moved, cannot be replicated by the body; (i) “near relative” means spouse, son, daughter, father, mother, brother or sister; 3 (j) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette; (k) “payment” means payment in money or money’s worth but does not include any payment for defraying or reimbursing; (i) the hcost of removing, transporting or preserving the human organ to be supplied; or (ii) any expenses or loss of earnings incurred by a person so far as reasonably and directly attributable to his supplying any human organ from his body; (l) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; (m) “recipient” means a person into whom any human organ is, or is proposed to be, transplanted; (n) “registered medical practitioner” means a medical practitioner who possesses any recognised medical qualification as defined in clause (h) of section 2 of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, and who is enrolled on a State Medical Register as defined in clause (k) of that section; (o) “therapeutic purposes” means systematic treatment of any disease or the measures to improve health according to any particular method or modality; and (p) “transplantation” means the grafting of any human organ from any living person or deceased person to some other living person for therapeutic purposes.
CHAP AUTHORITY FOR THE REMOVAL OF HUMAN ORGANS CHAPTER II AUTHORITY FOR THE REMOVAL OF HUMAN ORGANS
Authority for removal of human organs.
3. Authority for removal of human organs.- (1) Any donor may, in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, authorise the removal, before his death, of any human organ of his body for therapeutic purposes.
(2) If any donor had, in writing and in the presence of two or more witnesses (at least one of whom is a near relative of such person), unequivocally authorised at any time before his death, the removal of any human organ of his body, after his death, for therapeutic purposes, the person lawfully in possession of the dead body of the donor shall, unless he has any reason to believe that the donor had subsequently revoked the authority aforesaid, grant to a registered medical practitioner all reasonable facilities for the removal, for therapeutic purposes, of that human organ from the dead body of the donor.
(3) Where no such authority as is referred to in sub-section….”

 

Citation.

 

http://giftalife.org/organ-donation-and-the-law

http://www.havocscope.com/tag/organ-trafficking/

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/may/27/kidney-trade-illegal-operations-who

 

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