Accurate geographical reference was provided by Sugreeva to his Vanara Army for the Search of Sita.
Here I present from the Valmiki Ramayana, the places described by Sugreeva as lying in the North of Kailash and modern Names of these places.
I shall post on details of the search for Sita in other directions.
tatra mlecChaan pulindaan ca shuurasenaan tathaiva ca |
prasthaalaan bharataan caiva kuruum ca saha madrakaiH || || 4-43-11
kaa.mboja yavanaan caiva shakaan pattanaani ca |
anviikshya daradaan caiva himavantam vicinvatha || 4-43-12
11, 12. tatra= there – in north; mlecChaan pulindaan ca= Mleccha-s, Pulinda-s – provinces of; tathaiva= like that; shuurasenaan ca= Shurashena, also; prasthaalaan bharataan caiva= Prasthala, Bharata, also, thus; madrakaiH saha = Madraka, along with; kuruum ca= Kuru, also; kaamboja yavanaan caiva= Kaambhoja, Yavana [countries,] also, thus; shakaan pattanaani ca= of Shaka, cities, also; daradaan caiva= Darada, also, thus; anviikshya= on scrutinizing; himavantam vicinvatha= at Himavanta [Himalayas,] search out.
“There in the north, the provinces of Mleccha-s, Pulinda-s, that way Shurashena – Prasthala – Bharata – Kuru – Madraka – Kaambhoja – Yavana shall be scrutinized along with the cities of Shaka and Darada, and then search in Himalayas. [4-43-11,12]
NWFP of Pakistan Now.
tataH soma aashramam gatvaa deva gandharva sevitam |
kaalam naama mahaasaanum parvatam tam gamiSyatha || 4-43-14
14. tataH= then; deva gandharva sevitam= gods, gandharva-s, adored by; soma aashramam gatvaa= to Soma, hermitage, on going; mahaa saanum= great, peaked; kaalam naama= Kala, named; tam parvatam gamiSyatha= to that, mountain, you go.
“You to Soma hermitage, which is adored by the gods and gandharva-s, and then you go to that great-peaked mountain named Mt. Kala. [4-43-14]
ishaalaa nalinii yatra prabhuuta kamalotpalaa |
ha.msa kaaraNDava aakiirNaa apsaro gaNa sevitaa || 4-43-22
22. yatra= where; prabhuuta kamala utpalaa= replete with, lotuses, costuses; hamsa kaaraNDava aakiirNaa= swans, partridges, overrun by; apsaraH gaNa sevitaa= apsara, throngs, adored by; vishaalaa nalinii= expansive, lotus-lake; is there that is the place of Kubera.
“Where an expansive lake is there, which is replete with lotuses and costuses, overrun by swans and partridges, and adored by throngs of apsara-s, that is the place of Kubera, Deity for Wealth-Management. [4-43-22]
From 6498 till 5122 years ago to the Earth has landed Varyag by name Kubera (Cubera) from sort of Cub. Varyags or space navigators were children of the Supreme God – Father, Russian people considering. On Russian like surname of Kubera sounds as Kubarev. It was the first Russian navigator on open spaces of the third planet of the Solar system populated in those days with wild animals and humanoids. Savages had no soul and any civilization, not able to speak, write, build dwelling and to process the ground. As against local population the forefather was high growth – 190 cm, the European appearance, with a white leather and eyes of it were surprising green, emerald color.
Kubera has examined the Earth and has chosen for the beginning the expansion some tribes of humanoids in Mediterranean, including Africa, Europe and Asia, having studied their habits and bents. Among savage it has selected seven most sexual female which could though somehow to draw his man’s attention. Then it has transferred seven foremothers on open spaces of the Volga region where there were the idealist in representation Kubera of a condition for creation of a human tribe. Central Russian upland and the Volga region represent territory which could not undergo to destructive influences of natural cataclysms and possible consequences of thawing of polar ice and flooding during the huge period of time.
krauncam tu girim aasaadya bilam tasya sudurgamam |
apramattaiH praveSTavyam duSpravesham hi tat smR^itam || 4-43-25
25. krauncam tu girim aasaadya= Kraunca, but, mountain, on reaching [thereafter]; su dur gamam= highly, not, passable one; tasya bilam = its, tunnel; a + pramattaiH= without, incautiously [cautiously]; praveSTavyam= is to be entered; tat= that – tunnel; duS pravesham = un, enterable; smR^itam hi= known to be, indeed – they say.
“Thereafter on reaching Mt. Kraunca you shall cautiously enter into a highly impassable tunnel of that mountain to search Seetha. That tunnel, they say, is an un-enterable one. [4-43-25]
Krauncha Parvatah in China.
Like Shiva is said to have brought down the Ganges on to earth (plains of India) from the heavens (Himalayas), his son or his ‘junior’ Skanda is credited with having chiseled a tunnel through Mt. Krauncha.
One of the best known ancient tunnels in China is the Guolinag Tunnel in the Taihang Mountains. Up until 1972 only an ancient path chiseled through the rocks of this mountain linked the villages in the area to the outside world.
Here are a couple of images of the ancient path of Guolinag, which was improved in 1972, not by the government, but once again by the locals. It took them five years to complete the task.
avR^ikSam kaama shailam ca maanasam vihaga aalayam |
na gatiH tatra bhuutaanaam devaanaam na ca rakSasaam || 4-43-28
28. a +vR^ikSam= without, trees; vihaga aalayam= birds, abode; maanasam= Mt. Maanasa; kaama shailam ca= Kaama, mountain, also; are to be searched; tatra= there; bhuutaanaam gatiH na = for beings, inlet, no; devaanaam ca rakSasaam= for gods, even, for demons; [gatiH= inlet]; na = no.
“The treeless Mt. Kaama and the abode of birds Mt. Maanasa are also to be searched, and there is no inlet for any being, let alone gods or demons. [4-43-28]
China Krauncha Mountain.Map
The Krauncha of Ramayana could be one of the peaks in the Taihang Range which indicates that the ancient tunnel in there may be the one mentioned in Ramayana.
The path that Valmiki chalks out is clear. From Kailash (in the Himalayas) to Krauncha (in the Taihang Range), he says there are many other mountain peaks – namely the ‘treeless’ Mt. Kaama and the ‘abode of birds’,Mt. Maanasa, – that the ‘vanaras’ will see. Sugreev instructs them to scour these mountains thoroughly for Sita. These are the mountains of the Qinling Range which falls between the Himalayas and the Taihang Mountains as the ‘vanaras’ move in the north-east direction from Kailash. (See Map below). The two highest peaks, and therefore most visible, in this chain are the Tuanjie and the Taibai. It is possible that the Ramayana was referring to these two (Kaama and Maanasa)
sa ca sarvaiH vicetavyaH sa saanu prastha bhuudharaH |
krauncam girim atikramya mainaako naama parvataH || 4-43-29
29. sa saanu prastha bhuu dharaH= with, mountainsides, grades, fringe, mountains; saH= that Kraunca mountain; sarvaiH vicetavyaH= by you all, is to be searched; krauncam girim atikramya= from Kraunca, mountain, moving away; mainaakaH naama parvataH= Mainaaka, named, mountain – is there.
“You all have to search Mt. Kraunca inclusive of its mountainsides, grades, and its fringe mountains, and on moving away from that Mt. Kraunca, a mountain named Mainaaka is there. [4-43-29]
tat saaraH samatikramya naSTa candra divaakaram |
anakSatra gaNam vyoma niSpayodam anaaaditam || 4-43-35
35b, c. tat saaraH samatikramya= that, lake, on passing over; naSTa candra divaakaram= devoid of, moon, sun; a+ nakSatra gaNam= without, star, clusters; niS payodam= without, clouds; a+ naaaditam= less of, noise [noiseless]; vyoma= sky – is there.
“Passing that lake there will be just sky which will be devoid of moon, or sun, or the clusters of stars, and it will be cloudless and noiseless. [4-43-35b, c]
Valmiki equates the light of ‘Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis‘ to the ‘light that emits from sages who have attained ‘siddhi‘.
In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the aurora borealis (or the northern lights), named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for the north wind, Boreas, by Galileo in 1619.
Auroras are associated with the solar wind, a flow of ions continuously flowing outward from the Sun. The Earth’s magnetic field traps these particles, many of which travel toward the poles where they are accelerated toward Earth. Collisions between these ions and atmospheric atoms and molecules cause energy releases in the form of auroras appearing in large circles around the poles. Auroras are more frequent and brighter during the intense phase of the solar cycle when coronal mass ejections increase the intensity of the solar wind.Auroras result from emissions of photons in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, above 80 km (50 mi), from ionized nitrogen molecules regaining an electron, and oxygen atoms and nitrogen molecules returning from an excited state to ground state.
The last landmark mentioned in Uttara-Kuru is Mt. Soma, which has to be one of the peaks of the Urals.The highest peak in the Urals is the ‘Narodnaya‘ – which in the local language means ‘Mountain of the People‘. In Sanskrit too the word has the same meaning ‘nara‘ means ‘people‘ and ‘udaya‘ means ‘elevation‘..
Narodnaya is the Mountain of Narada.
Please read my post on this.
Valmiki Ramayana Kishkindha Kanda