1450 Nagappatinam Tamil Bell In New Zealand


Ancient India had a well structured society with social responsibilities  demarcated clearly.

While the King was responsible was defending the borders, external affairs, judicial appellate authority,the spiritual side was looked after by the Brahmins,  and trade by  group called Vaisyas.

One must remember this practice was common to the Tamils and Sanatana Dharma.

I am mentioning this as there is misinformation that Tamil and Sanatan Dharma were inimical to each other.

I had written how untrue this is.

The business people formed themselves into a Group /corporation on All India Level, without borders.

This Business corporation was called ,in Tamil,திசை வணிகர்  ஐந்நூற்றுவர், meaning ‘the Five Hundred Business Group for All Directions(East, South, West and North)

They traveled throughout India and abroad in pursuit of Business.

They contributed to the Kingdom, at times of war, food and other materials free of cost to the forces.

Considering the facts that,

Ramayana refers to Cookes’ Island, New Zealand in detail,

Agastya is found in New Zealand legends  and

Sanatana Dharma/Tamil practices re found among the aborigines of New Zealand ,

it is not surprising to find that an ancient religious bell belonging to  Muslim trader from Nagappatinam,Tamil Nadu, is found in New Zealand.

What is more intriguing is that if trade  had taken place, the poeple with whom they trded with!

New Zealand .

Sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that would later become New Zealand, and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Abel Tasman, a Dutch explorer, became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the British Crown and Māori Chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, making New Zealand a British colony. Today, the majority of New Zealand’s population of 4.7 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders.(wiki)

Yet the traders from Tamil Nadu transacted business  there.

Obviously New Zealand had   well structured society to trade with.

Am checking this.

 

jps_039_198insert1_a_a51b9a0a8e47a024d4430735e818bc14

Tamil Bell in New Zealand

Discovery

William Colenso says that he found Maoris using the bell as a cooking pot in a village which he thought had not previously been visited by Europeans. The date was thought to have been 1836 or 1837 (the most recent estimate given is 1840). The village was either “near Whangarei” or “in the interior of the North Island”. The Maoris told Colenso that the bell had been found in the roots of a large tree which had been blown over in a storm many years before. It appears to me possible that the use of the bell as a cooking pot, with the resultant changes of temperature, may have caused the lip to crack off. Presumably the bell had been hidden under the tree for a long period. As the inscription (see below) tells us that it is a ship’s bell, I presume that the ship which owned it was probably wrecked on the west coast. It has been thought that a section of wreckage, of teak timber with trenails, could have been the Tamil ship which carried the bell, but this wreckage has since been connected with H.M.S. Orpheus wrecked on the Manukau Bar in 1863. There is little chance of finding a wreck with evidence of Tamil origin, especially as such a ship would have been wrecked about 500 years ago.

Inscription

As the inscription is the vital clue for the story of the bell, it will be described in some detail. The inscription, which does not run right around the bell, has been protected by flanges running above and below the lettering, which explains why it is still in almost “mint” condition. Instead of the letters being cut into the bronze after casing, they protrude from the surface as though they had been added later. – 478 Some of the letters appear to show file marks, and where they should have rectangular form they are made with curved lines like the rest of the lettering. Another variation from standard Tamil writing is that four letters which should carry dots over them are left without them. Reading from left to right, there are 24 letters in all, forming six or seven words. The first 11 letters form the name of the ship’s owner, in two or possibly three words; the remaining 13 letters relate to the ship and the bell itself.

The inscription suggests that the owner was a Moslem Tamil, probably from one of the well-known ship-owning families based on the port of Nagapattam on the eastern coast of Tamiland in south-east India. As the owner’s name was probably an Arabic one, in accord with his religion, the founder of the bell would have had difficulty in converting it from the Arabic alphabet into Tamil letters. Arabic writing consists of consonants only, while Tamil writing has a syllabary rather than an alphabet….

My own attempt at translation was made possible by the excellent photographs provided by the Dominion Museum, and the advice of two leading experts on the script, Mr D. Yesudhas, M.A., of the Scott Christian College at Nagercoil, and Mr R. Raneer Selvam of the Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies at Copenhagen, Denmark. Both of these experts dated the script on the bell between 1400 and 1500; Langdon 4 quotes Professor Visvanathan’s estimate as 400 to 500 years before 1940, i.e. 1440-1540. Mr Selvam also provided some information about the ship-owning Tamils of the Moslem faith who were engaged in the Arab trade routes in that period. He suspected that the owner’s first name may have been derived from Tamil words meaning “an owner of wooden ships”.

In the transliteration which follows, the inscription is divided into two parts. The first line in each case is a copy of the Tamil characters on the bell; the second line is the modern Tamil equivalent, and the third line is the most likely equivalent in European letters:

FIGURE 1

The two identical words in the lower line, “Utaiya”, mean “owning” or “possessing”; “Kappal” means “ship” and “Mani” means “bell”. The upper line, being the owner’s name, has been translated by various authorities through the years as “Mohammet Buks”, “Hohoyiden Buks”, “Muhideen Bhakshi” and “Moha Din Buksh”. My own preferred translation is “Mohaideen Bakhsh”, with a second possibility as “Moha Din Bakhsh”. The full inscription therefore can be read “Bell of the Ship of Mohaideen Bakhsh”. The date of casting can be placed at c.1450.”

Citation and Reference.

 

http://www.jps.auckland.ac.nz/document//Volume_84_1975/Volume_84,_No._4/The_story_of_the_Tamil_bell,_by_Brett_Hilder,_p_476-484/p1

Ten Criminal Companies, Social Menace


The Corporate Mantra is Profit, not people.

 

Man is secondary, humanitarianism takes a second seat to Business.

 

There is this oft-repeated saying in the business circles,

 

‘Choose either Business or Righteousness’

 

It is implied that one can be dishonest in Business.

 

And Businesses ae often so.

 

To scratch their guilty conscience, they now have something called as ‘Social responsibility, where they spend a few Dimes, which is Tax Free of course, to engage in highly publicized social service like planting Trees, spare .0001 of their profits for charity( at the same time they inform you through advertisements that they are helping people because of your purchase, thereby increasing their Business volume).

 

To me anything, especially business with out Ethics is Criminal.

 

Have they stopped at this?

 

In chasing a few dollars, they deliberately harm the society and the individuals.

 

Have a look at these Corporate Companies.

 

1.

 

Coca Cola corporation has wrought devastation in India, where its factories use up to one million liters of water per day, leaving tens of thousands of nearby residents dry during the drought months. Then the factories dispose of the wastewater improperly, contaminating whatever water is left.  A lawsuit in 2001 accused Coca Cola of hiring paramilitaries in Columbia which suppressed unionization in the cola plant there through intimidation, torture and murder

 

2.Pfizer.

Pfizer decided to use Nigerian children as guinea pigs. In 1996, Pfizer traveled to Kano, Nigeria to try out an experimental antibiotic on third-world diseases such as measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis. They gave trovafloxacin to approximately 200 children. Dozens of them died in the experiment, while many others developed mental and physical deformities. According to the EPA, Pfizer can also proudly claim to be among the top ten companies in America causing the most air pollution.

3.Exxonobil

The Political Economy Research Institute ranks ExxonMobil sixth among corporations emitting airborne pollutants in the United States. ExxonMobil counters not by cleaning up its act, but by funding scientific studies  which refute global warming. ExxonMobil was targeted by human rights activists in 2001 when a lawsuit alleged that ExxonMobil hired Indonesian military who raped, tortured and murdered while serving as security at their plant in Aceh.

4.Caterpillar sells all kind of tractors, trucks and machinery — including many of the vehicles, ships and submarines used by the U.S. military. Caterpillar also supplies the Israeli army with bulldozers which are used to demolish Palestinian homes — sometimes with the people still inside.

5.Monsanto.

Big Agra makes the list with Monsanto, pushers of genetically modified foods, bovine growth hormones, and poison. Monsanto’s list of evils includes creating the terminator” seed which creates plants which never fruit or flower so that farmers must purchase them anew yearly, lobbying to have “hormone-free” labels removed from the labels of milk and infant milk replacer (through bovine growth hormone is believed to be a cancer-accelerator) as well as a wide range of environmental and human health violations associated with use of Monsanto’s poisons — most notably “Agent Orange.” Between 1965 and 1972, Monsanto illegally dumped thousands of tons of highly toxic waste in UK landfills.

6.Nestle.

Sticky-sweet image aside, Nestle’s crimes against man and nature include massive deforestation in Borneo — the habitat of the critically endangered orangutan — to grow palm oil, and buying milk from farms illegally-seized by a despot in Zimbabwe. Nestle drew fire from environmentalists for its ridiculous claims that bottled water is “eco-friendly when the exact opposite is true.

7.British Petroleum.
Who can forget 2010’s oil rig explosion in the Gulf Coast which killed 11 workers and thousands of birds, sea turtles, dolphins and other animals, effectively destroying the fishing and tourism industry in the region? This was not BP’s first crime against nature. In fact, between January 1997 and March 1998, BP was responsible for a whopping 104 oil spills.

8.Dyncorp.

This privatized military company is often hired by the U.S. government to protect American interests overseas — and so the government can claim no responsibility for Dyncorp’s actions.  Dyncorp is best known for its brutality in impoverished countries, for trafficking in child sex slaves, for slaughtering civilians in Iraq and Afghanistan

9.Haliburton,

a huge “oilfield services” company, profited big time from the U.S.’s invasion of Iraq when Cheney called in his boys to quell burning oil wells — and to “help” the Iraq oil ministry pump and distribute oil. Haliburton has also been implicated in countless oil spills, including the BP disaster of 2010.

10.Chevron.

Chevron (then Texaco) discharged 18 billion gallons of toxic water into the rain forests of Ecuador without any remediation, destroying the livelihoods of local farmers and sickening indigenous populations. Chevron has also done plenty of polluting right here in the U.S.: In 1998, Richmond, California sued Chevron for illegally bypassing waste water treatments and contaminating local water supplies, ditto in New Hampshire in 2003. Chevron was responsible for the death of several Nigerians who protested the company’s polluting, exploiting presence in the Nigerian Delta. Chevron paid the local militia, known for its human rights abuses, to squash the protests, and even supplied them with choppers and boats. The military opened fire on the protesters, then burned their villages to the ground.

Source .

http://www.stumbleupon.com/su/2yxcGg/7ITOwDzz:85zBsbNi/brainz.org/15-deadliest-us-corporations/

Prison Industrial Complex Business India To Join


In Mr.Bean, the Villain from France, would propose, among other things, to create an open prison of the world in the UK , to house all Criminals  of the

 

world.

 

 

I thought it was really funny befitting a French Man’s dig  at Englishman.

 

But how misinformed am I?

 

 

United Kingdom was the first country in all of Europe to use prisons run by the private sector to hold its prisoners.

 

Wolds Prison opened as the first privately managed prison in the UK in 1992., as one of a number of prisons built by the public sector but contracted to the private sector to operate under 5 year contracts.

 

Soon private prisons were established under the government’s Private Finance Initiative, where contracts are awarded for the entire design, construction, management and finance of a prison under 25 year contracts.

Later, Government attempted to ‘market test’ prisons operated by the public sector, though no prison transferred from public to private operation through this route until Birmingham in 2011.

 

Prisons operated by the private sector are subject to re-competition at the end of the contract, when the public sector may bid, and on 3 occasions has done so successfully.

Privately run prisons are run under contracts which set out the standards that must be met.

 

There are now 14 prisons in England and Wales operated under contract by private companies.

 

Between them they have the capacity to hold about 13,500 prisoners or approximately 11% of the entire prison population.

 

There are also 2 privately run prisons in Scotland. Current operators in the United Kingdom are G4S , Sodexo Justice Services (formerly known as

Kalyx, and prior to that UKDS) (4) and Serco (6)

 

 

 

Prison Industry In US.

 

 

There are approximately 2 million inmates in state, federal and private prisons throughout the country.

 

According to California Prison Focus, “no other society in human history has imprisoned so many of its own citizens.

 

” The figures show that the United States has locked up more people than any other country: a half million more than China, which has a population five times greater than the U.S. Statistics reveal that the United States holds 25% of the world’s prison population, but only 5% of the world’s people.

 

From less than 300,000 inmates in 1972, the jail population grew to 2 million by the year 2000. In 1990 it was one million.

 

Ten years ago there were only five private prisons in the country, with a population of 2,000 inmates; now, there are 100, with 62,000 inmates.

 

It is expected that by the coming decade, the number will hit 360,000, according to reports.

 

 

“The private contracting of prisoners for work fosters incentives to lock people up.

 

Prisons depend on this income. Corporate stockholders who make money off prisoners’ work lobby for longer sentences, in order to expand their

 

workforce. The system feeds itself,” says a study by the Progressive Labor Party, which accuses the prison industry of being “an imitation of Nazi Germany with respect to forced slave labor and concentration camps.”

The prison industry complex is one of the fastest-growing industries in the United States and its investors are on Wall Street

 

. “This multimillion-dollar industry has its own trade exhibitions, conventions, websites, and mail-order/Internet catalogs. It also has direct advertising campaigns, architecture companies, construction companies, investment houses on Wall Street, plumbing supply companies, food supply companies, armed security, and padded cells in a large variety of colors.”

According to the Left Business Observer, the federal prison industry produces 100% of all military helmets, ammunition belts, bullet-proof vests, ID tags, shirts, pants, tents, bags, and canteens. Along with war supplies, prison workers supply 98% of the entire market for equipment assembly services; 93% of paints and paintbrushes; 92% of stove assembly; 46% of body armor; 36% of home appliances; 30% of headphones/microphones/speakers; and 21% of office furniture. Airplane parts, medical supplies, and much more: prisoners are even raising seeing-eye dogs for blind people.

 

HISTORY OF PRISON LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES

Prison labor has its roots in slavery. After the 1861-1865 Civil War, a system of “hiring out prisoners” was introduced in order to continue the slavery tradition. Freed slaves were charged with not carrying out their sharecropping commitments (cultivating someone else’s land in exchange for part of the harvest) or petty thievery – which were almost never proven – and were then “hired out” for cotton picking, working in mines and building railroads. From 1870 until 1910 in the state of Georgia, 88% of hired-out convicts were Black. In Alabama, 93% of “hired-out” miners were Black. In Mississippi, a huge prison farm similar to the old slave plantations replaced the system of hiring out convicts. The notorious Parchman plantation existed until 1972.

During the post-Civil War period, Jim Crow racial segregation laws were imposed on every state, with legal segregation in schools, housing, marriages and many other aspects of daily life. “Today, a new set of markedly racist laws is imposing slave labor and sweatshops on the criminal justice system, now known as the prison industry complex,” comments the Left Business Observer.

Who is investing?

 

At least 37 states have legalized the contracting of prison labor by private corporations that mount their operations inside state prisons.

 

The list of such companies contains the cream of U.S. corporate society:

 

IBM, Boeing, Motorola, Microsoft, AT&T, Wireless, Texas Instrument, Dell, Compaq, Honeywell, Hewlett-Packard, Nortel, Lucent Technologies, 3Com, Intel, Northern Telecom, TWA, Nordstrom’s, Revlon, Macy’s, Pierre Cardin, Target Stores, and many more.

 

 

All of these businesses are excited about the economic boom generation by prison labor. Just between 1980 and 1994, profits went up from $392 million to $1.31 billion.

 

Inmates in state penitentiaries generally receive the minimum wage for their work, but not all; in Colorado, they get about $2 per hour, well under the minimum.

 

And in privately-run prisons, they receive as little as 17 cents per hour for a maximum of six hours a day, the equivalent of $20 per month. The highest-paying private prison is CCA in Tennessee, where prisoners receive 50 cents per hour for what they call “highly skilled positions.

 

” At those rates, it is no surprise that inmates find the pay in federal prisons to be very generous.

 

There, they can earn $1.25 an hour and work eight hours a day, and sometimes overtime. They can send home $200-$300 per month.

Thanks to prison labor, the United States is once again an attractive location for investment in work that was designed for Third World labor markets

 

. A company that operated a maquiladora (assembly plant in Mexico near the border) closed down its operations there and relocated to San Quentin State Prison in California.

In Texas, a factory fired its 150 workers and contracted the services of prisoner-workers from the private Lockhart Texas prison, where circuit boards are assembled for companies like IBM and Compaq.

 

There is a move to bring in Private Prisons in India and if my source is to be believed  a Single judge Committee has recommended Private Prisons.

 

There are some pretty big Business Houses promoting this concept and have their sources to manipulate the Media to high light the cost of running the

Prisons(for the Government and to sensationalize law and Order situation in India , including the prisons.

 

http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-prison-industry-in-the-united-states-big-business-or-a-new-form-of-slavery/8289

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_prison

Indian Oil Company Balance Sheet, Where Is The Loss


 

Petrol and Diesel Prices keep on going  up on a regular basis, citing  the rise in International Crude prices.

 

For a common man like me, who does not know the intricacies book fudging,the figures of Indian Oil Company Limited tell me they are not incurring Loss.

 

Would like to remain corrected.

 

 

 

Balance Sheet 2013.

 

Balance Sheet of Indian Oil Corporation

——————- in Rs. Cr. ——————-
Mar ’12 Mar ’11 Mar ’10 Mar ’09 Mar ’08
12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
Sources Of Funds
Total Share Capital 2,427.95 2,427.95 2,427.95 1,192.37 1,192.37
Equity Share Capital 2,427.95 2,427.95 2,427.95 1,192.37 1,192.37
Share Application Money 0.00 0.00 0.00 21.60 0.00
Preference Share Capital 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Reserves 55,448.75 52,904.37 48,124.88 42,789.29 39,893.88
Revaluation Reserves 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Networth 57,876.70 55,332.32 50,552.83 44,003.26 41,086.25
Secured Loans 13,045.97 20,379.65 18,292.45 17,565.13 6,415.78
Unsecured Loans 57,277.96 32,354.22 26,273.80 27,406.93 29,107.39
Total Debt 70,323.93 52,733.87 44,566.25 44,972.06 35,523.17
Total Liabilities 128,200.63 108,066.19 95,119.08 88,975.32 76,609.42
Mar ’12 Mar ’11 Mar ’10 Mar ’09 Mar ’08
12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
Application Of Funds
Gross Block 99,455.46 92,696.69 71,780.60 62,104.64 56,731.50
Less: Accum. Depreciation 39,336.13 34,509.29 30,199.53 27,326.19 23,959.68
Net Block 60,119.33 58,187.40 41,581.07 34,778.45 32,771.82
Capital Work in Progress 13,434.77 12,620.44 21,268.63 18,186.05 9,170.22
Investments 18,678.46 19,544.76 22,370.25 32,232.13 21,535.78
Inventories 56,829.20 49,284.52 36,404.08 25,149.60 30,941.48
Sundry Debtors 15,502.87 8,869.65 5,799.28 5,937.86 6,819.23
Cash and Bank Balance 307.01 643.92 916.56 796.56 815.05
Total Current Assets 72,639.08 58,798.09 43,119.92 31,884.02 38,575.76
Loans and Advances 44,988.11 25,454.49 17,453.01 13,348.99 14,920.93
Fixed Deposits 0.00 650.50 398.55 1.46 9.38
Total CA, Loans & Advances 117,627.19 84,903.08 60,971.48 45,234.47 53,506.07
Deffered Credit 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Current Liabilities 66,510.58 60,441.18 40,818.96 38,890.28 39,326.07
Provisions 15,148.54 6,763.46 10,271.56 2,603.46 1,172.99
Total CL & Provisions 81,659.12 67,204.64 51,090.52 41,493.74 40,499.06
Net Current Assets 35,968.07 17,698.44 9,880.96 3,740.73 13,007.01
Miscellaneous Expenses 0.00 15.15 18.17 37.96 124.59
Total Assets 128,200.63 108,066.19 95,119.08 88,975.32 76,609.42
Contingent Liabilities 28,085.59 31,505.33 25,715.07 26,317.31 25,574.96
Book Value (Rs) 238.38 227.90 208.21 368.86 344.58
Source : Dion Global Solutions Limited

 

Profit and Loss Account.

 

I am unable to form this here in the format it is provided.

 

Visit the Link.

IOCL P&L Account.

 

IOCL Balance Sheet.

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Corporate Donations Political Parties About


Veerappa Moily, Petroleum Minister went on TV stating that whenever the Government tries to effect some changes in Petroleum pricing, the Ministers are being threatened.

BJP and Donations

BJP receives Donations from Companies

By whom?

Obviously by the Companies.

Corporate Donations

Corporate donate to Political Parties

No minister can be sure of his berth in the Cabinet if he dares to challenge the Business Lobby.

More cozy,better for you.

No wonder there is high pressure lobbying by the Cabinet Post aspiration.

As a matter of fact, the Business lobbies decide who should be given tickets even!

These companies have Liaison officers like Nira Radia who fix things.

Listen to Radia tapes in my site, you will know how the fixing is done for Minister ship and for even Media fixing.

We have a Law on paer that each party must declare the information of Donations.

But what is reported is only a small negligible portion of what is collected.

“Between 2009-11 period, the Congress party earned almost Rs 750 crore out of which Rs 500 crore were from selling party coupons.  While the party got Rs 111 .73 crore from donations, it earned Rs 44.11 crore from interest. Interestingly, the party got only 12 per cent of the donations that was above Rs 20,000 and about which the party must give the details of the donors. So the party has not declared how it got approximately Rs 600 crore…

Even the BJP has not been any different. The party earned Rs 425 crore during the 2009-11 period out of which Rs 300 crore was from voluntary donations. Approximately Rs 30 crore was as lifelong contribution fund and Rs 3 crore from interest.  The party got just 22 per cent of the money from donors who gave more than Rs 20,000.

Experts say that political parties fear that they are brought under the RTI, then they will have to share details bout their earnings. Between 2010 and 2011 the Congress received only Rs 20,000 or more from only 417 donors while 502 donations made to the BJP were above the Rs 20,000 mark. AIADMK, Shiromani Akali Dal and BSP got no single donations above Rs 20,00..

Ref.

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