Indian Philosophy, Hinduism does not shun those who deny the existence of God.
It is taken as a point of view of Life.
Though philosophical arguments were engaged in rebutting the Carvakas, there not harassed nor branded as Atheists and ostracized.
They were present during the Rig Vedic period, some 5000 years back and their later work is dated to be around 600 BC.
The CarvakaSyatem, the Indian Atheistic Hedonist Syatem is also also called Lokayata.,(worldly wise)
The flip side of this is that the Charvaka’s first Text,the primary source, which is lost to us , is credited to Bruhaspati, the Guru,Preceptor of the Devas!
This shows that though one is a Realized soul, Bruhaspati is One, one is not averse to exploring the other views as well and even propagated one so that to who ever these thoughts appealed they might follow.
Kapila, who is an Avatar of Lord Vishnu is the founder of Samkhya Philosophy,which denies God!
Samkhya is considered s one of the most respected philosophical systems of India.
Hinduism does not differentiate between one who believes in God and one who does not.
Astika system is one that believes in the Authority of the Vedas and others who do not accept the Vedas, Sabda, as the authority are called Nastikas.
Carvakas, Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika are Nastika systems.
What does Carvakas say?
Carvakas do not believe in God, Vedas.
They do not believe in Rebirth and Karma or ceremonies.
They take Perception only as the means of knowledge and deny even inference as an Instrument of Knowledge.
Inference, the process by which, we come to know of things by things that are present before us.
The presence of electricity is inferred by the results it produces,like Light, Sound .
Carvakas, do not admit this knowledge , saying that the conditions for this inference may not always be correct.
They imply that One result may be caused by more than one Cause.
This is rebutted by Advaita and it proves that Inference is an essential tool, by describing Parinamavada and Vivartahvada, that is Cause is contained in the Effect and Effect in the Cause.
I shall write on this in detail.
For the Carvakas, Pleasure is the only Goal.
On Death, Birth, origin of the Universe , they brush every thing aside by saying it is Nature.
They do not go into the point of what Nature is.
This enquiry is done by the Astika systems like Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaiseshika,Mimamsa and Vedanta, apart from Vedas, which deals with this subject in detail.
Cārvāka means “agreeable speech” or “sweet talkers” (चारु, cāru – agreeable, pleasant or sweet and वाक, vāk – speech). Its traditional name, Lokāyata (Sanskrit: लोकायत) signifies “directed towards, aiming at the world” (लोक, loka which means “worlds, abode, place of truth, people”, and आयत, āyata means “extended, directed towards, aiming at”
Some observations by Carvaka.
‘The Carvaka epistemology holds perception as the primary and proper source of knowledge, while inference is held as prone to being either right or wrong and therefore conditional or invalid Perception are of two types, for Carvaka, external and internal. External perception is described as that arising from the interaction of five senses and worldly objects, while internal perception is described by this school as that of inner sense, the mind. Inference is described as deriving a new conclusion and truth from one or more observations and previous truths. To Carvakas, inference is useful but prone to error, as inferred truths can never be without doubt. Inference is good and helpful, it is the validity of inference that is suspect – sometimes in certain cases and often in others. To the Cārvākas there were no reliable means by which the efficacy of inference as a means of knowledge could be established…
Cārvākas denied metaphysical concepts like reincarnation, extracorporeal soul, efficacy of religious rites, other worlds (heaven and hell), fate and accumulation ofmerit or demerit through the performance of certain actions.Cārvākas also rejected the use of supernatural causes to describe natural phenomena. To them all natural phenomena was produced spontaneously from the inherent nature of things.
The fire is hot, the water cold, refreshing cool the breeze of morn;
By whom came this variety ? from their own nature was it born.
Consciousness and afterlife.
There is no other world other than this;
There is no heaven and no hell;
The realm of Shiva and like regions,
are invented by stupid imposters.
The Sarvasiddhanta Samgraha states the Carvaka position on pleasure and hedonism as follows,
The enjoyment of heaven lies in eating delicious food, keeping company of young women, using fine clothes, perfumes, garlands, sandal paste… while moksha is death which is cessation of life-breathe… the wise therefore ought not to take pains on account ofmoksha.
A fool wears himself out by penances and fasts. Chastity and other such ordinances are laid down by clever weaklings.
—Sarvasiddhanta Samgraha, Verses 9-12
No independent works on Cārvāka philosophy can be found except for a few sūtras composed by Brihaspati. The 8th century Tattvopaplavasimha of Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa withMadhyamaka influence is a significant source of Carvaka philosophy. Shatdarshan Samuchay and Sarvadarśanasaṅ̇graha of Vidyaranya are a few other works which elucidate Cārvāka thought.
Lord Rama had a detailed discussion with Jabali, a Carvaka, Please read my post on this.
The vital difference in acquiring Knowledge between India and the West lies in the fact that while Knowledge is a Positive Concept in the West, it is Negative Concept in India.
knowledge, in its fundamental form Awareness, is, not acquisition of some thing new and external to us,but the removal of Ignorance,Misconceptions Avidya.
Once the false notions are removed Real knowledge shines forth.
Buddhism and Jainism state the same Truth but there are minor Philosophical differences on this with Hinduism.
Pure Knowledge is Pure Consciousness, Chit.
Please read my Post Vedas on Consciousness.
There are many methods of obtaining this Knowledge.
Patanjali follows the Raja Yoga in his Yoga Sutras.
He describes the process of obtaining this Knowledge in the first Yoga Sutra.
‘Yoga:Chitta Vruththi Nirodhithaha’
Yoga(Union with Reality) is Cessation of Modification of Chitta.
For detailed explanation please read my post on this.
On successful completion of the Yoga procedures, or even during the process one shall gain some special powers.
These are eight in number.
Aṇimā: reducing one’s body even to the size of an atom
Mahima: expanding one’s body to an infinitely large size
Garima: becoming infinitely heavy
Laghima: becoming almost weightless
Prāpti: having unrestricted access to all place
Prākāmya: realizing whatever one desires
Iṣṭva: possessing absolute lordship
Vaśtva: the power to subjugate all
Of this Laghima is the power to defy Gravity.
As Reality is One and as are the Reality, the realized Ones, can alter the perceived objects and bend them to their Will.
They can regroup the atomic composition of Matter.
They can make things lighter than air, make things move in a Vacuum.
All these were documented bu Yogis and Siddhas in their works in the form of Sutras.
There was a group of Nine Unknown Men during the period of Emperor Ashoka, who were the guardians of these.
They were the Illuminati of India.
Please read my Post on this.
Such a Manuscript was found in Lhasa, Tibet by the Chinese.
Read the following.
‘The “Nine Unknown Men” wrote a total of nine books, presumably one each. Book number was “The Secrets of Gravitation!” This book, known to historians, but not actually seen by them dealt chiefly with “gravity control.”
It is presumably still around somewhere, kept in a secret library in India, Tibet or elsewhere (perhaps even in North America somewhere). One can certainly undertand Ashoka’s reasoning for wanting to keep such knowledge a secret, assuming it exists, if the Nazis had such weapons at their disposal during World War II. Ashoka was also aware devastating wars using such advanced vehicles and other ‘futuristic weapons’ that had destroyed the ancient Indian “Rama Empire” several thousand years before.
Only a few years ago, the Chinese discovered some sanskrit documents in Lhasa, Tibet and sent them to the University of Chandrigarh to be translated. Dr. Ruth Reyna of the University said recently that the documents contain directions for building interstellar spaceships!
Their method of propulsion, she said, was “anti-gravitational” and was based upon a system analogous to that of “laghima,” the unknown power of the ego existing in man’s physiological makeup, “a centrifugal force strong enough to counteract all gravitational pull.” According to Hindu Yogis, it is this “laghima” which enables a person to levitate.
Dr. Reyna said that on board these machines, which were called “Astras” by the text, the ancient Indians could have sent a detachment of men onto any planet, according to the document, which is thought to be thousands of years old.
The manuscripts were also said to reveal the secret of “antima”; “the cap of invisibility” and “garima”; “how to become as heavy as a mountain of lead.”
Naturally, Indian scientists did not take the texts very seriously, but then became more positive about the value of them when the Chinese announced that they were including certain parts of the data for study in their space program!
This was one of the first instances of a government admitting to be researching anti-gravity.
The manuscripts did not say definitely that interplanetary travel was ever made but did mention, of all things, a planned trip to the Moon, though it is not clear whether this trip was actually carried out. However, one of the great Indian epics, the Ramayana, does have a highly detailed story in it of a trip to the moon in a Vimana (or “Astra”), and in fact details a battle on the moon with an “Asvin” (or Atlantean” airship. ..
According to ancient Indian texts, the people had flying machines which were called “Vimanas.” The ancient Indian epic describes a Vimana as a double-deck, circular aircraft with portholes and a dome, much as we would imagine a flying saucer.
It flew with the “speed of the wind” and gave forth a “melodious sound.” There were at least four different types of Vimanas; some saucer shaped, others like long cylinders (“cigar shaped airships”).
The ancient Indian texts on Vimanas are so numerous, it would take volumes to relate what they had to say. The ancient Indians, who manufactured these ships themselves, wrote entire flight manuals on the control of the various types of Vimanas, many of which are still in existence, and some have even been translated into English.
The Samara Sutradhara is a scientific treatise dealing with every possible angle of air travel in a Vimana. There are 230 stanzas dealing with the construction, take-off, cruising for thousand of miles, normal and forced landings, and even possible collisions with birds.
In 1875, the Vaimanika Sastra, a fourth century B.C. text written by Bharadvajy the Wise, using even older texts as his source, was rediscovered in a temple in India.
It dealt with the operation of Vimanas and included information on the steering, precautions for long flights, protection of the airships from storms and lightening and how to switch the drive to “solar energy” from a free energy source which sounds like “anti-gravity.”
The Vaimanika Sastra (or Vymaanika-Shaastra) has eight chapters with diagrams, describing three types of aircraft, including apparatuses that could neither catch on fire nor break.
It also mentions 31 essential parts of these vehicles and 16 materials from which they are constructed, which absorb light and heat; for which reason they were considered suitable for the construction of Vimanas.
This document has been translated into English and is available by writing the publisher: VYMAANIDASHAASTRA AERONAUTICS by Maharishi Bharadwaaja, translated into English and edited, printed and published by Mr. G. R. Josyer, Mysore, India, 1979 (sorry, no street address). Mr. Josyer is the director of the International Academy of Sanskrit Investigation located in Mysore’
I have been planning to write on Buddhism and Jainism, the two Great Religions of India apart from Hinduism.
To begin with let me share information about the propagation of Buddhism around the world.
Ashoka Maurya (/əˈʃoʊkə/; Sanskrit: अशोक मौर्य; 304–232 BCE), commonly known as Ashoka and also as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE. One of India’s greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over a realm that stretched from the Hindu Kush mountains in the west to Bengal in the East and covered the entire Indian subcontinent except parts of present day Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The empire’s capital wasPataliputra (in Magadha, present-day Bihar), with provincial capitals at Taxila and Ujjain.
Asoka took to Buddhism with great zest and propagated it around the world by sending out preachers.
He had recorded this in his edicts.
The Ashoka inscriptions represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism. The edicts describe in detail the first wide expansion of Buddhism through the sponsorship of one of the most powerful kings of Indian history. According to the edicts, the extent of Buddhist proselytism during this period reached as far as the Mediterranean, and many Buddhist monuments were created.
The inscriptions proclaim Asoka’s beliefs in the Buddhist concept of dhamma and his efforts to develop “dhamma” throughout his kingdom. Although Buddhism and the Buddha are mentioned, the edicts of Asoka tend to focus on social and moral precepts rather than religious practices or the philosophical dimension of Buddhism.
The inscriptions revolve around a few repetitive themes: Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism, the description of his efforts to spread Buddhism, his moral and religious precepts, and his social and animal welfare program.
Ashoka explains that he converted to Buddhism out of remorse for his conquest of the Kalingas around 264 B.C.E. in eastern India (near the present-day state of Orissa):
Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, conquered the Kalingas eight years after his coronation. One hundred and fifty thousand were deported, one hundred thousand were killed and many more died (from other causes). After the Kalingas had been conquered, Beloved-of-the-Gods came to feel a strong inclination towards the Dhamma, a love for the Dhamma and for instruction in Dhamma. Now Beloved-of-the-Gods feels deep remorse for having conquered the Kalingas (Rock Edict Nb13, S. Dhammika).
Following his conversion, Ashoka traveled throughout India and visited sacred Buddhist locations, where he would typically erect a pillar bearing his inscriptions:
Twenty years after his coronation, Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, visited this place and worshipped because here the Buddha, the sage of the Sakyans, was born. He had a stone figure and a pillar set up and because the Lord was born here, the village of Lumbini was exempted from tax and required to pay only one eighth of the produce (Minor Pillar Edict Nb1, S. Dhammika).
Ashoka’s concept of “Dhamma” seems to be synonymous with righteousness. In order to propagate the Buddhist faith, Ashoka explains he sent emissaries to the Hellenistic kings as far as the Mediterranean, and to the peoples throughout India, claiming they were all converted to the Dharma as a result. He names the Greek rulers of the time, inheritors of the conquest of Alexander the Great, from Bactria to as far as Greece and North Africa, displaying an amazingly clear grasp of the political situation at the time.
Buddhist proselytism at the time of kingAshoka (260-218 B.C.E.).
Now it is conquest by Dhamma that Beloved-of-the-Gods considers to be the best conquest. And it (conquest by Dhamma) has been won here, on the borders, even six hundred yojanas away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni (Rock Edict Nb13, S. Dhammika).
The distance of 600 yojanas (a yojanas being about 7 miles), corresponds to the distance between the center of India and Greece (roughly 4,000 miles).
Antiochos refers to Antiochus II Theos of Syria (261-246 B.C.E.), who controlled the Seleucid Empire from Syria to Bactria, in the east from 305 to 250 B.C.E., and was therefore a direct neighbor of Ashoka.
Ptolemy refers to Ptolemy II Philadelphos of Egypt (285-247 B.C.E.), king of the dynasty founded by Ptolemy I, a former general of Alexander the Great, in Egypt.
Antigonos refers to Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedon (278-239 B.C.E.)
Magas refers to Magas of Cyrene (300-258 B.C.E.)
Alexander refers to Alexander II of Epirus (272-258 B.C.E.)
One of the axioms of Hinduism, Sanatana Dharma is that what is in Microcosm is in the Macrocosm and Macrocosm is in the Microcosm.
That whatever one finds in the Universe, not just the Earth, is in the Human being.
Knowledge in Hinduism is based on this concept.
Knowledge is not some thing one acquires from outside but within.
Here it would be of interest to recall a Paradox of Zeno.
If you possess Knowledge , you do not need to seek it.
If you do not possess Knowledge and seek for it, you will not be able to identify it as you do not possess knowledge.
So in both the cases Knowledge is impossible!
Hinduism states that Knowledge is the removal of Ignorance, Avidya.
Knowledge is Absolute and is an attribute of the Reality, Brahman.
I had touched on this in a few posts and will be discussing in detail later.
Now to what we find in the Universe , in the ultimate analysis, is made of these Five Elements,
Earth, Water, Fire ,Air and Ether.
These Five elements are present in the Human body.
I have posted articles on how the Fire element(Agni) functions in the Human body in various functions like Digestion.
And one can find the mental stages in spiritual developments, like attaining Chandra Stage is also found as the Moon in the Universe.
The examples are many.
One such is the term Meru.
Meru is explained in the Tantra Shastras as a Highly evolved stage of spiritual development.
Lalitha Devi is described as Meru Mandala Madhyastha Sriman Nagara Nayika’
It is also explained in the Hindu texts as being present in the The Universe.
‘Sadaputa presents the Bhuloka or Jambudvipa and Meru as well as other islands and seas as flat. According to Surya Siddhanta it is round like and upside-down bowl.
With Meru on the top it is in the center. One reason mathematically it is so, is that the planets are having degrees north and south and they should not “crash into” Bhuloka. If the planets crash into Bhuloka then we take Bhuloka as a “subtle” land or as “symbolic” of other things. Bhu is this land, bhavah is outer space, sva is upper spaces as in the Gayatri mantra, where we chant, om bhur bhuvah svah tat savitur varenyam. Above the Bhuloka planetary system is Bhuvarloka, and above that is Svargaloka, the heavenly planetary system'(hare krisna.com)
The current location of Mounrt Meru is variously placed at Mount Everest, Kailash, Arctic, Arkaim in Russia and in Peru.
“In Japanese Buddhist philosophy, a giant mountain called Mount Sumeru (Shumisen) was believed to stand at the center of the world.”
Meru’s description in the Mahabharata.
“Dhritarashtra said.—“Thou art intelligent, O Sanjaya, and acquainted with the truth (about everything). Thou hast duly given a description of the island in brief. Tell us now of the island in detail. Tell us now of the dimension of the expanse of land that lies in the portion looking like a hare. Thou mayst then speak of the portion resembling peepul tree.”
According to Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmako?abh?syam, Sumeru is 80,000 yojanas tall. The exact measure of the yojana is uncertain, but some accounts put it at about 24,000 feet, or approximately 4 1/2 miles. It also descends beneath the surface of the surrounding waters to a depth of 80,000 yojanas, being founded upon the basal layer of Earth. Sumeru is often used as a simile for both size and stability in Buddhist texts.
Please read my posts on this.
Like Meru there is this concept of Shambala, a place 0f Perfection in Tibetan Buddhism.
Tibetan texts appear to show historical facts about Shambhalla. The data recorded in these texts give names, dates and corresponding events occurring in the outside world. The Hindus and Buddhist alike regard Mount Meru, located in the Himalayas, as the location of Shambhalla. It is the center of the cosmos, having its roots in hell and its summit in heaven.
The mountain peak houses a magnificent central palace radiating a powerful, diamond like light, which is the home of Indra, King of Hindu gods.
Legends tell of her slopes being studded with glittering gemstones and thick with trees heavy with delicious fruit. She is circled by seven rings of golden mountains, each separated from the other by one of seven circular oceans. This entire superstructure rises from an outer ocean, and is flanked by four main continents, each with two subcontinents.
The southern continent, Jambudvipa, corresponds to the physical earth. Each of the other continents represents a nearby planet upon which transmigrating souls following the yellow light-path may be reborn.
Tibetan religious texts tell us that the technology of Shambhalla is supposed to be highly advanced; the palace contains special skylights made of lenses which serve as high-powered telescopes to study extraterrestrial life, and for hundreds of years Shambhalla’s inhabitants have been using aircraft and cars that shuttle through a network of underground tunnels.
On the way to enlightenment, Shambhallans acquire such powers as clairvoyance, the ability to move at great speeds, and the ability to materialize and disappear at will.
Andrew Tomas, author of ‘Shambhalla, Oasis of Light’, writes,
This remarkable kingdom reputedly exists both above and below ground, with a network of tunnels hundreds of miles long. Cars of strange design flash along their length and they are illumined by a brilliant, artificial light which affords growth to the grains and vegetables and long life without disease to the people.
Hebrew legends speak of a place called Luz which is described as an underground city near a sacred mountain called the ‘abode of immortality’.
Some Tibetans think Shambhalla might be in Tibet, perhaps in the Kunlun mountains; others point toward the region around Mongolia and Sinkiang province of China. Others believe it to in Siberia or some other part of Russia. Some lamas claim that it is hidden in the frozen Artic. Others believe Shambhalla only exists in an parallel universe or higher dimension.
In the years between 1923 and 1928, Nicholas Roerich, led an expedition across the Gobi Desert to the Atlai mountain, a journey which covered 15,500 miles across 35 of the world’s highest mountain passes.
It is rumored that he may have been on a mission to find and return what was said to be part of the sacred ‘Chintamani Stone,’ which was believed to be part of a magical meteorite from the solar system in the constellation of Orion. According to Lamaist legend, a fragment of this stone from what may be the star Sirius, is sent wherever a spiritual mission vital to humanity is set up, and is returned when that mission is completed.
The stone is said possess occult properties, capable of giving telepathic inner guidance and effecting a transformation of consciousness to those in contact with it.
Whether he retrieved the stone or not is not known, but what we do know for certain is that he was sent in search of it by the League of Nations. Just in the fact that he was sent on this expedition lends credibility to the existence of the Shambhalla legends.
Roerich was a man of great creditability.
To his credit, he was a philosopher, author, explorer, member of the Theosophical Society, member of the League of Nations, influential in the FDR administration and was the pivotal force behind placing the Great Seal of the United States on the American dollar. He also produced hundred of paintings capturing the essence of the area and its people.
Roerich strove to link all scientific and creative disciplines to advance true culture and international peace, citing the power of art and beauty to accomplish such a feat. In honor of his efforts, in 1935 The Roerich Peace Pact was established, which obligated nations to respect museums, cathedrals, universities and libraries as they did hospitals, and became part of the United Nations organizational charter.
In his travels through China and Mongolia to the borders of Tibet, Roerich met with a lama that described Shambhalla to him.
According to this famous explorer, Roerich was told,
‘Great Shambhalla is far beyond the ocean. It is the mighty heavenly domain. It has nothing to do with our Earth… Only in some places, in the Far North, can you discern the resplendent rays of Shambhala.’
The Star Gate.
Thousands of miles in height, Meru is located somewhere beyond the physical plane of reality, in a realm of perfection and transcendence. Symbolic representations of Mount Meru are commonly found in Tibetan mandalas, contemplative diagrams designed to aid meditators in focusing.
It is said that Meru has its roots in hell, and its summit in heaven. Meru is surrounded by seven rings of golden mountains, each separated from the other by one of seven circular oceans. It is crowned by a golden palace wherein Indra, king of Hindu gods, resides. This entire superstructure rises from an outer ocean, and is flanked by four main continents, each with two subcontinents.
The southern continent, Jambudvipa, corresponds to the physical earth. Each of the other continents represents a nearby planet upon which transmigrating souls following the yellow light-path may be reborn. However, it is said that all of these worlds are undesirable, for they are non-human worlds inhabited by sheep, cattle, or horses. The teachings of Buddhism clearly state that existence as a human being is the only way to achieve Buddhahood, so rebirth in any other form (including that of a deva or demigod) is a distraction from the path to enlightenment.
According to legend, somewhere in the northwest region of Jambudvipa lies a land called Shambhala. This is a magical land which is shaped like an eight-petalled lotus flower. It has been ruled by priest-kings for many thousands of years; in fact, the legend of Shambhala predates the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet. In the aboriginal Bon religion, Shambhala is known as Olmolungrung, and is based on the square instead of the circle.
Shambhala forms a gateway between the physical and spiritual realms. It is endowed with riches, and is ideally suited for the habitat of enlightened souls. They are not attached to the fruits of karma, and are but one step from Buddhahood. This is the realm to be sought for rebirth if one desires the swiftest path to nirvana.
In the Tibetan Buddhist version of the apocalypse, barbarians will overtake the earth at the end of the Kali Yuga, the present age. It will be necessary for the king of Shambhala to join forces with the gods to wage war on the barbarians.At this time, armies will be sent forth from the city, the location of which has been kept secret for millenia. Order will be restored on earth, and the wisdom which Shambhala has been holding will be dispensed to the peoples of the world(Tibetan Buddhism)
There are records that show that the Northwest of India was once ruled by Greeks.
However the relations between the Greeks and India,especially the Tamils date back to centuries earlier.
These Greek Kings later ,some of them, converted to Buddhism.
They held both Hinduism and Buddhism that they minted Coins in honor of the Deities of these religions.though Buddhism does not endorse the view of God.
These coins date back to 185 BC.
“Arunad Yavanah Sāketam” (“The Yavanas (Greeks) were besieging Saketa”)
“Arunad Yavano Madhyamikām” (“The Yavanas were besieging Madhyamika” (the “Middle country”)).-Patanjali in Mahabhasya.
“Sudras will also be utterers of bho (a form of address used towards an equal or inferior), and Brahmins will be utterers of arya (a form of address used towards a superior), and the elders, most fearful of dharma, will fearlessly exploit the people. And in the city the Yavanas, the princes, will make this people acquainted with them: but the Yavanas, infatuated by war, will not remain in Madhyadesa.”
—Yuga Purana, Paragraph 55–56, 2002 edition.
There is also significant archaeological evidence, including some epigraphic evidence, for the Indo-Greek kings, such as the mention of the “Yavana” embassy of king Antialcidason the Heliodorus pillar in Vidisha.
Agathocles Dikaios (Greek: Ἀγαθοκλῆς ὁ Δίκαιος; epithet meaning: “the Just”) was a Buddhist Indo-Greek king, who reigned between around 190 and 180 BC. He might have been a son of Demetrius and one of his sub-kings in charge of the Paropamisadebetween Bactria and India. In that case, he was a grandson of Euthydemus whom he qualified on his coins as Βασιλεὺς Θεός,Basileus Theos (Greek for “God-King”).
At the same time, Agathocles issued an intriguing range of bilingual coinage, displaying what seems to be Buddhist as well as Hinduist symbolism. The coins, manufactured according to the Indian standard, using either Brahmi, Greek orKharoshthi (a first in the Greek world), and displaying symbols of the various faiths in India, tend to indicate a considerable willingness to accommodate local languages and beliefs, to an extent unseen in subsequent Indo-Greek kings. They may be indicative of the considerable efforts of the first Indo-Greek kings to secure support from Indian populations and avoid being perceived as invaders, efforts which may have subsided once the Indo-Greek kingdoms were more securely in place.’