The OM MantraImage.jpeg
Hinduism

OM Changes In Brain Cerebral Blood Flow MRI Study


I have written a few articles on the advanced concepts in Hinduism.

Frequency of OM Sound.jpg Frequency of OM. Image credit. http://www.walkingimes.com

Quantum Physics,

Advanced Gravitational Theory,

Weapons of Mass Destruction,

Sound,

Light,

Particle Physics,

Biology,

Surgery,

Plastic Surgery,

Stem Cell Research,

Astronomy,

Meteorology,

Ophthalmology,

DNA Study and advanced concepts,…..

the list is long.

Effects of Chanting OM.image.jpg Effects of Chanting OM. Image credit.www.guruprasad.net

Please google the term + ramanan50 to read these articles or check under Hinduism, Astrophysics, Science in the site.

I had recently written as to how a Tonoscope produces the Sri Yantra when OM is chanted.

There have been specific researches conducted on the Mantras, including the Gayatri Mantra and OM.

I am quoting the excerpts of three different researches on OM,relating to OM’s resonance effects on the Brain, on Cerebral Cortex where the Blood supply is improved,Mind calms down, Blood pressure is brought under control.

These experiments were conducted by eminent scientists, not all of them Indians under strict research procedures.

Here are the Abstracts of the Studies.

I am providing the Links  and you may be read the full reports there.

Hemodynamic responses on prefrontal cortex related to meditation and attentional task

Recent neuroimaging studies state that meditation increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present study employed functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate the relative hemodynamic changes in PFC during a cognitive task. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers with ages between 18 and 30 years (group mean age ± SD; 22.9 ± 4.6 years) performed a color-word stroop task before and after 20 min of meditation and random thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed followed by a post hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons between the mean values of “During” and “Post” with “Pre” state. During meditation there was an increased in oxy-hemoglobin (ΔHbO) and total hemoglobin (ΔTHC) concentration with reduced deoxy-hemoglobin (ΔHbR) concentration over the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC), whereas in random thinking there was increased ΔHbR with reduced total hemoglobin concentration on the rPFC. The mean reaction time (RT) was shorter during stroop color word task with concomitant reduction in ΔTHC after meditation, suggestive of improved performance and efficiency in task related to attention. Our findings demonstrated that meditation increased cerebral oxygenation and enhanced performance, which was associated with activation of the PFC…

Meditation is a complex mental process that aims to calm the fluctuations of the mind and improve cognitive functions. Several meditation techniques from diverse traditions (e.g., Transcendental meditation, Buddhists, Zen, Yoga, Vipassana, Brahmakumari, Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) etc.,) demonstrated that regular practice of meditation develops awareness to the contents of subjective experience, including thoughts, sensations, intentions, and emotions (Saggar et al., 2012). It is considered as a voluntary means of mental training to achieve greater control of higher mental functions. Traditional yoga texts like Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras (the Sage Patanjali’, Circa 900 B.C.) and Bhagavad Gita (Circa 400–600 B.C.) very well describe the connection between meditation and mental modifications. Traditionally, two states of meditation have been described, viz., (i) focused meditation (dharana in Sanskrit, Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, Chapter III, Verse 1), and this state is supposed to lead to the next stage of effortless mental expansion i.e., (iii) meditation (dhyana in Sanskrit; Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, Chapter III, Verse 2). When not in meditation, it is said that the mind may be in two other states (Telles et al., 2012). These are (i) random thinking (cancalata in Sanskrit;Bhagavad Gita, chapter VI, verse 34); and (ii) non-meditative focused thinking (ekagrata in Sanskrit;Bhagavad Gita, chapter VI, verse 12) (Telles et al., 2014).

In recent years, there have been a number of neuroimaging studies showing that meditation improves cognitive performance as signified by behavioral and neurophysiological measures (Tang et al., 2007; Lutz et al., 2009). Previous studies have shown that the practice of meditation enhances behavioral performance viz., perceptual discrimination and sustained attention during visual discrimination task (MacLean et al., 2010). Meditation practice develops the ability to engage the attention onto an object for extended periods of time (Carter et al., 2005; Jha et al., 2007; Lutz et al., 2008). It improves the control over the distribution of limited brain resources in the temporal domain, as measured by the attentional blink task (van Leeuwen et al., 2009; Slagter et al., 2011). Long term meditation practice has been found to enhance cognitive performance (Cahn and Polich, 2006), attentional focus, alerting (Jha et al., 2007), processing speed (Lutz et al., 2009; Slagter et al., 2009), and overall information processing (van Vugt and Jha, 2011). In a study, Buddhist meditation practitioners showed mindfulness meditation was positively correlated with sustained attention, when compared to non-meditation practitioners (Moore and Malinowski, 2009). Improvements in sustained attention and attentional error monitoring demonstrated a positive correlation with increased activation in executive attention networks in meditators (Short et al., 2010). Other studies have shown that meditation is associated with improved conflict scores on the attention network test (Tang et al., 2007), reduced interference (Chan and Woollacott, 2007) and enhanced attentional performance during the stroop task compared to meditation-naïve control group (Moore and Malinowski, 2009). These studies provide significant evidence of meditation promoting the higher-order cognitive processing (Zeidan et al., 2010), particularly, the features of conflict monitoring and cognitive control processes…

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330717/

Neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Background:

A sensation of vibration is experienced during audible ‘OM’ chanting. This has the potential for vagus nerve stimulation through its auricular branches and the effects on the brain thereof. The neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting are yet to be explored.

Materials and Methods:

Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), the neurohemodynamic correlates of audible ‘OM’ chanting were examined in right-handed healthy volunteers (n=12; nine men). The ‘OM’ chanting condition was compared with pronunciation of “ssss” as well as a rest state. fMRI analysis was done using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5).

Results:

In this study, significant deactivation was observed bilaterally during ‘OM’ chanting in comparison to the resting brain state in bilateral orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyri, thalami and hippocampi. The right amygdala too demonstrated significant deactivation. No significant activation was observed during ‘OM’ chanting. In contrast, neither activation nor deactivation occurred in these brain regions during the comparative task – namely the ‘ssss’ pronunciation condition.

Conclusion:

The neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting indicate limbic deactivation. As similar observations have been recorded with vagus nerve stimulation treatment used in depression and epilepsy, the study findings argue for a potential role of this ‘OM’ chanting in clinical practice.

Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is used as treatment in depression and epilepsy.[1,2] A positron emission tomography (PET) study[3] has shown decreased blood flow to limbic brain regions during direct (cervical) VNS. Another functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study[4] has shown significant deactivation of limbic brain regions during transcutaneous VNS. In this procedure electrical stimulus is applied over the inner part of the left tragus and hence the auricular branch of the vagus.

The use of ‘OM’ chanting for meditation is well known.[5] Effective ‘OM’ chanting is associated with the experience of vibration sensation around the ears. It is expected that such a sensation is also transmitted through the auricular branch of the vagus nerve. We therefore hypothesized that like transcutaneous VNS, ‘OM’ chanting too produces limbic deactivation. Specifically, we predicted that ‘OM’ chanting would evoke similar neurohemodynamic correlates, deactivation of the limbic brain regions, amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and thalamus) as were found in the previous study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099099/

Ajay Anil Gurjar and Siddharth A Ladhake published their first OM paper, Time-Frequency Analysis of Chanting Sanskrit Divine Sound “OM”, in 2008 in the International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security.

Ladhake is the principal at Sipna’s College of Engineering and Technology in Amravati, India. Gurjar is an assistant professor in that institution’s department of electronics and telecommunication. Both specialise in electronic signal processing. They now sub-specialise in analysing the one very special signal.

In the introductory paper, Gurjar and Ladhake explain (in case there is someone unaware of the basics): “Om is a spiritual mantra, outstanding to fetch peace and calm. The entire psychological pressure and worldly thoughts are taken away by the chanting of Om mantra.”

They apply a mathematical tool called wavelet transforms to a digital recording of a person chanting “Om”. Even people with no mathematical background can appreciate, on some level, one of the blue-on-white graphs included in the monograph. This graph, the authors say, “depicts the chanting of ‘Om’ by a normal person after some days of chanting”. The image looks like a pile of nearly identical, slightly lopsided pancakes held together with a skewer, the whole stack lying sideways on a table. To behold it is to see, if nothing else, repetition.

At the end, Gurjar and Ladhake say: “Our attentiveness and our concentration are pilfered from us by the proceedings take place around us in the world in recent times … By this analysis we could conclude steadiness in the mind is achieved by chanting Om, hence proves the mind is calm and peace to the human subject.”

http://www.theguardian.com/education/2010/may/03/repetitive-physics-om-improbable-research

Scientific Evidence: The Efficacy of OM Chanting.

A recent study conducted at Spina’s College of Engineering & Technology in Maharashtra, India, on one particular mantra, OM, resulted in some profound conclusions. Ajay Anil Gurjar, Siddharth A. Ladhake, and Ajay P. Thakare explain, “OM does not have a translation. Therefore, the Hindus consider it as the very name of the Absolute, it is body of sound. In the scriptures of ancient India, the OM is considered as the most powerful of all the mantras. The others are considered aspects of the OM, and the OM is the matrix of all other mantras. It has been recognized that the Mantras have beneficial effects on human beings and even plants. The syllable OM is quite familiar to a Hindu. It occurs in every prayer. Invocation to most gods begins with this syllable. OM is also pronounced as AUM. The syllable OM is not specific to Indian culture. It has religious significance in other religions also. Although OM is not given any specific definition and is considered to be a cosmic sound, a primordial sound, the totality of all sounds etc. The entire psychological pressure and worldly thoughts are removed by chanting OM Mantra.”

Chanting OM resulted in significant brain wave frequency changes, as evidenced in the participant’s EEG readings. Gujare, Ladhake, and Thakare explain the reading thusly, “From this we could conclude that chanting OM mantra results in stabilization of [the] brain, removal of worldly thoughts and an increase of energy. It means that concentrating on OM mantra and continuously doing it slowly shifts our attention. It is a reflection of the most fundamental interlocking processes in our bodies…the harmony we play echoes the harmonic relationships of every vital system i.e. our heartbeat, our breathing, our brainwaves pulsing, our neuronal firing, our cells throbbing, our metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal rhythms and our behaviors in our addictions and our habits. In this sense OM mantra is a brain stabilizer, by practicing it one can enter deeper and deeper into a natural state, which is also an energy medicine for human beings under stress.”

http://www.wakingtimes.com/2013/05/27/the-mind-blowing-power-of-mantra-yoga/

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Science

Racism Embedded In Brain Science. Krishna Says?


In the Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna informs Krishna,

 

‘Finally one  suffers because hePunya orPaapa.

Racist area of the Brain .jpg

The amygdala CLIPAREA/Shutterstock

 

Punya or Paapa is acquired because of performance of Actions, both Good and Bad.

 

So I have decided not to act, perform any act’

 

So no Punya,Paapa,no rebirth ‘Suffering or Death’

 

Krishna smiles and tells him,

 

‘May be you are right.

 

But facts seem to be otherwise.

 

No one can remain doing Nothing.

 

If you mean by sitting quiet means you do not perform an action, you are mistakes.

 

Your very Perception affects the Perceived , both Animate and Inanimate(This point has been proved by Quantum, please read my Post )

 

You have to eat.

 

What you eat has Life.

 

While breathing  you inhale and many Organisms die.

 

One can not avoid performing actions.

 

Because it is the Swabhava, Nature.

 

Look at Me.

 

There is Nothing in the World that I need for the World is in Me and me in the World.

 

Yet I perform actions.

 

Why?

 

Because once born one is controlled by the three Gunas, Satva, Rajas and Tamas.

 

So none can help doing what he does’

 

However Krishna later explains how to overcome this, by Abhyasa (Practice) and Vairagya (Right Determination)

 

On this Nature of Man, scientists have determined that racist tendencies are embedded in the Brain.

 

Read the story.

In a number of classic studies, research subjects are asked to complete a seemingly simple task, such as watching words pop up on a screen and quickly categorizing those words as either positive, like “happy,” or negative, like “fear.”

 

But right before the word appears, a face, either black or white, flashes on the screen. “What we find over and over again in the literature,” explains Amodio, “is that if a black person’s face was shown really quickly, then people are quicker at categorizing negative words than positive words that follow it. Versus if a white face was shown really quickly, people are usually quicker to categorize the positive words, compared with the negative words.”

 

These types of biases are quite prevalent.According to a research summary by Stanford University’s Recruitment to Expand Diversity and Excellence program, “about 75% of whites and Asians demonstrated an implicit bias in favor of whites compared to blacks.”

In other words, despite your best intentions, you might be a little bit racist. (Similar unconscious biases have been documented in people’s views of those of different genders, the elderly, and other groups.)

And why do these split-second negative responses exist?

The underlying problem is that our brains have evolved to see patterns in things that are complex, and to categorize the world in order to simplify it.

Thus, when we encounter another person, our brains rapidly and subconsciously try to figure out if he or she is friend or foe: in-group or out-group.

Source.

http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/05/inquiring-minds-david-amodio-your-brain-on-racism

 

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Health

New Brain Area Found Assumption So Far ?


I have a good friend of mine, who is one of the top most Neuro Physicians of the world.

Unlike the great scientists and rationalists of Tamil Nadu, Kaunanidhi, Veeramani and Co, he believes in God.

We were talking at my Home over lunch on medical condition.

No body knows why it is so, nor how the medicine prescribed in controlling it or whether it will have side effects.

When I asked my friend who is treating me,

‘Look, Ramanan,I honestly do not know.

If it work,s continue.

Do not think it is only with your case.

Most of the cases are this way.

Doctors won’t admit it for it will lower their Image.

As to me I am prescribing praying.”Vaidyo Narayno Hari”(I Pray the Greatest Doctor, Lord Vishnu)

That’s all.

Neuro science is still evolving.

We do not know much of Brain functions.

We are exploring.

Sometimes I wonder how these medicines work!”

This from a famous specialist in one of the most complicated fields of medicines.

As if to prove him news has emerged that scientists have found a new area of Brain.

Read On.

esearchers have discovered that an area of the brain that was previously assumed to dampen response to stress, in fact does the opposite and directly promotes anxiety. In reporting their findings in the journal Cell, the investigators add a new dimension to the science of anxiety.

They describe how they found a brain circuit that connects an area called the lateral septum (LS) with other brain structures in a way that directly affects anxiety.

Corresponding author David Anderson, the Seymour Benzer Professor of Biology at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, says:

“Our study has identified a new neural circuit that plays a causal role in promoting anxiety states. Part of the reason we lack more effective and specific drugs for anxiety is that we don’t know enough about how the brain processes anxiety. This study opens up a new line of investigation into the brain circuitry that controls anxiety.”

Figures from the National Institutes of Mental Health show over 18% of adults in the US are affected by anxiety disorders, where people experience excessive worry or tension, often leading to physical symptoms.

Although previous research has focused primarily on the amygdala as being the region in the brain that processes anxiety, Prof. Anderson and colleagues had a hunch that the LS might also be involved, so they decided to study it using mice.

Does the lateral septum promote or inhibit anxiety?

The team set out to investigate a circuit called the septohippocampal axis because previous studies had already mentioned it in connection with anxiety. These had shown that in mice, stress-induced anxious behavior is accompanied by activation of brain cells in the LS, which sits inside this circuit.

But if the LS is active during stress, is it promoting anxiety, or is it limiting it?

Until this study, the belief was the LS dampened the response to stressors. But the team showed in fact the opposite was the case.

They used a technique called optogenetics, where light controls neurons or brain cells, to activate a set of neurons in the LS of mice. The particular neurons had a gene that made them active in response to light.

During this activation, the mice became more anxious. When they tested the effect further, the team found that even a brief burst of activation induced a state of anxiety that persisted for at least half an hour.

This showed that not only were these particular brain cells involved at the start of the anxiety state, but also that this state persists when they are no longer active.

But the reason that – until now – it was thought these brain cells inhibited anxiety was because they are of a type that inhibits other brain cells, says Prof. Anderson. So what was going on?

The lateral septum promotes anxiety via a double-inhibitory circuit

Prof. Anderson and his colleagues decided to test the idea that a double-negative system was involved. Neurons inhibiting inhibitory neurons. And that is indeed what they found.

When they looked at the types of connections the LS made in the brain, they found it was inhibiting neurons in the neighboring hypothalamus, most of which were themselves inhibitors.

Plus, the hypothalamic inhibitory neurons were connected to a third brain structure, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which controls the release of hormones like cortisol in response to stress and is known to be involved in anxiety.

The team found a circuit that appeared to act as a double-inhibitor where activating the LS neurons could result in increased stress and anxiety. When they activated the LS neurons, the levels of circulating stress hormones increased, suggesting the PVN was being activated.

And they also tested the converse: inhibiting the LS connections to the hypothalamus reduced the rise in stress hormones when the mice were under stress.

They concluded that this set of results confirms the double-negative idea.”

Source:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/272114.php

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Science

Right Brain Left Brain Theory Wrong


Science has been touting a Theory that “Right-brained” people are supposedly more creative with strong concentration powers. People who are “left-brained” are more analytical, logical, and better with language..

Now this is proved wrong by a recent Study.involving MRI Scan of 1011 people.

 

The Brain.

Right Brain, Left Brain.

Science ,I maintain , is as good as the last Study.

Yet Science and Scientists assume they are the Masters while heaping abuse on Religion and Philosophy.

Story:

Results from a recent study from researchers at the University of Utah indicate that there is no evidence to support the theory that some people are “right-brained,” while others are “left-brained,” giving you one less easy way to dismiss someone’s peculiar personality.

There has never been strong evidence to uphold this distinction, but the theory stemmed from the notion that there were two distinct personality types, based on which hemisphere of the brain was dominant. The more active side would have noticeable effects on personality and cognition. “Right-brained” people are supposedly more creative with strong concentration powers. People who are “left-brained” are more analytical, logical, and better with language.

Researchers for the study monitored the fMRI brain scans of 1011 participants, all between the ages of 7 to 29, and did not detect support of brain hemisphere dominance. The participants were asked to think about nothing for five to ten minutes (resting brain state/pre-nap state). The researchers then looked at “each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter” (complicated brain stuff, but this sounds like a lot of the brain). According to the study’s lead author, Jared Nielsen:

“We just don’t see patterns where the whole left-brain network is more connected or the whole right-brain network is more connected in some people. It may be that personality types have nothing to do with one hemisphere being more active, stronger, or more connected…”

http://gawker.com/the-left-brain-right-brain-distinction-is-as-fake-as-it-1153790191?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+gawker/full+(Gawker)

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Hinduism, Science

Brain’s Electrical Signature After Death, Pancha Kosas


University of Michigan researchers George Mashour, M.D., Ph.D., and Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D.

University of Michigan researchers George Mashour, M.D., Ph.D., and Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., provide the first scientific framework for near-death experiences.

Human body has five sheaths or layers.

Annamaya Kosa, Of Food,

Pranamaya Kosa,of Vital Breath,

Vijnanamaya Kosa, of Knowledge,

Manomaya Kosa , of Mind and

Ananadamaya Kosa.

These five layers surround the Atman,the individual self.

Annamaya Kosa is made up of the essence of Food, not food itself.

The food we eat gets digested and its essence. called the Rasa and it sustains the body.

Food determines our thoughts and dispositions-read my post on this under Hinduism.

We become what we eat for we think because of what we eat and we become what we think.( Bhagavad Gita)

Prana is the subtle breath, not actual air.

It is the subtle quality of air.

Breath regulation is taught is Yoga;people mistake control of air.

Breath has three aspects,

It is Puraka when inhaled(through the left nostril)

It is also called the Ida Nadi.

Rechaka is drawn through the right nostril, Pingala Nadi.

When retained in the lungs it is Kumbhaka.

The ratio of Pranayama, of breath control is 1:4:3-Puraka:Kumbhaka:Rechakam.

Mind is the other layer.

Thought waves determine what we think and what we think decide what we are and what we become.

Through right food and right breath control, right mental disposition can be attained.

Vijnana or Knowledge is another layer, made of two types of knowledge.

They are,

Para Vidya, Knowledge of the Reality, which is eternal, correct .

The other one is Apara Knowledge, of the mundane kind, Science and other empirical knowledge.

The term Vijnana is used to distinguish from the correct knowledge, Vidya.

All these constitute the attributes of the soul to enable perception and understanding.

By careful and correct practice soul can evolve higher.

When a human being is about to die,of natural causes, ears give out first-loses the power of hearing .

Then eyesight goes.

Speech then fails.

Body becomes getting cold from feet upwards.

When life breath leaves from the left nostril,enters the lungs for last time, it comes out in a long sigh and is life is gone.

This is a description of the process of death in Hindu scriptures.

Even after life has gone out -the Annamaya, Pranamaya are gone-vijnana maya remains for twelve days after death.

It also leaves after the twelfth day ceremony called Sabindekaranam is performed.

Annamaya Kosa is Eternal, remains even after death.

The remnants of the Vijnana is now  detected and scientifically proved in the form of electrical signature in the Brain.

Read On.

The “near-death experience” reported by cardiac arrest survivors worldwide may be grounded in science, according to research at the University of Michigan Health System.

Whether and how the dying brain is capable of generating conscious activity has been vigorously debated.

But in this week’s PNAS Early Edition, a U-M study shows shortly after clinical death, in which the heart stops beating and blood stops flowing to the brain, rats display brain activity patterns characteristic of conscious perception.

“This study, performed in animals, is the first dealing with what happens to the neuropsychological state of the dying brain,” says lead study author Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., associate professor of molecular and integrative physiologyand associate professor of neurology at the University of Michigan Medical School.

“It will form the foundation for future human studies investigating mental experiences occurring in the dying brain, including seeing light during cardiac arrest,” she says.

Approximately 20 percent of cardiac arrest survivors report having had a near-death experience. These visions and perceptions have been called “realer than real,” according to previous research, but it remains unclear whether the brain is capable of such activity after cardiac arrest.

“We reasoned that if near-death experience stems from brain activity, neural correlates of consciousness should be identifiable in humans or animals even after the cessation of cerebral blood flow,” she says.

Researchers analyzed the recordings of brain activity called electroencephalograms (EEGs) from nine anesthetized rats undergoing experimentally induced cardiac arrest.

http://www.reddit.com/tb/1k8y6u

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