The world’s earliest University was established in Takshila,India and it functioned between 500 and 1300 AD.(?)
“Taxila also known as Takshashila, flourished from 600 BC to 500 AD, in the kingdom of Gandhar. 68 subjects were taught at this university and the minimum entry age, ancient texts show, was 16. At one stage, it had 10,500 students including those from Babylon, Greece, Syria, and China. Experienced masters taught the vedas, languages, grammar, philosophy, medicine, surgery, archery, politics, warfare, astronomy, accounts, commerce, documentation, music, dance and other performing arts, futurology, the occult and mystical sciences,complex mathematical calculations. The panel of masters at the university included legendary scholars like Kautilya, Panini, Jivak and Vishnu Sharma. Thus, the concept of a full-fledged university was developed in India.
As early as 700 B.C., there existed a giant University at Takshashila, located in the northwest region of Bharat (India).
During the 800 years that the university was operational, it attained great fame. Its campus was one mile in length and a half-mile in width. It also had 300 lecture halls with stone benches for sitting; laboratories and other facilities were also available. For example, the university had a towering observatory called the Ambudharaavlehi for astronomical research. It has boasted a massive library called Dharma Gunj or Mountain of Knowledge that was set up in three buildings named Ratna Sagar, Ratnodavi and Ratnayanjak. The entrance examination was very difficult and the pass rate was 3 out of every 10 students. Despite this hurdle, the Chinese traveler, Hien Tsang wrote in his diary that 10,000 students and 200 professors were at Nalanda University.
Now archeologists have found another University, which, primary studoes indivates,is older than Nalanda.
It is deduced that the remains of the Telhara university can be older than Nalanda and Vikramshila universities, officials said here Sunday.
Based on the key findings, Bihar’s Arts, Culture and Youth Affairs Secretary Anand Kishor said that based on key findings from the excavation, it can be confirmed that Telhara University was older than Nalanda and Vikramshila.
“A team of archaeologists has found four Buddhist monastery seals made of terracotta, bearing the inscriptions – Sri Prathamshivpur Mahavihariyaye Bikshu Sanghas – in Pali language in Nalanda district that indicated the university’s real name, which is usually described as Telhara University,” Kishor said.
Kishor said Chinese traveller Heuen Tsang visited Telhara in the 7th century AD and he mentioned the university as “Teleadaka” in his narrative.
Kishor told IANS that archaeologists have discovered bricks that were used to lay the ancient university’s foundation.
“Bricks’ dimension 42x32x6 cm revealed a Kushan, first century AD, influence. That is a strong evidence that the Telhara University is older than fourth century’s Nalanda University and seventh century’s Vikramshila University.”.
Kishor said the archaeological discovery was a landmark achievement for Bihar.
He said archaeologists based on previous findings placed the Telhara University in the Gupta period between fourth and seventh century. But the new findings cleared all doubts as to the university’s age.
Atul Kumar Verma, director of state archaeology, said: “It is a positive development in the field of excavation in Bihar.”
“After discovery of remains of fourth century ancient Nalanda and eight century Vikramshila universities, this is the discovery of remains of third ancient university in the state,” Verma said.
He said remains of Telhara University were found during excavation of a 45-foot high mound. “We have also found a huge floor, statues in bronze and stone, and over 100 seals.”
LN Mishra former Union Railway minister India was killed in a blast in Samstipur,Bihar.
The murder investigation case took turns and twists and finally the Anand Marg was blamed.
The Anand Marg at that time blamed for everything including the Purulia Arms drop case where International Players were involved, UK, US among them.
Please read my detailed post on this.
In the present case of LN Mishra there have been allegations galore, the CIA and The KGB.
Wikileaks stoked the fire further by releasing Cables involving the CIA operative,who was related to the accused.
She (Indira Gandhi) realised her credibility was low; she said at a meeting to condole the death of L.N. Mishra (the rail minister killed in a bomb attack in Samastipur), “Even if I were to be killed, they would say that I myself had got it done.” Mishra was a dear friend. He rang me up at midnight before going to Samastipur that he had handed his resignation to her personally. He sadly remarked that he’d be killed at Samastipur and put down the phone. It proved to be true. He was murdered at Samastipur the following day. The murder mystery has not been resolved to this day.”
Lalit Narayan Mishra was Minister of Railways in the government of India from 1973 to 1975. He was brought into politics by the first Chief Minister of Bihar, Krishna Sinha, when he was made parliamentary secretary at his insistence to the First Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. As Minister of Railways, he visited Samastipur on 2 January 1975 to declare open Samastipur-Muzaffarpur broad gauge railway line. A bomb explosion on the dais, seriously injured him. He was rushed to the railway hospital at Danapur where he died next day. The probe in his death still remains unresolved.
It has been argued as to why he was taken from Samastipur to a small railway hospital in Danapur almost 150 km metres away when better medical facilities were available just 30 minutes away at Dharbangha still remains a question. And then why wasn’t the train carrying him made to stop at Patna where he could have got better treatment? It was also alleged that the train was held up at several places, delaying treatment that could have saved Mishra. why was he put on an ordinary passenger train when Rail Ministers have personal saloon cars at their disposal
Like in the matter of death of Lal Bahadur Shastri, former Prime Minsiter, no post mortem was ever carried out on Mishra’s body.
Mishra was born at Basanpatti in Saharsa district. He was a member of the Rajya Sabha in 1964 to 1966 then in 1966 to 1972. He held various posts in the party and government. He was Parliamentary Secretary, Ministry of Planning, Labour and Employment (1957–60), Deputy Minister for Home Affairs (1964–66), Deputy Finance Minister (1966–67), Minister of State for Defence Production (1967–70). From 1970 till February 4, 1973 he was Minister of Foreign Trade. On 5 February 1973 he was made Cabinet Minister of Railways by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
One theory was naming CIA, Indira Gandhi hinted this.
Another theory is that the KGB finished him off to protect its sources in India.
Yet another, which looks feasible, is that Indira Gandhi was involved to protect the scams involving huge sums of money and kickbacks and her suspicion that LN Mishra was siphoning off funds for himself.
The KGB Connection.
Took Indira Gandhi on holiday in the early ’50s to
the Black Sea with handsome Russians around her
Sent suitcases of money to her house when she was PM
Financed 21 non-communist leaders including four
ministers in the 1977 general election
Honey-trapped officials in Indian embassy in Moscow
Persuaded Indira Gandhi about the CIA’s plan to
overthrow and kill her
Indira was a KGB agent.
Pages from the Book ‘The Mitrokhin Archive II: The KGB and the World
Christopher Andrew, Vasili Mitrokhin
The Special Relationship with India
Part 1: The Supremacy of the Indian
The Third World country on which the KGB eventually concen¬trated most operational effort during the Cold War was India. Under Stalin, however, India had been regarded as an imperialist puppet. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia dismissed Mohandas Mahatma* Gandhi, who led India to independence in 1947, as ‘a reactionary….who betrayed the people and helped the imperialists against them; aped the ascetics; pretended in a demagogic way to be a supporter of Indian independence and an enemy of the British; and widely exploited religious prejudice’.1 Despite his distaste for Stalinist attacks Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of inde¬pendent India, ‘had no doubt that the Soviet revolution had advanced human society by a great leap and had lit a bright flame which could not be smothered’. Though later eulogized by Soviet writers as ‘a leader of international magnitude who ranked’ among the best minds of the twentieth century.: Nehru was well aware that until Stalin’s death in 1953 he, like Gandhi, was regarded as a reactionary. During the early years of Indian independence, secret correspondence from Moscow to the Communist Party of India (CP1) was frequently intercepted by the Intelligence Branch (IB) in New Delhi (as it had been when the IB was working for the British Raj). According to the head of the IB, B. N. Mullik, until the early 1950s every instruction that had issued from Moscow had expressed the necessity and importance [for] the Indian Com¬munist Party to overthrow the “reactionary11 Nehru Government. Early in 1951 Mullik gave Nehru a copy of the latest exhortations from Moscow to the CPI, which contained a warning that they must not fall into government hands. Nehru laughed out loud and remarked that Moscow apparently did not know how smart our Intelligence was.4
312 (Page nos)
THE SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH INDIA; PART I
Neither Nehru nor the IB, however, realized how thoroughly the Indian embassy in Moscow was being penetrated by the KGB, using its usual varieties of the honey trap. The Indian diplomat PROKHOR (code name given for the Indian by KGB) was recruited, probably in the early 1950s, with the help of a female swallow (a female Russian prostitute/spy), codenamed NEVEROVA, who presumably seduced him. The KGB was clearly pleased with the material which PROKHOR provided, which included on two occasions the embassy code-book and deciphering tables, since in 1954 it increased his monthly payments from 1,000 to 4,000 rupees. Another Indian diplomat, RADAR, was recruited in 1956, also with the assistance of a swallow, who on this occasion claimed (probably falsely) to be pregnant.6 A third KGB swallow persuaded a cipher clerk in the Indian embassy, ARTUR, to go heavily into debt in order to make it easier to compromise him. He was recruited as an agent in 1957 after being trapped (probably into illegal currency dealing) by a KGB officer posing as a black-marketeer.7 As a result of these and other pen¬etrations of the embassy, Soviet code breakers were probably able to decrypt substantial numbers of Indian diplomatic communications.
As KGB operations in India expanded during the 1950s and 1960s, the Centre seems to have discovered the extent of the IB’s previous penetration of the CPI. According to a KGB report, an investigation into Promode Das Gupta, who became secretary of the Bengal Communist Party in 1959, concluded that he had been recruited by the IB in 1947.* Further significant IB penetrations were discovered in the Kerala and Madras parties.10 By the 1960s KGB penetration of the Indian intelligence community and other parts of its official bureaucracy had enabled it to turn the tables on the IB.11 After the KGB became the main conduit for both money and secret communications from Moscow, high-level IB penetration of the CPI (Communist Party of India) became much more difficult. As in other Communist parties, this secret channel was known only to a small inner circle within the leadership. In 1959 the CPI General Secretary, Ajoy Ghosh, agreed With the Delhi residency on plans to fund an import-export business for trade with the Soviet bloc, headed by a senior Party member codenamed DED, whose profits would be creamed off for “party funds”. Within little more than a decade its annual profits had grown to over 3 million rupees. The Soviet news agency Novosti provided further subsidies by routinely paying the CPI publishing House at a rate 50 per cent above its normal charges
Moscow’s interest in Nehru was greatly enhanced by his emerg¬ence (together with Nasser and Tito) as one of the leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement, which began to take shape at the Bandung Conference in 1955, An exchange of official visits in the same year by Nehru and Khrushchev opened a new era in Indo-Soviet relations. On his return from India in December, Khrushchev reported to the Presidium that he had received a warm welcome, but criticized the ‘primitive1 portrayal of India in Soviet publications and films which demonstrated a poor grasp of Indian culture. Khrushchev was, how¬ever, clearly pleased with the intelligence and personal security pro¬vided by the KGB during his trip and proposed that the officers concerned be decorated and considered for salary increases
American reliance on Pakistan as a strategic counterweight to Soviet influence in Asia encouraged India to turn to the USSR. In 1956 Nehru declared that he had never encountered a ‘grosser case of naked aggression’ than the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt, but failed to condemn the brutal Soviet suppression of the Hungarian Uprising in the same year. India voted against a UN resolution calling for free elections in Hungary and the withdrawal of Soviet forces. The Kremlin increasingly valued Indian support as, with growing frequency, the Non-Aligned Movement tended to vote in the UN with the Soviet bloc rather than the West. During the 1960s India and the Soviet Union found further common cause against Mao’s China.15
Within Nehru’s Congress Party government the KGB set out to cultivate its leading left-wing firebrand and Nehru’s close adviser, Krishna Menon, who became Minister of Defense in 1957 after spending most of the previous decade as, successively, Indian High Commissioner in London and representative at the United Nations. To the Soviet Foreign Minister, Andrei Gromyko, ‘It was…….plain that [Menon] was personally friendly to the Soviet Union. He would say to me heatedly: “You cannot imagine the hatred the Indian people felt and stiff feel to the colonialists, the British…… The methods used by American capital to exploit the backward countries may be oblique, but they’re just as harsh.”I6
In May 1962 the Soviet Presidium (which under Khrushchev replaced the Politburo) authorized the KGB residency in New Delhi to conduct active-measures operations designed to strengthen Menon’s position in India and enhance his personal popularity,
Tell him we keep the PM’s options open as we may get only a Coalition,we will form the Government with him as the PM candidate.
But for political reasons, we may not make this Public, either now or during the Election Campaign.
Negotiate and finalize for 28 seats.
In Karnataka, settle an alliance with parties to whom we can give 10 seats.
Those who ask for more inform them we will provide more seats in the State Elections.
That’s 174 seats.
We need about 280 to form Government on our own.
So 106 more seats are needed.
In Gujarat, no alliance,it will be a straight fight.
I will tell you later how to handle him.
I will make arrangement for these 106 seats myself.
Now make sure that information is leaked to the Media that we are going to face the Elections on our own and through another source, preferably by a civil Servant that all pending Corruption Charges/case are being reopened , ask the CI Director to see me to-morrow at 7am.
The Taj Heritage Corridor case is an alleged scam wherein 2002–2003, the then Chief Minister of Uttar PradeshMayawati and a minister in her government, Nasimuddin Siddiqui, were charged with corruption. The Taj Corridor project was intended to upgrade tourist facilities near the Taj Mahal and was to be implemented during her tenure as Chief Minister. The then BJP government at the Centre gave the Environmental Clearance required for the project near Taj Mahal. However, later on the BJP backed out and then started saying that the project was not cleared by the Environment Ministry and blamed Mayawati for starting construction work near the Taj Mahal...
It has been alleged that Mayawati embezzled the money dedicated for this project. The case is currently under investigation by the Central Bureau of Investigation. Initially, the case saw some rapid progress, when CBI conducted extensive searches on her various addresses, and claimed that though she had claimed income of only Rs. 1.1 crores during her tenure as CM, her bank balance in a single bank went up to 2.5 crore and total assets held by her were estimated at Rs.15 crore. At one point a warrant was expected for her arrest, but she was granted a stay.‘
According to sources, the agency is likely to file a report in the Supreme Court informing that it has not found any evidence in the DA probe against the Yadavs. The court, sources said, would be informed about the closure after Parliament’s monsoon session concludes on September 6.
One of the gunned down robbers involved in Bank Robberies a couple of days ago in Chennai was found to be alive and there seems to be inaccuracies in the Police version of the encounter.
There were no signs of forced entry by the Police in the premises.
Two bullet marks were found in the window at the same height!
The TV which was in the direct line fire was undamaged.
While gunning down may be questioned I feel that the law Enforcement authorities might have had sufficient information of the Robbers before shooting them down in what seems to be a well prepared move.
Hope the Policemen got their information correct.
The NHRC should also look into the facts of the case before jumping the gun by going to the Press and calling for a CBI enquiry.
This will paralyse the Law Enforcing Agencies.
After a lull in 2011, the first case of death in police encounter returned with a bang on Thursday with the Chennai Police gunning down five men suspected to be involved in two bank robberies.
Suspects getting killed in encounters at the hands of the Tamil Nadu police is not uncommon and there have been many in recent years, including those involving the death of dreaded forest brigand Veerappan in 2004, Al-Umma activist Imam Ali and his associates in Bangalore and some Maoist cadres.
Though human rights activists raise a hue and cry in every such case and there have been judicial enquiries, statistics reveal an average of four encounter deaths each year since 2006. Thursday’s case is unique as it is the largest encounter in terms of the number of people killed.
“The National Human Rights Commission on Friday, Feb 24 issued notices to Tamil NaduDirector General of Police and Chennai District Magistrate seeking detailed report of the encounter and questioned the authenticity of the same, where Tamil Nadu police shot dead five people suspected to be involved in robberies at two suburban bank branches on Feb 22 late night.Moreover, the Bihar government also asked Tamil Nadu government to probe the killing of the five.According to a Headlines Today report,…
The Bihar government on Friday, Feb 24 demanded Tamil Nadu to probe the killing of five men, including four from Bihar, who were shot dead Tamil Nadu police suspected to be involved in robberies at two suburban bank branches on Feb 22 late night.
Reacting to the matter, Bihar Animal Husbandry Minister Griraj Singh said that the state government has taken up the issue seriously and asked the Tamil Nadu government to inquire into the killings.
Bharatmata Mata banner is not the property of RSS.
Anna is naive, unlike politicians.
That’s why people trust him.
Anna praised Modi for his work,especially the way he is taking Gujarat forward.
Apolitical does not mean not to appreciate that which is good.
By the way sound bytes are heard about Anna’s Committee being ‘Non secular’
Why bring Religion into Crusade against corruption?
At this rate some people might want reservation in the Committee.
These sort of arguments are meant to derail the Lokpal issue.
Congress leader Digvijaya Singh Friday said people close to Anna Hazare are “somehow close” to the BJP and questioned the inclusion of father-son lawyer duo of Shanti and Prashant Bhushan in the drafting committee on Lokpal Bill.
He also cautioned “simple and naive” Hazare about people close to him, saying they have “their own cause” to push.
Singh disapproved of Hazare’s threat to go on protest if Parliament does not pass the Lokpal Bill by August 15 and his praise for Gujarat CM Narendra Modi saying that the veteran Gandhian should be careful of what he was speaking.
Describing Hazare as a “simple, naive, simple-minded villager” who is being “exploited by smart people from town area”, Singh said, “I can’t call him to be supporting the RSS or the BJP cause. But he should be careful with some associates he chose.”
“The banner which was used as the backdrop (at the protest site) Bharatmata resembled that of the RSS. People who are close to the Gandhian were somehow close to the BJP also,” Singh said on CNN-IBN’s ‘Devil’s Advocate’.
Anna’s statement on Modi was in response to a specific question asked at a press conference. He just said that good work had been done in rural areas of Bihar and Gujarat. Anna has already clarified that his statement was based on what he has been reading about these two states in the media. He has also clarified he strongly believes in communal harmony and is against any kind of communal violence.
The strong secular credentials of the movement are clear from the fact that every evening, at Jantar Mantar, there used to be “sarv dharm prarthna” of all religions. Mufti Shamoom Qasmi and archbishop ofDelhi Vincent M Concessao are among the founders of this movement. Mahmood A Madani has been an active supporter.
Some people are asking also how were the names for the committee decided by the civil society. The whole movement was around Jan Lokpal bill. Therefore, such people should be there on the committee who could explain each clause and section of this bill in committee meetings. Those who drafted the bill were natural choices.