Hinduism

Stotra Mantra Parayana Differnce


Unlike other Religions,Hinduism has Prayers of different types.

There are three different types in terms of how these were arrived at, whom they are addressed to and the results sought for.

Before understanding the differences , one must know that in Hinduism, as its fundamental Truth as enunciated in the Vedas, the Sacred texts of the Hindus,describes the Reality, called Brahman, is distinct from Brahma, The God of Creation,is Without Name and Form.

The Brahman is with out Attributes, with Attributes and beyond Attributes,

It is to be experienced and is Beyond space,time,senses,mind and time.

It is Being, Consciousness and Bliss, Sat, Chit and Ananda.

The purpose of Life is to realize the Brahman, The Reality behind the noumenon, the world of Names and Forms, the substratum of the Universe, both Macro and Micro.

To achieve this, the impediment called Mind is to be Stilled.

The cessation of the Modification of Chitta is Yoga or Union with the Reality.

Ganesa Lakshmi Stotram.jpg

Ganesa Lakshmi Stotram.

( Chitta is a Higher plane of Cognition, please read my posts on Yoga, Chitta)

To Still the Mind, the thoughts or the thought waves are to be stopped.

Rama, Hanuman. SundaraKanda Parayana.Jpg

Rama, Hanuman. SundaraKanda Parayana.

But as The Mind, by its nature, is always after a thousand thoughts, it is difficult to control it,

However it can be done by Right Determination,Knowledge and Practice, says Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita( Gnana and Vairaagya)

So in the process of quieting and making the Mind still, Hinduism advocates Worship of Gods with Forms, though in Reality they do not exist.

However as Krishna says , even these Gods of Names and forms are relatively Real in the sense that they grant the boons one wishes for and Krishna says He assumes the Forms and Names Of Gods and Goddesses addressed by the practitioner and deliver the results.

So Gods of Hinduism are Real and not Real at the same time.

For details read my post ‘Hinduism, Gods with Name and Form ,Yes Or No’.

As Human dispositions and needs are varied,, so are the Gods.

One may like Mother, Father, Friend , Lover, son, daughter…

To establish a relationship, each needs a unique approach and there can be no uniform and a single window approach.

So the Gods vary and your modes of address vary.

One does not address Mother as he would his Father, Lover or Friend.

So the prayers vary.

Generally there are three types of Prayers.

Avalokeswara Mantra.png

Avalokeswara Mantra.

1.Stotra/Stuthi.

2.Parayana and

3.Mantras.

Stotras.

Stotra is from the root Stuthi, meaning ‘Praise’

If one were to get some thing from some one superior in Station, one praises him or her to get the things done for one who wishes for.

So in a Stotra one finds Praises of Gods, extolling their virtues, then requesting them to grant one’s Wishes.

We have a large collection of these Stotras.

These Stotras are also of different kinds.

One is by Gods themselves addressing the other Gods, like Krishna’s Siva Stuthi or Rudra’s Mantra Rajapadham addressed to Lord Narasimha, Indra’s Krishna Stuthi.

These are addreed to Gods whom one likes.

Another type is by the Great Rishis , like Hayagreeva’s Lalitha Sahasranama.

Yet another type is by great personalities like Bhishma, The Vishnu Sahasranama; the various slokas of Adi Shankaracharya, Swami Desikan,Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya….

All these deliver results in terms of efficacy in the descending order described

Some of these Rishis have Prayers to a Particular Deity.

In this case it is not necessary that the God one choses to worship need be what one likes.

These Gods produce results because of the fact that the Hymn is composed by a realized Soul.

2.Parayana.

A Stuthi or a Stotra by a Great Rishi like  Valmiki, The Sundara Kanda of Ramayana is recited in a prescribed format for a fixed duration is called Parayana.

People also do this regularly as they do Lalitha Sahasra nama and Visnu Sahasranama.

The Parayana prayers may be from any of Language.

The basic requirement is Faith.

3.Mantra is different as they are locked Sounds . grasped by the Rishis, in a mysterious way.

Mantras, are the essence of Sound and Sound in its pure form is Mantra.

Mantras control Sound.

The difference between Mantras and the other two Types is that Mantras deliver guaranteed results, if one follows the procedures laid down.

Whereas in the case of Stotra or Parayana,the Divine intervention is left to  the pleasure of the God addressed to, in the case of Mantras, the Gods are obliged to grant the requests as they represent the essence of Reality and in fact the Form of Gods themselves.

That is why even A Raskshasa can deliver a Brahmastra by invoking a Mantra.

Mantras can be addressed to specific Gods and also to Reality in its Attributeless Form.

Or the Mantra can be a combination of sounds mystically locked.

More to follow on the scientific explanation of Mantras, their validity analysis by Spectroscopy,Cymatics

 

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2014/08/06/mantras-types-procedure-anushtana-details/

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The OM MantraImage.jpeg
Hinduism

OM Changes In Brain Cerebral Blood Flow MRI Study


I have written a few articles on the advanced concepts in Hinduism.

Frequency of OM Sound.jpg Frequency of OM. Image credit. http://www.walkingimes.com

Quantum Physics,

Advanced Gravitational Theory,

Weapons of Mass Destruction,

Sound,

Light,

Particle Physics,

Biology,

Surgery,

Plastic Surgery,

Stem Cell Research,

Astronomy,

Meteorology,

Ophthalmology,

DNA Study and advanced concepts,…..

the list is long.

Effects of Chanting OM.image.jpg Effects of Chanting OM. Image credit.www.guruprasad.net

Please google the term + ramanan50 to read these articles or check under Hinduism, Astrophysics, Science in the site.

I had recently written as to how a Tonoscope produces the Sri Yantra when OM is chanted.

There have been specific researches conducted on the Mantras, including the Gayatri Mantra and OM.

I am quoting the excerpts of three different researches on OM,relating to OM’s resonance effects on the Brain, on Cerebral Cortex where the Blood supply is improved,Mind calms down, Blood pressure is brought under control.

These experiments were conducted by eminent scientists, not all of them Indians under strict research procedures.

Here are the Abstracts of the Studies.

I am providing the Links  and you may be read the full reports there.

Hemodynamic responses on prefrontal cortex related to meditation and attentional task

Recent neuroimaging studies state that meditation increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present study employed functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate the relative hemodynamic changes in PFC during a cognitive task. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers with ages between 18 and 30 years (group mean age ± SD; 22.9 ± 4.6 years) performed a color-word stroop task before and after 20 min of meditation and random thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed followed by a post hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons between the mean values of “During” and “Post” with “Pre” state. During meditation there was an increased in oxy-hemoglobin (ΔHbO) and total hemoglobin (ΔTHC) concentration with reduced deoxy-hemoglobin (ΔHbR) concentration over the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC), whereas in random thinking there was increased ΔHbR with reduced total hemoglobin concentration on the rPFC. The mean reaction time (RT) was shorter during stroop color word task with concomitant reduction in ΔTHC after meditation, suggestive of improved performance and efficiency in task related to attention. Our findings demonstrated that meditation increased cerebral oxygenation and enhanced performance, which was associated with activation of the PFC…

Meditation is a complex mental process that aims to calm the fluctuations of the mind and improve cognitive functions. Several meditation techniques from diverse traditions (e.g., Transcendental meditation, Buddhists, Zen, Yoga, Vipassana, Brahmakumari, Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) etc.,) demonstrated that regular practice of meditation develops awareness to the contents of subjective experience, including thoughts, sensations, intentions, and emotions (Saggar et al., 2012). It is considered as a voluntary means of mental training to achieve greater control of higher mental functions. Traditional yoga texts like Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras (the Sage Patanjali’, Circa 900 B.C.) and Bhagavad Gita (Circa 400–600 B.C.) very well describe the connection between meditation and mental modifications. Traditionally, two states of meditation have been described, viz., (i) focused meditation (dharana in Sanskrit, Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, Chapter III, Verse 1), and this state is supposed to lead to the next stage of effortless mental expansion i.e., (iii) meditation (dhyana in Sanskrit; Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, Chapter III, Verse 2). When not in meditation, it is said that the mind may be in two other states (Telles et al., 2012). These are (i) random thinking (cancalata in Sanskrit;Bhagavad Gita, chapter VI, verse 34); and (ii) non-meditative focused thinking (ekagrata in Sanskrit;Bhagavad Gita, chapter VI, verse 12) (Telles et al., 2014).

In recent years, there have been a number of neuroimaging studies showing that meditation improves cognitive performance as signified by behavioral and neurophysiological measures (Tang et al., 2007; Lutz et al., 2009). Previous studies have shown that the practice of meditation enhances behavioral performance viz., perceptual discrimination and sustained attention during visual discrimination task (MacLean et al., 2010). Meditation practice develops the ability to engage the attention onto an object for extended periods of time (Carter et al., 2005; Jha et al., 2007; Lutz et al., 2008). It improves the control over the distribution of limited brain resources in the temporal domain, as measured by the attentional blink task (van Leeuwen et al., 2009; Slagter et al., 2011). Long term meditation practice has been found to enhance cognitive performance (Cahn and Polich, 2006), attentional focus, alerting (Jha et al., 2007), processing speed (Lutz et al., 2009; Slagter et al., 2009), and overall information processing (van Vugt and Jha, 2011). In a study, Buddhist meditation practitioners showed mindfulness meditation was positively correlated with sustained attention, when compared to non-meditation practitioners (Moore and Malinowski, 2009). Improvements in sustained attention and attentional error monitoring demonstrated a positive correlation with increased activation in executive attention networks in meditators (Short et al., 2010). Other studies have shown that meditation is associated with improved conflict scores on the attention network test (Tang et al., 2007), reduced interference (Chan and Woollacott, 2007) and enhanced attentional performance during the stroop task compared to meditation-naïve control group (Moore and Malinowski, 2009). These studies provide significant evidence of meditation promoting the higher-order cognitive processing (Zeidan et al., 2010), particularly, the features of conflict monitoring and cognitive control processes…

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330717/

Neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Background:

A sensation of vibration is experienced during audible ‘OM’ chanting. This has the potential for vagus nerve stimulation through its auricular branches and the effects on the brain thereof. The neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting are yet to be explored.

Materials and Methods:

Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), the neurohemodynamic correlates of audible ‘OM’ chanting were examined in right-handed healthy volunteers (n=12; nine men). The ‘OM’ chanting condition was compared with pronunciation of “ssss” as well as a rest state. fMRI analysis was done using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5).

Results:

In this study, significant deactivation was observed bilaterally during ‘OM’ chanting in comparison to the resting brain state in bilateral orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyri, thalami and hippocampi. The right amygdala too demonstrated significant deactivation. No significant activation was observed during ‘OM’ chanting. In contrast, neither activation nor deactivation occurred in these brain regions during the comparative task – namely the ‘ssss’ pronunciation condition.

Conclusion:

The neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting indicate limbic deactivation. As similar observations have been recorded with vagus nerve stimulation treatment used in depression and epilepsy, the study findings argue for a potential role of this ‘OM’ chanting in clinical practice.

Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is used as treatment in depression and epilepsy.[1,2] A positron emission tomography (PET) study[3] has shown decreased blood flow to limbic brain regions during direct (cervical) VNS. Another functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study[4] has shown significant deactivation of limbic brain regions during transcutaneous VNS. In this procedure electrical stimulus is applied over the inner part of the left tragus and hence the auricular branch of the vagus.

The use of ‘OM’ chanting for meditation is well known.[5] Effective ‘OM’ chanting is associated with the experience of vibration sensation around the ears. It is expected that such a sensation is also transmitted through the auricular branch of the vagus nerve. We therefore hypothesized that like transcutaneous VNS, ‘OM’ chanting too produces limbic deactivation. Specifically, we predicted that ‘OM’ chanting would evoke similar neurohemodynamic correlates, deactivation of the limbic brain regions, amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and thalamus) as were found in the previous study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099099/

Ajay Anil Gurjar and Siddharth A Ladhake published their first OM paper, Time-Frequency Analysis of Chanting Sanskrit Divine Sound “OM”, in 2008 in the International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security.

Ladhake is the principal at Sipna’s College of Engineering and Technology in Amravati, India. Gurjar is an assistant professor in that institution’s department of electronics and telecommunication. Both specialise in electronic signal processing. They now sub-specialise in analysing the one very special signal.

In the introductory paper, Gurjar and Ladhake explain (in case there is someone unaware of the basics): “Om is a spiritual mantra, outstanding to fetch peace and calm. The entire psychological pressure and worldly thoughts are taken away by the chanting of Om mantra.”

They apply a mathematical tool called wavelet transforms to a digital recording of a person chanting “Om”. Even people with no mathematical background can appreciate, on some level, one of the blue-on-white graphs included in the monograph. This graph, the authors say, “depicts the chanting of ‘Om’ by a normal person after some days of chanting”. The image looks like a pile of nearly identical, slightly lopsided pancakes held together with a skewer, the whole stack lying sideways on a table. To behold it is to see, if nothing else, repetition.

At the end, Gurjar and Ladhake say: “Our attentiveness and our concentration are pilfered from us by the proceedings take place around us in the world in recent times … By this analysis we could conclude steadiness in the mind is achieved by chanting Om, hence proves the mind is calm and peace to the human subject.”

http://www.theguardian.com/education/2010/may/03/repetitive-physics-om-improbable-research

Scientific Evidence: The Efficacy of OM Chanting.

A recent study conducted at Spina’s College of Engineering & Technology in Maharashtra, India, on one particular mantra, OM, resulted in some profound conclusions. Ajay Anil Gurjar, Siddharth A. Ladhake, and Ajay P. Thakare explain, “OM does not have a translation. Therefore, the Hindus consider it as the very name of the Absolute, it is body of sound. In the scriptures of ancient India, the OM is considered as the most powerful of all the mantras. The others are considered aspects of the OM, and the OM is the matrix of all other mantras. It has been recognized that the Mantras have beneficial effects on human beings and even plants. The syllable OM is quite familiar to a Hindu. It occurs in every prayer. Invocation to most gods begins with this syllable. OM is also pronounced as AUM. The syllable OM is not specific to Indian culture. It has religious significance in other religions also. Although OM is not given any specific definition and is considered to be a cosmic sound, a primordial sound, the totality of all sounds etc. The entire psychological pressure and worldly thoughts are removed by chanting OM Mantra.”

Chanting OM resulted in significant brain wave frequency changes, as evidenced in the participant’s EEG readings. Gujare, Ladhake, and Thakare explain the reading thusly, “From this we could conclude that chanting OM mantra results in stabilization of [the] brain, removal of worldly thoughts and an increase of energy. It means that concentrating on OM mantra and continuously doing it slowly shifts our attention. It is a reflection of the most fundamental interlocking processes in our bodies…the harmony we play echoes the harmonic relationships of every vital system i.e. our heartbeat, our breathing, our brainwaves pulsing, our neuronal firing, our cells throbbing, our metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal rhythms and our behaviors in our addictions and our habits. In this sense OM mantra is a brain stabilizer, by practicing it one can enter deeper and deeper into a natural state, which is also an energy medicine for human beings under stress.”

http://www.wakingtimes.com/2013/05/27/the-mind-blowing-power-of-mantra-yoga/

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Hinduism

Soul Immortal Body Dies Why Sraddha Pinda?


A reader posed an interesting question, which I am reproducing below.

‘a SMALL DOUBT sOUL IS NOT PERISHABLE. THERE IS REBIRTH AFTER DEATH. THEN WHY THESE SHARDHAMS AND PINDAS FOR THE EXISTING ONES. CURIOSITY OF VEDIC REFERENCES. WE ARE MOULD OF FLESH AND BONES AND WE HAVE NO REACH ON IMMORTALITY. CAN YOU DISCUSS. THANKS’

I remember having written on this , in the passing, while on another article.

As the issues involved are complex and many have the same doubt, I would like to clarify.

True, the Atman is Imperishable, Immortal , timeless

The Vedas and the Upanishads stress this point and the entire Indian Philosophy revolves on this concept of Atman

The Bhagavad Gita states thus.

Bhagavad Gita Verse Chapter 2.Sloka 20. on the Nature of Atman.

Bhagavad Gita Verse on the Nature of Atman.jpg Bhagavad Gita Verse on the Nature of Atman, Self .Chap.2,Sloka20

The body is the instrument through which the fruits of actions, the Karmaphalas are worn out.

Body , being made of the five elements, earth,water, fire,air and ether returns to the respective elements after death.

All things done or being done during the course of one’s life are directed towards this body, excepting the urge to realize Brahman, the Reality.

Once the body dies a Hindu performs Sraddha , ceremonies for the dead by offering food .

This concept of offering to  the departed is present in all Religions.

Names might differ.

If the body is perishable and the Soul is Immortal , what is the point in performing these rituals, like Tharpana, offering Pindas,and Sraddha?

Though the body ceases to exist, the remnants of actions performed, Desired do not cease even after death.

The thoughts remain as energy once created can not be destroyed and Thoughts and Thought processes are Energy.

They have to be expended.

Till such time the Subtle body remains.

The Subtle Body is called as Sukshma Sareera.

The Sukshma sarera exists even after death and is nourished by Food, Water.

This is applicable in both Stages, Life and afer Death

ThePhysical frame is sutained by the essence of Food(Anna Rasa) and so is the suskshma sareera.

This is one of the reasons for some foods contributing to unidentified anxiety, despondence, fear ets.

Also Food determines one’s disposition .

For more on this Googel Food ramanan50.

Now after the Physical frame ceases ,the Sukshma Sareera needs nourishment.

And this is what we do by performing Sraddha and offering food to the departed,

Now to the question.

The dead are reborn.

They have taken a new body and they eat.

Would this not be enough to nourish the Physical body and the sukshma Sareera?

No.

The remnants of the earlier birth’s needs are not wholly met in the current birth.

The bonds one had established during the earlier birth still linger and those are met only by the offerings from the people with whom we had bonded in the earlier birth.

This non compliance of the Sraddha results in Pitru Dosha.

Pitru Dosha does not merely indicate the anguish of the ancestors but also the needs of the Sukshma Sareera of the earlier birth( which forms a pat of the Sukshma Sareera of theis birth).

When such needs have not been met, one faces unaccountable problems.

These do not apply to realized souls or Brahma Gnanis.

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Hinduism

Godmen Prophets Not Approved by Vedas Smritis Hinduism


Of late there has been a proliferation of godmen in Hinduism, offering salvation and performing miracles.

There are corporate Gurus, whose background is murky, who address world leaders, in the garb of Hinduism.

Their qualification is a few words of Hindu thoughts, some quotes and slick marketing.

There are Gurus for Yoga.

Yoga has become a school exercise!

Idiots like me imagine one has to follow Patanjali, who lays down strict code of conduct ad diet for yoga sadhana.

Today what one needs is a few mumbo-jumbo , basic lines in yoga and slick marketing.

Horrible!

Self styled godmen.jpg. Self styled godmen.

Please check my Posts on yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

Hinduism does not approve of Prophets, Godmen.

Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism is personal.

It does not allow brokers between you and God,after all He is your father.

You do not need a broker to talk to your father.

Nor does Hinduism believe in Prophets.

Vedas and Smritis do not approve of or condone these Godmen or Prophets.

There is no concept of Prophet or Godmen in Hinduism.

One strives to realize Oneself.

Paths travelled by great men are shown.

They are only indicative.

Each Man/woman has to find His/Her salvation.

It is purely personal and determined by one’s disposition, Swabhava.

No one can convert any one , in the real sense ,against his swabhava, Nature.

Lord Krishna, in The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 18, towards the close of the discourse to Arjuna, in the battle field of Mahabharata, says to Arjuna,

I have briefed you the secret of secrets, you decide what to follow, according to your nature, after analysing what is good for you’

This comes from Lord Krishna, an Avatar of Vishnu!

Arthur osbourne records thus on his discussion with Ramana Maharishi, the great Saint of this century.

When asked about his not accepting Sishyas , Disciples,Ramana Maharishi replied.

‘Who is a Guru and who is a Sishya?

All are Brahman.

and if you are hungry, only you should eat, not Me.

So search for reality on you’

  • Though the article has received acceptance, there have been some comments in Facebook communities and by way of personal omments to my mail ID, about me questioning the Guru system of Hinduism

What I have written here is about Godmen and Prophets, who have no place either in Sruthi and Smriti.

However the Guru systemws practised during the Veidc and subsequent periods to teach Vedas and guide individuals in the Dharmic path, with no intent on the part of the teacher to ern money.

And the concept of Guru, Acharya and Updhyaya are laid down.

Excerpt from my earlier Post.

Vedas have Chapters.

One who teaches these parts is called Upaadhyayaa.

He takes compensation for this service.

‘एकदेसम तु  वेदस्य वेदान्गान्यबी  वा पुन:: यूअध्यापथि वृथ्यर्थं  उपाध्याय: स  उच्च्यथे I’-Manu Smriti.

Whereas one who does Brahmopadesam at the time of Upanayana and follows up with Teaching of the vedas is Called Acharya.

Guru is one who seeks you out, if your yearning is sincere.

He knows your yearnings ,assesses your capacity and initiates you in the process that suits you, for individuals are unique ,so are the paths to Realization.

Guru is the Mentor while others are facilitators to study Veda

Guru Acharya Upadhyaya

If people believe in Godmen and at  later date they come to know that they have been misled, there is no point in blaming Hinduism as Hinduism, I repeat does not approve of Godmen and Prophets.

It may be of interest to note that even Lord Rama and Krishna were not worshiped in the same way we worship them today, during their time.

They were respected because of their actions, in the case of Krishna ,He was even abused!

Everyone was ( at least many were) engaged in following Dharma as enshrined in the Vedas and were attempting to realize self.

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2015/07/15/rama-not-worshiped-in-krishna-mahabharata-times/

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2015/07/18/whom-did-lord-rama-worship/

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Hinduism

Hinduism Present Gods Not In Vedas Why?


I have received a perceptive comment on the Gods worshiped in the Vedas.

This is it.Vedic Gods Abstract ,Hinduism.jpg Vedic Gods Abstract ,Hinduism.

After completing the Shruti texts, I moved onto the Smritis – the Itihaas and the Purans when my daughter, while reading the draft, commented : No portion of the Veds (including the Upanishads) really talk of Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh, Ganesh, Devi etc. How did the transition take place.?

The Agams do provide a clue but to my mind there are several missing links – especially in the practices as seen from Uttar Pradesh where I come from. Can you throw any light on this?’

I kept the comment pending lest I forget it.

The Vedas  as rightly said do not mention the Trinity Brahma , Vishnu And Shiva as much as the other deities as Indra, Varuna , Agni.

Shiva is not mentioned at all, excepting in Sri Rudram as Sivaaya Ca, Sivadharaya ca.

No mention of Brahma either.

But we have references to Vishnu and Narayana.

Example.Narayna Suktham ,Vishnu Suktham.

Devis Lakshmi and Durga are mentioned , Sri Suktham and Durga Suktham.

Vishnu is mentioned six times, in the Rig Veda

Ganapati Upanishad is found in the Atharva Veda.

As to how the Trinity and other deities we worship today came into play is the human necessity of having a fixed an object for realization with specific attributes that are identical with human attributes.

Vedas speak of Para Brahmanas Nirguna, with out Attributes.

Saguna, Gods with attributes were limited to what we now consider as minor deities, like Indra, Varuna and the others.

More of karma kanda was followed and Bhakthi Bhavam the Path of Devotion does not find a place in the Vedas as much as in the post Vedic period.

Vedic karmas were performed as per the Vedic procedure, were more mantra oriented( the deities are bound by the Mantras) and the Deities like Agni were used as conduits in carrying the oblations and these deities were considered to be the benefactor of human needs.

Howver as the number of these deities were numerous, there was a necessity of establishing  much more powerful deities, who are are in control of these deities.

Thus were the Gods Brahma and others.

As for as Shiva is concerned there are references to Siva in the South. Pre Sanatana Dharma period where He is described as Adhi Shiva and a First Siddha.

I have published a couple of articles on this and more to follow.

So many of the Gods we worship today were not mentioned in the Vedas.

That does not necessarily mean they are Illusions or lies.

As I have mentioned in my earlier Post that Hinduism does not believe in personal God but understands the Human Mind;s necessity og having one.

So it allows the worship of these deities.

As Krishna says,in The Bhagavad Gita

“I shall grant the boons to one who prays  in the Form he worships and in the same manner that Deity would’

Thereby implies the Nirguna Upasna can be supplemented by Saguna worship.

Deities mentioned in the Rig Veda.Numbers indicate the number of times the Gods were mentioned.

  • Indra 289
  • Agni 218
  • Soma 123 (most of them in the Soma Mandala)
  • The Asvins 56
  • Varuna 46 [1]
  • the Maruts 38
  • Mitra 28[1]
  • Ushas 21
  • Vayu (Wind) 12
  • Savitr 11
  • the Rbhus 11
  • Pushan 10
  • the Apris 9
  • Brhaspati 8
  • Surya (Sun) 8
  • Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth) 6, plus 5.84 dedicated to Earth alone
  • Apas (Waters) 6
  • Adityas 6
  • Vishnu 6
  • Brahmanaspati 6
  • Rudra 5
  • Dadhikras 4
  • the Sarasvati River / Sarasvati 3
  • Yama
  • Parjanya (Rain) 3
  • Vāc (Speech) 2 (mentioned 130 times, deified e.g. in 10.125)
  • Vastospati 2
  • Vishvakarman 2
  • Manyu 2
  • Kapinjala (the Heathcock, a form of Indra) 2

Minor deities (one single or no dedicated hymn)

  • Manas (Thought), prominent concept, deified in 10.58
  • Dakshina (Reward for priests and poets), prominent concept, deified in 10.107
  • Jnanam (Knowledge), prominent concept, deified in 10.71
  • Purusha (“Cosmic Man” of the Purusha sukta 10.90)
  • Aditi
  • Bhaga
  • Vasukra
  • Atri
  • Apam Napat
  • Ksetrapati
  • Ghrta
  • Nirrti
  • Asamati
  • Urvasi
  • Pururavas
  • Vena
  • Aranyani
  • Mayabheda
  • Tarksya
  • Tvastar

I have taken as a frame of reference as it is the oldest and regarded as most authentic.

I belong to Krishna Yajur.

Citations.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities

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