Kayena Vacha Surrender Origin Free Will


Free Will or Determinism?

Which runs the individual’s life?

This is question that engages all religious thoughts.

Free Will or Determinism?
Surrender sloka kayen vacha

Do we have Free Will to do anything?

Or everything is preordained?

In the latter case, one does not accumulate sins because everything is determined.

Equally baffling is the application of Free Will.

Simple analysis  of the operation of Free Will in our Lives, without engaging ourselves about Free Will in philosophical terms, would show we are not free.

When we perform an action, choices presented to us are limited.

We do not have access to ALL options.

We act on the basis of choices presented to us at a given point of time.

Hence we have Free Will as well as we are Limited.

kāyena vācā manasendriyair vā
buddhyātmanā vānusṛta-svabhāvāt
karoti yad yat sakalaṁ parasmai
nārāyaṇāyeti samarpayet tat

Word for word:

kāyena — with the body; vācā — speech; manasā — mind; indriyaiḥ — senses; — or; buddhyā — with the intelligence; ātmanā — the purified consciousness; — or; anus ta — followed; svabhāvāt — according to one’s conditioned nature; karoti — one does; yat yat — whatever; sakalam — all; parasmai — to the Supreme;nārāyaṇāya iti — thinking, “This is for Nārāyaṇa”; samarpayet — he should offer; tat — that.

Translation:

In accordance with the particular nature one has acquired in conditioned life, whatever one does with body, words, mind, senses, intelligence or purified consciousness one should offer to the Supreme, thinking, “This is for the pleasure of Lord Nārāyaṇa.”

( Srimad Bhagvtham  11.2.36) explained by Rishaba to Nimi of Rama’s dynasty’

Sri Vaishnava sect (of which I’m a member) uses another verse called the Sattvika Tyaga for much the same purpose:

bhagavan eva svaniyamya sva-śeṣa-bhūtena maya
sva-ārādhana-eka-prayojanāya idam (name of the karma)
svasmai svaprītyai svayam eva karayati |

The auspicious deity, exerting control on himself, using me (his other part) as an instrument, himself effects , with his pleasure/ worship being the only purpose.

In the Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna tells Krishna,

‘You assert that the cycle of birth and death is because of one’s action and its repurcussions thereof.

If one were to desist from performing action, is he not freed from the results of action and its reactionKarma Phala?

Krishna replies,

‘ There is nothing in the world that is not Mine nor does anything take place withiut Me.

There is nothing I desire for everything is Mine.

Yet I am here performing Duties?

Why?

It is because of Swabhava, one’s disposition.

Once born , he is impelled by his disposition.

He can not escape from action, it may even be breathing.

Even that is an action and it attracts karma phala’ reaction.

So one is not free.

YET one is endowed with Buddhi, power of discrimination to choose from options available to him’

That’s it.

One has freedom to express himself , impelled by his disposition, which he can not avoid yet he has the choice to perform righteously.

Reference and citation.

http://www.vedabase.com/en/sb/11/2/36

http://hinduism.stackexchange.com/questions/8978/what-is-the-source-of-this-kayena-vacha-text-or-where-does-it-come-from

 

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Thirty Gitas Of Hinduism


The term Gita, Sanskrit means,

 

गीता– a song, sacred song or poem, religious doctrines declared in metrical form by an inspired sage’

All of us aware of Srimad Bhagavd Gita.

Though I know some texts( I have written on some of them) which are called Gita, I have recently come across information that there are thirty Gitas!

The rate at which I come to know what I do not know about Hinduism is staggering.

Childishly I have started started writing on Hinduism.

I am certain that I would not even touch the periphery of Hinduism before my death.

Hope and pray that I may attempt to scratch its surface.

I propose writing on these Gitas in detail shortly.

Who Realize God? Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita quote.

 

  1. Uttara Gita Lord Krishna’s second discourse to Arjuna
  2. Anu Gita – Lord Krishna’s final message to Arjuna
  3. Uddhava Gita – Krishna’s last discourse to his disciple Uddhava.
  4. Devi Gita
  5. Asthavakra Gita
  6. Avadhoota Gita
  7. Rama Gita
  8. Vibhishana Gita
  9. Hanumad Gita
  10. Guru Geeta
  11. Siddha Gita
  12. Vidya Gita
  13. Yama Gita
  14. Ganesha Gita
  15. Agastya Gita
  16. Bharata Gita
  17. Bheeshma Gita
  18. Bhikshu Gita
  19. Brahma Gita
  20. Gopika Gita
  21. Hamsa Gita
  22. Rishabha Gita
  23. Rudra Gita
  24. Siva Gita
  25. Vyasa Gita, Vasistha Gita(Yoga Vasistha)
  26. Sanatkumara Gita
  27. Sanat Sujata Gita
  28. Rishabha Gita
  29. Sruti Gita
  30. Kapila Gita

Reference.

Sanskrit Dictionary

Stotra Mantra Parayana Differnce


Unlike other Religions,Hinduism has Prayers of different types.

There are three different types in terms of how these were arrived at, whom they are addressed to and the results sought for.

Before understanding the differences , one must know that in Hinduism, as its fundamental Truth as enunciated in the Vedas, the Sacred texts of the Hindus,describes the Reality, called Brahman, is distinct from Brahma, The God of Creation,is Without Name and Form.

The Brahman is with out Attributes, with Attributes and beyond Attributes,

It is to be experienced and is Beyond space,time,senses,mind and time.

It is Being, Consciousness and Bliss, Sat, Chit and Ananda.

The purpose of Life is to realize the Brahman, The Reality behind the noumenon, the world of Names and Forms, the substratum of the Universe, both Macro and Micro.

To achieve this, the impediment called Mind is to be Stilled.

The cessation of the Modification of Chitta is Yoga or Union with the Reality.

Ganesa Lakshmi Stotram.jpg
Ganesa Lakshmi Stotram.

( Chitta is a Higher plane of Cognition, please read my posts on Yoga, Chitta)

To Still the Mind, the thoughts or the thought waves are to be stopped.

Rama, Hanuman. SundaraKanda Parayana.Jpg
Rama, Hanuman. SundaraKanda Parayana.

But as The Mind, by its nature, is always after a thousand thoughts, it is difficult to control it,

However it can be done by Right Determination,Knowledge and Practice, says Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita( Gnana and Vairaagya)

So in the process of quieting and making the Mind still, Hinduism advocates Worship of Gods with Forms, though in Reality they do not exist.

However as Krishna says , even these Gods of Names and forms are relatively Real in the sense that they grant the boons one wishes for and Krishna says He assumes the Forms and Names Of Gods and Goddesses addressed by the practitioner and deliver the results.

So Gods of Hinduism are Real and not Real at the same time.

For details read my post ‘Hinduism, Gods with Name and Form ,Yes Or No’.

As Human dispositions and needs are varied,, so are the Gods.

One may like Mother, Father, Friend , Lover, son, daughter…

To establish a relationship, each needs a unique approach and there can be no uniform and a single window approach.

So the Gods vary and your modes of address vary.

One does not address Mother as he would his Father, Lover or Friend.

So the prayers vary.

Generally there are three types of Prayers.

Avalokeswara Mantra.png
Avalokeswara Mantra.

1.Stotra/Stuthi.

2.Parayana and

3.Mantras.

Stotras.

Stotra is from the root Stuthi, meaning ‘Praise’

If one were to get some thing from some one superior in Station, one praises him or her to get the things done for one who wishes for.

So in a Stotra one finds Praises of Gods, extolling their virtues, then requesting them to grant one’s Wishes.

We have a large collection of these Stotras.

These Stotras are also of different kinds.

One is by Gods themselves addressing the other Gods, like Krishna’s Siva Stuthi or Rudra’s Mantra Rajapadham addressed to Lord Narasimha, Indra’s Krishna Stuthi.

These are addreed to Gods whom one likes.

Another type is by the Great Rishis , like Hayagreeva’s Lalitha Sahasranama.

Yet another type is by great personalities like Bhishma, The Vishnu Sahasranama; the various slokas of Adi Shankaracharya, Swami Desikan,Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya….

All these deliver results in terms of efficacy in the descending order described

Some of these Rishis have Prayers to a Particular Deity.

In this case it is not necessary that the God one choses to worship need be what one likes.

These Gods produce results because of the fact that the Hymn is composed by a realized Soul.

2.Parayana.

A Stuthi or a Stotra by a Great Rishi like  Valmiki, The Sundara Kanda of Ramayana is recited in a prescribed format for a fixed duration is called Parayana.

People also do this regularly as they do Lalitha Sahasra nama and Visnu Sahasranama.

The Parayana prayers may be from any of Language.

The basic requirement is Faith.

3.Mantra is different as they are locked Sounds . grasped by the Rishis, in a mysterious way.

Mantras, are the essence of Sound and Sound in its pure form is Mantra.

Mantras control Sound.

The difference between Mantras and the other two Types is that Mantras deliver guaranteed results, if one follows the procedures laid down.

Whereas in the case of Stotra or Parayana,the Divine intervention is left to  the pleasure of the God addressed to, in the case of Mantras, the Gods are obliged to grant the requests as they represent the essence of Reality and in fact the Form of Gods themselves.

That is why even A Raskshasa can deliver a Brahmastra by invoking a Mantra.

Mantras can be addressed to specific Gods and also to Reality in its Attributeless Form.

Or the Mantra can be a combination of sounds mystically locked.

More to follow on the scientific explanation of Mantras, their validity analysis by Spectroscopy,Cymatics

 

https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2014/08/06/mantras-types-procedure-anushtana-details/

OM Changes In Brain Cerebral Blood Flow MRI Study

The OM MantraImage.jpeg

I have written a few articles on the advanced concepts in Hinduism.

Frequency of OM Sound.jpg Frequency of OM. Image credit. http://www.walkingimes.com

Quantum Physics,

Advanced Gravitational Theory,

Weapons of Mass Destruction,

Sound,

Light,

Particle Physics,

Biology,

Surgery,

Plastic Surgery,

Stem Cell Research,

Astronomy,

Meteorology,

Ophthalmology,

DNA Study and advanced concepts,…..

the list is long.

Effects of Chanting OM.image.jpg Effects of Chanting OM. Image credit.www.guruprasad.net

Please google the term + ramanan50 to read these articles or check under Hinduism, Astrophysics, Science in the site.

I had recently written as to how a Tonoscope produces the Sri Yantra when OM is chanted.

There have been specific researches conducted on the Mantras, including the Gayatri Mantra and OM.

I am quoting the excerpts of three different researches on OM,relating to OM’s resonance effects on the Brain, on Cerebral Cortex where the Blood supply is improved,Mind calms down, Blood pressure is brought under control.

These experiments were conducted by eminent scientists, not all of them Indians under strict research procedures.

Here are the Abstracts of the Studies.

I am providing the Links  and you may be read the full reports there.

Hemodynamic responses on prefrontal cortex related to meditation and attentional task

Recent neuroimaging studies state that meditation increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present study employed functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate the relative hemodynamic changes in PFC during a cognitive task. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers with ages between 18 and 30 years (group mean age ± SD; 22.9 ± 4.6 years) performed a color-word stroop task before and after 20 min of meditation and random thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed followed by a post hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons between the mean values of “During” and “Post” with “Pre” state. During meditation there was an increased in oxy-hemoglobin (ΔHbO) and total hemoglobin (ΔTHC) concentration with reduced deoxy-hemoglobin (ΔHbR) concentration over the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC), whereas in random thinking there was increased ΔHbR with reduced total hemoglobin concentration on the rPFC. The mean reaction time (RT) was shorter during stroop color word task with concomitant reduction in ΔTHC after meditation, suggestive of improved performance and efficiency in task related to attention. Our findings demonstrated that meditation increased cerebral oxygenation and enhanced performance, which was associated with activation of the PFC…

Meditation is a complex mental process that aims to calm the fluctuations of the mind and improve cognitive functions. Several meditation techniques from diverse traditions (e.g., Transcendental meditation, Buddhists, Zen, Yoga, Vipassana, Brahmakumari, Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) etc.,) demonstrated that regular practice of meditation develops awareness to the contents of subjective experience, including thoughts, sensations, intentions, and emotions (Saggar et al., 2012). It is considered as a voluntary means of mental training to achieve greater control of higher mental functions. Traditional yoga texts like Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras (the Sage Patanjali’, Circa 900 B.C.) and Bhagavad Gita (Circa 400–600 B.C.) very well describe the connection between meditation and mental modifications. Traditionally, two states of meditation have been described, viz., (i) focused meditation (dharana in Sanskrit, Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, Chapter III, Verse 1), and this state is supposed to lead to the next stage of effortless mental expansion i.e., (iii) meditation (dhyana in Sanskrit; Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, Chapter III, Verse 2). When not in meditation, it is said that the mind may be in two other states (Telles et al., 2012). These are (i) random thinking (cancalata in Sanskrit;Bhagavad Gita, chapter VI, verse 34); and (ii) non-meditative focused thinking (ekagrata in Sanskrit;Bhagavad Gita, chapter VI, verse 12) (Telles et al., 2014).

In recent years, there have been a number of neuroimaging studies showing that meditation improves cognitive performance as signified by behavioral and neurophysiological measures (Tang et al., 2007; Lutz et al., 2009). Previous studies have shown that the practice of meditation enhances behavioral performance viz., perceptual discrimination and sustained attention during visual discrimination task (MacLean et al., 2010). Meditation practice develops the ability to engage the attention onto an object for extended periods of time (Carter et al., 2005; Jha et al., 2007; Lutz et al., 2008). It improves the control over the distribution of limited brain resources in the temporal domain, as measured by the attentional blink task (van Leeuwen et al., 2009; Slagter et al., 2011). Long term meditation practice has been found to enhance cognitive performance (Cahn and Polich, 2006), attentional focus, alerting (Jha et al., 2007), processing speed (Lutz et al., 2009; Slagter et al., 2009), and overall information processing (van Vugt and Jha, 2011). In a study, Buddhist meditation practitioners showed mindfulness meditation was positively correlated with sustained attention, when compared to non-meditation practitioners (Moore and Malinowski, 2009). Improvements in sustained attention and attentional error monitoring demonstrated a positive correlation with increased activation in executive attention networks in meditators (Short et al., 2010). Other studies have shown that meditation is associated with improved conflict scores on the attention network test (Tang et al., 2007), reduced interference (Chan and Woollacott, 2007) and enhanced attentional performance during the stroop task compared to meditation-naïve control group (Moore and Malinowski, 2009). These studies provide significant evidence of meditation promoting the higher-order cognitive processing (Zeidan et al., 2010), particularly, the features of conflict monitoring and cognitive control processes…

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330717/

Neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Background:

A sensation of vibration is experienced during audible ‘OM’ chanting. This has the potential for vagus nerve stimulation through its auricular branches and the effects on the brain thereof. The neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting are yet to be explored.

Materials and Methods:

Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), the neurohemodynamic correlates of audible ‘OM’ chanting were examined in right-handed healthy volunteers (n=12; nine men). The ‘OM’ chanting condition was compared with pronunciation of “ssss” as well as a rest state. fMRI analysis was done using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5).

Results:

In this study, significant deactivation was observed bilaterally during ‘OM’ chanting in comparison to the resting brain state in bilateral orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyri, thalami and hippocampi. The right amygdala too demonstrated significant deactivation. No significant activation was observed during ‘OM’ chanting. In contrast, neither activation nor deactivation occurred in these brain regions during the comparative task – namely the ‘ssss’ pronunciation condition.

Conclusion:

The neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting indicate limbic deactivation. As similar observations have been recorded with vagus nerve stimulation treatment used in depression and epilepsy, the study findings argue for a potential role of this ‘OM’ chanting in clinical practice.

Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is used as treatment in depression and epilepsy.[1,2] A positron emission tomography (PET) study[3] has shown decreased blood flow to limbic brain regions during direct (cervical) VNS. Another functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study[4] has shown significant deactivation of limbic brain regions during transcutaneous VNS. In this procedure electrical stimulus is applied over the inner part of the left tragus and hence the auricular branch of the vagus.

The use of ‘OM’ chanting for meditation is well known.[5] Effective ‘OM’ chanting is associated with the experience of vibration sensation around the ears. It is expected that such a sensation is also transmitted through the auricular branch of the vagus nerve. We therefore hypothesized that like transcutaneous VNS, ‘OM’ chanting too produces limbic deactivation. Specifically, we predicted that ‘OM’ chanting would evoke similar neurohemodynamic correlates, deactivation of the limbic brain regions, amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and thalamus) as were found in the previous study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099099/

Ajay Anil Gurjar and Siddharth A Ladhake published their first OM paper, Time-Frequency Analysis of Chanting Sanskrit Divine Sound “OM”, in 2008 in the International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security.

Ladhake is the principal at Sipna’s College of Engineering and Technology in Amravati, India. Gurjar is an assistant professor in that institution’s department of electronics and telecommunication. Both specialise in electronic signal processing. They now sub-specialise in analysing the one very special signal.

In the introductory paper, Gurjar and Ladhake explain (in case there is someone unaware of the basics): “Om is a spiritual mantra, outstanding to fetch peace and calm. The entire psychological pressure and worldly thoughts are taken away by the chanting of Om mantra.”

They apply a mathematical tool called wavelet transforms to a digital recording of a person chanting “Om”. Even people with no mathematical background can appreciate, on some level, one of the blue-on-white graphs included in the monograph. This graph, the authors say, “depicts the chanting of ‘Om’ by a normal person after some days of chanting”. The image looks like a pile of nearly identical, slightly lopsided pancakes held together with a skewer, the whole stack lying sideways on a table. To behold it is to see, if nothing else, repetition.

At the end, Gurjar and Ladhake say: “Our attentiveness and our concentration are pilfered from us by the proceedings take place around us in the world in recent times … By this analysis we could conclude steadiness in the mind is achieved by chanting Om, hence proves the mind is calm and peace to the human subject.”

http://www.theguardian.com/education/2010/may/03/repetitive-physics-om-improbable-research

Scientific Evidence: The Efficacy of OM Chanting.

A recent study conducted at Spina’s College of Engineering & Technology in Maharashtra, India, on one particular mantra, OM, resulted in some profound conclusions. Ajay Anil Gurjar, Siddharth A. Ladhake, and Ajay P. Thakare explain, “OM does not have a translation. Therefore, the Hindus consider it as the very name of the Absolute, it is body of sound. In the scriptures of ancient India, the OM is considered as the most powerful of all the mantras. The others are considered aspects of the OM, and the OM is the matrix of all other mantras. It has been recognized that the Mantras have beneficial effects on human beings and even plants. The syllable OM is quite familiar to a Hindu. It occurs in every prayer. Invocation to most gods begins with this syllable. OM is also pronounced as AUM. The syllable OM is not specific to Indian culture. It has religious significance in other religions also. Although OM is not given any specific definition and is considered to be a cosmic sound, a primordial sound, the totality of all sounds etc. The entire psychological pressure and worldly thoughts are removed by chanting OM Mantra.”

Chanting OM resulted in significant brain wave frequency changes, as evidenced in the participant’s EEG readings. Gujare, Ladhake, and Thakare explain the reading thusly, “From this we could conclude that chanting OM mantra results in stabilization of [the] brain, removal of worldly thoughts and an increase of energy. It means that concentrating on OM mantra and continuously doing it slowly shifts our attention. It is a reflection of the most fundamental interlocking processes in our bodies…the harmony we play echoes the harmonic relationships of every vital system i.e. our heartbeat, our breathing, our brainwaves pulsing, our neuronal firing, our cells throbbing, our metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal rhythms and our behaviors in our addictions and our habits. In this sense OM mantra is a brain stabilizer, by practicing it one can enter deeper and deeper into a natural state, which is also an energy medicine for human beings under stress.”

http://www.wakingtimes.com/2013/05/27/the-mind-blowing-power-of-mantra-yoga/

Soul Immortal Body Dies Why Sraddha Pinda?


A reader posed an interesting question, which I am reproducing below.

‘a SMALL DOUBT sOUL IS NOT PERISHABLE. THERE IS REBIRTH AFTER DEATH. THEN WHY THESE SHARDHAMS AND PINDAS FOR THE EXISTING ONES. CURIOSITY OF VEDIC REFERENCES. WE ARE MOULD OF FLESH AND BONES AND WE HAVE NO REACH ON IMMORTALITY. CAN YOU DISCUSS. THANKS’

I remember having written on this , in the passing, while on another article.

As the issues involved are complex and many have the same doubt, I would like to clarify.

True, the Atman is Imperishable, Immortal , timeless

The Vedas and the Upanishads stress this point and the entire Indian Philosophy revolves on this concept of Atman

The Bhagavad Gita states thus.

Bhagavad Gita Verse Chapter 2.Sloka 20. on the Nature of Atman.

Bhagavad Gita Verse on the Nature of Atman.jpg Bhagavad Gita Verse on the Nature of Atman, Self .Chap.2,Sloka20

The body is the instrument through which the fruits of actions, the Karmaphalas are worn out.

Body , being made of the five elements, earth,water, fire,air and ether returns to the respective elements after death.

All things done or being done during the course of one’s life are directed towards this body, excepting the urge to realize Brahman, the Reality.

Once the body dies a Hindu performs Sraddha , ceremonies for the dead by offering food .

This concept of offering to  the departed is present in all Religions.

Names might differ.

If the body is perishable and the Soul is Immortal , what is the point in performing these rituals, like Tharpana, offering Pindas,and Sraddha?

Though the body ceases to exist, the remnants of actions performed, Desired do not cease even after death.

The thoughts remain as energy once created can not be destroyed and Thoughts and Thought processes are Energy.

They have to be expended.

Till such time the Subtle body remains.

The Subtle Body is called as Sukshma Sareera.

The Sukshma sarera exists even after death and is nourished by Food, Water.

This is applicable in both Stages, Life and afer Death

ThePhysical frame is sutained by the essence of Food(Anna Rasa) and so is the suskshma sareera.

This is one of the reasons for some foods contributing to unidentified anxiety, despondence, fear ets.

Also Food determines one’s disposition .

For more on this Googel Food ramanan50.

Now after the Physical frame ceases ,the Sukshma Sareera needs nourishment.

And this is what we do by performing Sraddha and offering food to the departed,

Now to the question.

The dead are reborn.

They have taken a new body and they eat.

Would this not be enough to nourish the Physical body and the sukshma Sareera?

No.

The remnants of the earlier birth’s needs are not wholly met in the current birth.

The bonds one had established during the earlier birth still linger and those are met only by the offerings from the people with whom we had bonded in the earlier birth.

This non compliance of the Sraddha results in Pitru Dosha.

Pitru Dosha does not merely indicate the anguish of the ancestors but also the needs of the Sukshma Sareera of the earlier birth( which forms a pat of the Sukshma Sareera of theis birth).

When such needs have not been met, one faces unaccountable problems.

These do not apply to realized souls or Brahma Gnanis.