Meru Arctic, Kashmir, Tanzania ,Celestial?

Mount Meru is mentioned in all the Puranas, especially while talking of the Evolution of The Universe.

Jambudvipa lies in the middle of all Mortal Realms and in its center is the lofty Mt. Meru, bright as gold. Its height is 84,000 yojanas, and it extends 16,000 yojanas below the earth; its width at the top is 32,000 and at the base is 16,000 yojanas.

-Kurma Purana.

Name Width Height/Depth
Sumeru (Sineru) mountain 80,000 yojanas 80,000 yojanas
Sea 80,000 yojanas 80,000 yojanas
Yugandhara mountains 40,000 yojanas 40,000 yojanas
Sea 40,000 yojanas 40,000 yojanas
Iṣadhara (Isadhara) mountains 20,000 yojanas 20,000 yojanas
Sea 20,000 yojanas 20,000 yojanas
Khadiraka (Karavīka) mountains 10,000 yojanas 10,000 yojanas
Sea 10,000 yojanas 10,000 yojanas
Sudarśana (Sudassana) mountains 5,000 yojanas 5,000 yojanas
Sea 5,000 yojanas 5,000 yojanas
Aśvakarṇa (Assakaṇṇa) mountains 2,500 yojanas 2,500 yojanas
Sea 2,500 yojanas 2,500 yojanas
Vinadhara (Vinataka) mountains 1,250 yojanas 1,250 yojanas
Sea 1,250 yojanas 1,250 yojanas
Nimindhara (Nemindhara) mountains 625 yojanas 625 yojanas
Outer Sea 32,000 yojanas relatively shallow
Cakravāḍa (Cakkavāḷa) mountains(circular edge of the world) 312.5 yojanas 312.5 yojanas


Mount Meru is also considered Divne and is ver Holy for the Sakthi Upasakas.

Lalitatha Sahsranama  referrs  ‘Meru Mandla Madhyastha’

This house is described in detail in the Brahmaanda Purana,”In that house of Chintamani all is Chintamani.”This house having an extent of a thousand yojanas is above the world system.


The Rudrayaamala says,”In that Chintamani house of a thousand yojanas in extent.


“The house which is on Meru is smaller in size. ‘


There are views that this Mountain is terrestrial.

Some Hindu traditions place it in The Arctic.

1.There is evidence that the Rig Veda was composed in the Arctic.

I have  a post on this.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak subscribes to this view.

The Arctic region today, comprises of kilometers thick sheets of Ice spread for miles together, with hardly any land or vegetation on it.. But, what if the North Pole, at some time in its history, did support land as well as vegetation???
My research, turned up evidence that North Pole INDEED boasted of a continent right until the Miocene Period which however, got submerged during the subsequent Ice-Ages (!!). According to latest geological evidence, the last Glacial period closed about 10,000 years ago and the geographical distribution of land then, was radically DIFFERENT from what it is at present..”
Mount Meru as the Center of the Earth.jpg
Mount Meru as the Center of the Earth.
2. Mount Meru in Tanzania.
We have a Mountain by the name Meru in Tanzania.
Meru in Central Asia, Korean Legend.jpg
A Korean world map centered on the legendary Mount Meru in Central Asia.”A Korean world map centered on the legendary Mount Meru in Central Asia.” by Unknown – Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons –

Mount Meru is an active stratovolcano located 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of Mount Kilimanjaro in the nation of Tanzania.

And there is a Town Meru in the neighboring Kenya!

3.Meru is also identified Mount Meru or Sumeru with the Pamirs, north-west of Kashmir.

4.The Meru is Celestial.

Hindu Tantra shastras maintain that Meru is a spiritual Plane of Existence.

Buddhism and Jainism say the same.


Tibetan Buddhism regards Meru as the Center of the Universe and believes it to be beyond the physical plane, in a realm of perfection and transcendence. Symbolic representations of Meru are frequently found in Tibetan and Bhutanese mandalas designed to aid in meditation.’.

5.Surya Siddhanta View.

Surya Siddhanta is a highly accurate astronomical treatise br the Hindus.

It says, of Meru thus,


Suryasiddhanta once says square root of 10 is value of ‘pi’, but root of 10 is merely a crude value of ‘pi’ for teaching students and should never be used for any serious purpose. Any siddhanta must never abuse the basic laws of mathematics. The value of ‘pi’ is 3.14159265……., and not root of 10. In Vedic mathematics, there were formulae for computing ‘pi’ with 12 or 32 digit accuracy. Fot 12 digits, ‘pi’ = SQRT {2* (18000^2) / (65656565 – OCTAL 666)} ; Octal 666 is number for Satan in Biblical mathematics and is therefore subtracted.

Earth’s equatorial circumference is 1600 * ‘pi’ = 5026.5482457… yojanas, whereas Manda-paridhi of sun is 5040 yojanas (5039.990052). One degree (amsha0 of manda paridhi is sun’s paridhyamsha (= paridhi + amsha) = 5040 / 360 = 14 yojanas (13.9999723667) per degree. The diameter of manda-paridhi is 5040/pi = 1604.278659816 yojanas or 34.112669 kms, which is the distance of the centre of Manda-paridhi from Earth’s equatorial surface. it is equal to the height of Mt Meru (Mt Kenya = 5.199 Kms) and a mysterious term equal to 28.913669002241621530835902160508 Kms. It is equal to sum of four components :

d1 = R * sin(180 degrees / 42000) = 28.6231184335656015… Kms
d2 = R * sin(180 degrees / 4200000) = 0.2862311846025405641566… Kms
d3 = R * sin(180 degrees / [4200000 * 71]) = 0.004031425135247426…. Kms
d4 = R * sin(180 degrees / [4200000 * 71 * 14 ]) = 0.000287958938 Kms

The actual centre of all universes is 28.913669002241621530835902160508 Kms higher than the tip of terrestrial Mt Meru (Mt Kenya) and is Divine Mt Meru.’

I have written an article that


1.Lord Vishnu’s Nabhi as the center of our Milky way Galaxy verified.

“The Galactic Center cannot be observed at visible, ultraviolet, or x-ray wavelengths because interstellar dust obscures the line of sight. All scientific information about it comes from observations of gamma ray, hard X-ray, infrared, and radio wavelengths. The precise astronomical location of the Galactic Center at approximately 3 degrees Sagittarius (sidereal) was first verified in 1918 by Harlow Shapley. However its energetic connection to the earth was not realized until 1932 when Karl G. Jansky, an engineer working for Bell Telephone, was investigating the source of the static interference with overseas telephone lines. He discovered that the interference was due to radio waves being emitted from the center of the galaxy. The source of the radio waves appears to be located almost exactly at the Galactic Center, and may coincide with a super massive black hole. This black hole has the equivalent mass of 4 million suns and is the source of most of the gravitational energy in our galaxy. Thus the Galactic Center is the Sun around which our Sun rotates.’

Considering all these facts I tend to surmise that the Physical Meru is in the Arctic ( I have a post that the inside of the Earth is not hollow) ans also a spiritual plane.

After all what is In the Microcosm is in the Macrocosm.

Citation. ( Image and a portion of the Text quoted)


Byse Unique Solstice Indicator, Stonehenge Of India

We are quite familiar with the Stonehenge in England.

Stonehenge,Astronomy Device,England,jpg
Stonehenge ,England.

Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, about 2 miles (3 km) west of Amesbury and 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is the remains of a ring of standing stones set within earthworks. It is in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.

Byse Megalithic structures.jpg
Byse, The Indian Stonehenge

This image is from

I am informed that this is not the correct image by Mystery of  India website.

Check another image at papers/Recent Survey of a Megalithic Stone Alignment at Byse.pdf

One more from

Byse stone,jpg
Byse stone. Image Credit.

Comments are welcome.



Archaeologists believe it was built anywhere from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Radiocarbon dating in 2008 suggested that the first stones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC,[2] whilst another theory suggests that bluestones may have been raised at the site as early as 3000 BC..

There is little or no direct evidence for the construction techniques used by the Stonehenge builders. Over the years, various authors have suggested that supernatural or anachronistic methods were used, usually asserting that the stones were impossible to move otherwise. However, conventional techniques, using Neolithic technology as basic as shear legs, have been demonstrably effective at moving and placing stones of a similar size. Proposed functions for the site include usage as an astronomical observatory or as a religious site.

Another idea has to do with a quality of the stones themselves: Researchers from the Royal College of Art in London have discovered that some of the monument’s stones possess “unusual acoustic properties” —when they are struck they respond with a “loud clanging noise”.

Byse, Indian Stonehenge.


Located in Byse village in Karnataka these Megaliths structures dates back to 1000 BC and have been found to be aligned with certain Solar and Stellar movements including solstices andequinoxes.

Megalithic structures have been found at a site called Nilaskal Byana which mean “the field with the standing stones”. In 1975, the site was reported as containing several menhirs (single standing stones) arranged in no particular pattern. In 2007, the researchers from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) and Manipal University surveyed the site and discovered 26 megalithic constructions….

According to researcher, this megalithic construction were most probably used for astronomical observations at a site in South India. Using computer simulation, the researchers concluded that at least one of the stone alignments at Byse has “strong astronomical associations”. The standing stones are aligned to the north, east, south and west directions and also match the two solstices and equinoxes. While the two solstices mark the longest and shortest days of the year, an equinox occurs when the sun is in the same plane as the earth’s equator. The solstices, together with the equinoxes, are connected with the seasons.

A unique feature of this observatory compared to those in Europe is that it does not have a central location from which observations can be made, but involves multiple sightlines with shadows of several stones falling on other marking stones during days of astronomical importance..


Source: Stone alignment with solar and other sightlines in South India by CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 102, NO. 5, 10 MARCH 2012

Image credit.

World's Largest Number.png

Large Numbers Modern Maths Tamil Classics

In the highly complex world of Astronomy, where very huge distances are to be measured special numbers are needed to count.


The presence of Large numbers indicate that knowledge of such huge numbers were necessitated .


That is possible only when Knowledge of such numerals are needed.

World's Largest Number.png
World’s Largest Number.


And such a field is Astronomy.


Unless one has a very deep insight into the working of the Universe , one would not have devised the numbers and more importantly  would not have systematized them.


The largest Number used now ,


When a number represents a quantity rather than a count, SI prefixes can be used—thus “femtosecond”, not “one quadrillionth of a second”—although often powers of ten are used instead of some of the very high and very low prefixes. In some cases, specialized units are used, such as the astronomer’s parsec and light year or the particle physicist’s barn.

Nevertheless, large numbers have an intellectual fascination and are of mathematical interest, and giving them names is one of the ways in which people try to conceptualize and understand them.

One of the first examples of this is The Sand Reckoner, in which Archimedes gave a system for naming large numbers. To do this, he called the numbers up to a myriad myriad (108) “first numbers” and called 108 itself the “unit of the second numbers”. Multiples of this unit then became the second numbers, up to this unit taken a myriad myriad times, 108·108=1016. This became the “unit of the third numbers”, whose multiples were the third numbers, and so on. Archimedes continued naming numbers in this way up to a myriad myriad times the unit of the 108-th numbers, i.e., (10^8)^{(10^8)}=10^{8\cdot 10^8}, and embedded this construction within another copy of itself to produce names for numbers up to \left((10^8)^{(10^8)}\right)^{(10^8)}=10^{8\cdot 10^{16}}. Archimedes then estimated the number of grains of sand that would be required to fill the known Universe, and found that it was no more than “one thousand myriad of the eighth numbers” (1063)….


The Largest Standard Dictionary Number, on date, is, Centillion ,10303.


Tamil Classics name, 1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 = MAHAYUGAM = Ten Undecillion = 10 37.


This is 10 steps later to Decillion.


That is adding the power.


The basic computation in a Language that is over 5000 Year old….?


Shall be posting on minute measurements in Tamil and on Large and smallest numbers in Vedic System.




Sishumara of the Sun with the positions of the Stars that change.jpg.

First Nakshatra Ashvini,Moola or Krittika?

There seems to be some debate on which is the Nakshatra in Hindu system.


Normally we take Aswini Nakshatra as the first Nakshatra and this is being followed every where among Hindu Households.


But there are views that it might be Krittika, Moola , based  on Vedic Astronomical calculations in the Atharva Veda.


1.Moola as the First Nakshatra.


If one star is to be identified as Moola, then the best candidate for Moola or Vichruta Nakshatra is 42 q OPH from Ophichius zodiac of the European system. It falls in the star band and is 50 minutes or 13 degrees (E-W) away from Jyeshta. Its brightness is +3.28. Arab Sabik is another strong candidate for Moola with +2.43 brightness and is also 13 degrees from Jyeshta.

Sagittarius,Dhanus Constellation.jgif
shows 30 degrees square area around Dhanu Raashi. The Nakshatras in this figure are Vichruta/Moola, and Poorvaashada. Both the stars are in the moon traverse band. For the imaginative, a stretched bow can be seen in the Dhanu Raashi. Vichruta or Moola Nakshatras considered to be a star mansion with eleven stars

Moola or Vichruta has been extensively referred to in Atharveda Kaanda 2,Kaanda 3 and kaanda 6 (Ref 2). Vichruta, stands for darkness and Moola carries an adjective Arishta. This word has two meanings, one standing for sweet and second associated with bad associated with death. Astronomically, Moola is in line with Milkiway galactic center. Did some astronomical event appear 5000 years ago near the center of Milkiway galaxy, which could explain why Moola is considered as bad? In modern astronomy, there have been conjectures of a black hole at the center of our Milkiway. This area of sky is visually dark because large amount of matter is presumed to exist around the center of the Galaxy. Did vedic period astronomers know of the center of the galaxy or did they see some astronomical event justifying the bad omen associated with Moola?.

Poorvaashaada Nakshatra is considered to be a star mansion of two stars. The following table presents candidate stars, which qualify as Poorvashaada based on brightness, location with reference to moon traverse band, and distance from previous Nakshatra.

2″Krittika as the First Nakshatra.

1. Rishi Gargya starts the list of twenty seven nakshatra‘s starting with Krittika. Choice of Krittika as the first of twenty-seven is very significant. In contrast Jyotishya Shaastra uses Ashwini as the first star. The choice of first Nakshatra must correspond to a logically first day of a solar year, which dictates the weather cycles. Which is the year’s first day? Astronomically speaking, the spring Equinox day in Northern Hemisphere temperate zone is a logical one. It heralds the arrival of the spring, in temperate zone of northern hemisphere of the earth. Vasantha ritu, the spring has always been considered as beginning of a year from Rig-vedic times. Hence, the first observation implicit in Rishi Gargya’s sooktha is that on spring Equinox day, Sun was at Krittika Nakshatra. Figure 13 shows Sun location on March 21, 2400 BC from Load Star Pro. The Sun is on equator and is pointing to Krittika nakshatra.

Gargya Rishi! Nakshatrani Devata! Trishtup-Bhurik Chandaha!

Chitrani sakam divi rochanani sarisrupani bhuvanejavani

turmisham sumatimichaamaano ahaani geerbhi saparyami nakam!1!

suhavamagne krittika rohini chaastu bhadram mrigashirah Sham aardhrah !

punarvasu soonruta chaaru pushyo Bhaanur aslesha ayanam magha mey !2!

punyam poorva Phalguni chottra hasta schittra shiva swaati sukho mey astu!

raadhe vishaakhe suhav anooradha jyeshta sunakshatramarishta moolam !3!

annam poorva raasataam aashadha oorja devy uttaraa aavahantu!

abhijinma raasataam punyameva shravanah shravishtaah kurvatam supushtim!4!

Aa mey maha chatabhishagam vareeya Aa mey dvaya proshtapadaa susharma!

Aa reyvato chashvayujow bhagam ma Aa mey rayim Bharanya aavahantu!5!

This Sookta dedicated to Nakshatra‘s was recorded (Drashtaara) by Gargya Rishi. The Sookta describes both astronomical and astrological elements. Twenty eight Nakshatras are identified starting with Krittika and reference is made to Ayanam occurring in Maghaa. A nakshatra Abhijit is shown between Uttarashadha and Shravana. Its use has been discontinued in the Jyotishya with only twenty seven identified currently. The authenticity of the Athrarvana texts is well accepted, by the very reverence shown towards precise learning. Hundreds of generations of Shrotreeya’s have carried veda‘s down to us in its original language using oral traditions of Krama, Pada, Jatha, and Ghana Paatha so that distortions are nonexistent. Two major astronomical time markers are evident and implicit in the Sooktha.

The Canterbury Calendar

Higher Astronomy Instruments Designs Surya Siddhanta

Many are under the impression that Hinduism, especially the Vedas are theoretical and do not address to the problems of daily Life or Science.


Nothing can be farther from the Truth.


Surya Siddhanta.jpg
Surya Siddhanta.


I had posted articles on practical application of Science,Dealing with daily life, Botany,Zoology, Food and other vital subjects that deal with our daily needs, developed by Hinduism.


Here I am furnishing details from the Surya Siddhanta that deals with Astronomy in detail.


I had earlier posted an article on Vishnu’s Navel Galaxy and how it has been validated by modern Astronomy.


The Surya Siddhanta is one of the oldest treatises (siddhanta) in Hindu astronomy. The extant text as edited by Burgess (1860) is medieval (c. 12th century), but it is clearly based on older versions, which may go back to before the Common Era[citation needed].

It has rules laid down to determine the true motions of the luminaries, which conform to their actual positions in the sky. It gives the locations of several stars other than the lunar nakshatras and treats the calculation of solar eclipses. as well as solstices eg.summer solstice 21/06 Significant coverage is on kinds of time, length of the year of gods and demons, day and night of god Brahma, the elapsed period since creation, how planets move eastwards and sidereal revolution. The lengths of the Earth’s diameter, circumference are also given. Eclipses and color of the eclipsed portion of the moon is mentioned.”


Table of contents in Surya Siddhanta.


  1. The Mean Motions of the Planets
  2. True Places of the Planets
  3. Direction, Place and Time
  4. The Moon and Eclipses
  5. The Sun and Eclipses
  6. The Projection of Eclipses
  7. Planetary Conjunctions
  8. Of the Stars
  9. Risings and Settings
  10. The Moon’s Risings and Settings
  11. Certain Malignant Aspects of the Sun and Moon
  12. Cosmogony, Geography, and Dimensions of the Creation
  13. The Gnomon
  14. The Movement of the Heavens and Human Activity.

Design of Astronomical Instruments are also provided.

Astronomical Instruments by Surya Siddhantham.jpg
Astronomical Instruments
by Surya Siddhanhtam.Click to enlarge


Link to Surya Siddhanta Text by Arya Bhatta.