History of India Ancient To 18 Century Authentic Controversial Books Writers

Knowledge of Prakrit and Pali would be advantageous.

Then one must read texts from Indian languages, other than Sanskrit, like Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Bengali.

And one should refer to Jain and Buddhist texts from India and from other countries like Sri Lanka, Thailand, Korea, Vietnam and Cambodia.

They have their origins in Bharatvarsha.

Will be writing on sources from Indian regional languages and from Ancient Historians from the West.

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There are ancient and medieval sources from India on Indian history.

Many are unaware of them.

The Vedas also contain history if one were to have patience and command over Sanskrit.

Dasarjaneya war, the Battle of Ten Kings, incidentally it is the first war recorded in history, is described in the Vedas.

The Satapada Brahman as contain valuable information on Kings and Vedic life.

The major Puranas, eighteen in number are ancient history.

There are Upa Puranas.

Puranas Upa Puranas List

Ramayana and Mahabharata, the two Epics of India provide historical information.

One of the rules for a Purana to be classified as such is that it should detail the lineage of kings.

Then there is a gap of about five hundred years.

Texts written on Indian history are unavailable as India had the system of transmitting through oral traditions.

Knowledge of Prakrit and Pali would be advantageous.

Then one must read texts from Indian languages, other than Sanskrit, like Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Bengali.

And one should refer to Jain and Buddhist texts from India and from other countries like Sri Lanka, Thailand, Korea, Vietnam and Cambodia.

They have their origins in Bharatvarsha.

Will be writing on sources from Indian regional languages and from Ancient Historians from the West.

Hope this would help researchers to read the source and know the real history of India.

Banabhatta 7th century.

Asaga 9th-century century,

Kalhana 12th century,

He mac handrail 12th century,

Hasan Nizam, 13 th century

Abdul Malik Isami , 14th century,

Ziauddin Barani, 14th century,

  • Abul Fazl Mamuri, 15th century,

  • Jonaraja,
    15th century,
  • Padmanābha,
    15th century,
  • Shrivara,
    15th century,

    Yahya bin Ahmad Sirhindi,

  • 16th century
  • Abbas Sarwani
  • Abu’l-Fazl ibn Mubarak
  • `Abd al-Qadir Bada’uni
  • Gulbadan Begum
  • Prajna Bhatta
  • Nizamuddin Ahmad

Muhammad Saleh Kamboh 17th century

Mahipati, 18th century.

Lakshminath Bezbaroa 19th century

Binodini Dasi, 19th century

Sisir Kumar Ghosh

Vaikkath Pachu Moothathu

Mahipatram Rupram Nilkanth

Vrajlal Shastri

Reference and Citation

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Indian_historians_by_century

Hanuman Vanaras Existed 2,50,000 Years Ago? Homo Heidelbergensis

Home sapiens were our ancestors.

Hanuman His described as Chiranjeevi, Immortal.

Vanaras, to which Hanuman is reported to belong were not Apes

Valmiki observes that they can speak and intelligent

Hanuman had authored Sanskrit Grammar before Panini.


Ancestors of Homo sapiens were Homo heidelbergensis.

Home sapiens were our ancestors.

Hanuman is described as Chiranjeevi, Immortal.

Vanaras, to which he is reported to belong were not Apes.

Valmiki observes that they could speak and were intelligent

Hanuman had authored Sanskrit Grammar before Panini.

Hanuman is described as Wise.

There are Mantras that are addressed to Hanuman for better communication skills and mental strength.

In the light of following information could it be that Vanaras as a species existed 2,50,000 years ago?

In India?

Indian Thought does not support Darwinian Theory of Evolution

Species co existed.

This is being proved by recent researches in Biology and Archeology.

I had written earlier about Hanuman being possibly the equivalent of Neanderthals.

Hanuman is described as Immortal, Chiranjeevi

.Asia remained as reservoir of all races moving in to Europe.

2.For reasons not very known’ Humans started pushing towards Europe, this is presumed to be due to a cataclysmic event like flood or long dry periods.

3.Access to Europe was easy as the Russian plains were there to cross over effortlessly.

4.The complex structure of European geological features made these groups entering into Europe to become small groups settling n pockets.

The Basques settled in the North of Pyrenees, Celts in Wales,Ireland and north-west of Scotland,Lombard in Italy,

In the Fourth Century AD, out of Asia came the Huns,predecessor of Germans),Tatars.’

https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/ramanan50.wordpress.com/2014/07/18/hanuman-vanaras-are-neanderthals-of-india/amp/

heidelbergensis

Where Lived: Europe; possibly Asia (China); Africa (eastern and southern)
When Lived: About 700,000 to 200,000 years ago

This early human had a very large browridge, and a larger braincase and flatter face than older early human species. It was the first early human species to live in colder climates; their ­­­short, wide bodies were likely and to conserving heat. It lived at the time of the oldest definite control of fire and use of wooden spears, and it was the first early human species to routinely hunt large animals. This early human also broke new ground; it was the first species to build shelters, creating simple dwellings out of wood and rock.

Year of Discovery: 1908
History of Discovery:

In 1908 near Heidelberg, Germany, a workman found the of H. heidelbergensis in the Rösch sandpit just north of the village of Mauer. This was nearly complete except for the missing premolars and first two left molars; it is heavily built and lacks a chin. German scientist Otto Schoentensack was the first to describe the specimen and proposed the name Homo heidelbergensis.

Before the naming of this species, scientists referred to early human fossils showing traits similar to both Homo erectus and modern humans as ‘archaic’ Homo sapiens.

Height: Males: average 5 ft 9 in (175 cm); Females: average 5 ft 2 in (157 cm)
Weight: Males: average 136 lbs (62 kg); Females: average 112 lbs (51 kg)

We don’t know everything about early humans—but we keep learning more! Paleoanthropologists are constantly in the field, excavating new areas with groundbreaking technology, and continually filling in some of the gaps about our understanding of human evolution.

Below are some of the still unanswered questions about Homo heidelbergensis that may be answered with future discoveries:

.Smithsonian

  1. Did this early human indeed range in time from 1.3 million to 200,000 years ago, and in geography from Africa to Europe to Asia? Or are there more than one species represented among the fossils that some scientists call H. heidelbergensis (including H. antecessor, H. cepranensis, and H. rhodesiensis)?
  2. Many scientists think this species was ancestral tor n, but which species wancDidbehaviorceTheir model begins about 250,000 years ago, when Homo heidelbergensis arrived in India toting crude stone tools. Digs in central India in the 1980s turned up skeletal remains of the species, and other sites revealed almond-shaped hand axes chipped from stone.

Meanwhile in Africa modern humans arose about 190,000 years ago, most archaeologists believe. These humans too developed stone tools

.

Scattered evidence, such as red ochre—perhaps used as body paint—suggests early African humans also dabbled in the creative arts.

The new theory posits that as much as 70,000 years ago, a group of these modern humans migrated east, arriving in India with technology comparable to that developed by Homo heidelbergensis.

“The tools were not so different,” Petraglia says. “The technology that the moderns had wasn’t of a great advantage over what [Homo heidelbergensis] were using.”

But modern humans outcompeted the natives, slowly but inexorably driving them to extinction, Petraglia says. “It’s just like the story in Western Europe, where [modern humans] drove Neandertals to extinction,” he says.

The modern humans who colonized India may also have been responsible for the disappearance of the so-called Hobbits, whose fossilized bones were discovered recently on the Indonesian island of Flores.

But Athreya of Texas A&M argues that the evidence for such a “replacement event” in India remains weak.

“You have to explain the reasons for the replacement, [such as] technical superiority,” she said.

Reference and Citation.

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1114_051114_india_2.html

India 1.5 Million Years Old First Human Migration from Southern Coast India

I had also written on the fact that the first human migration took place from India and earliest Human DNA had been traced to Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Now I have come across evidence that suggest human habitation of India 1.5 millions years ago.


Ever since I wrote about the presence of evidence of early Indian history, I have been searching for further authentic information.

I had earlier written on,

A Million year old Advanced Tamil site near Chennai, India,

Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu being 30,000 years old,

Lemuria, home of Tamils, 230 Million years,

Jwalapuram, Andhra, India, 74,000 years,

Thiruvannaamalai, Tamil Nadu 3.94 billion years,

Thirupathi, Andhra Indiay, 2100 million years,

Bengal was in existence and was ruled by kings 25,000 Years ago,

Dwaraka is at least thirty years old,

I had also written on the fact that the first human migration took place from India and earliest Human DNA had been traced to Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Kindly search Google +relevant search term from the above for details.

Now I have come across evidence that suggest human habitation of India 1.5 millions years ago.

The peopling of India refers to the migration of Homo sapiensand earlier hominids into the Indian subcontinent. Evidence of human populations in India may stretch as far back as

1,500,000 years before today.

Modern humans settled India in multiple waves of early migrations, over tens of millennia. The first migrants came with the Southern Coastal dispersal, ca. 60,000 years ago, whereafter complex migrations within south and southeast Asia took place. With the onset of farming the population of India changed significantly by the migration of Dravidians and the Indo-European, while the migrations of the Munda people and the Tibeto-Burmese speaking people also added new elements

Source. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peopling_of_India

‘Acheulian stone tools which is about 1.51 million years old, have been discovered in Chennai near Attirampakkam. These stones were found by researchers from the Chennai-based Sharma Centre for Heritage Education.

The discovery indicates that early humans (hominins), used these tools. The tools are much older than those found in Europe. These tools are also found in several countries in South Asia, including India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

More than hundreds of different tools have been discovered from the Attirampakkam site. The most common ones are hand-axes, cleavers and small flakes. The stone axes are elongated teardrop or ovate-shaped with bifacial symmetry.

Unlike the hand-axes, the cleavers have broad cutting edges.

https://www.newsreporter.in/million-years-old-acheulian-tools-were-found-in-chennai

The fact that Lemuria existed and migration took place from the south of present India gets strengthened.

  • . 60,000 BCE – 32,768 BCE
    Human habitation of India.
  • 5,500 BCE
    Cotton cultivation begins in India.
  • c. 5,000 BCE – c. 1,500 BCE
    The Indus Valley (or Harappan) Civilization.
  • c. 5,000 BCE
    Evidence of religious practices in the Indus Valley.
  • c. 4,000 BCE
    Indian village of Balathal inhabited.
  • c. 4,000 BCE
    Farming settlements are established in the Indus Valley.
  • c. 3,300 BCE
    Early Harappan Civilization of India practices burial of the dead.
  • c. 3,000 BCE – c. 2,600 BCE
    The rise of the great Indian cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.
  • c. 3,000 BCE
    First signs of urbanization in the Indus Valley.
  • c. 2,800 BCE
    Later Harappan Civilization turns to cremation over burial.

Uyghur Civilization Dravida Shiva Sanatana Dharma Connected?

In classical Tamil the prefix of MU indicates very ancient.

Elders are called Moothoor,Old age as Mudhumai and Madurai was called as Madurai Moodhoor.

In the process of Shiva returning to India he passed through the area,which probably had a civilization or Shiva founded one.

It was the Uyghur Civilization.


I have written about ancient civilizations,which have been dismissed as myth not long ago.

Now ancient history is getting a new look,thanks to new findings in archaeology around the World and the availability of information worldwide,thanks to Internet.

People or Nations find it no longer easy to stem the flow of information.

Earlier history was written with a political agenda,be it the compilation of the Old Testament by Constantine,or the misinformation about Indian History.

Now it is difficult to misinform people and the research findings are for everyone to access.

The problem lies in the fact that the one who finds something new is unable to link the information found anywhere else because he may not be familiar about a fact,event,records of another culture.

For instance the sea floor anamoly in Newzealand was linked to the Great Flood mentioned in Tamil classics,thanks to the input provided to me by a Researcher in Oceanography in New zealand.

Thanks to him I was able to corroborate the fact that Poompuhar in Tamil Nadu can be dated 30,000 years back.

Similarly I could get valuable inputs from US on the presence of Sanatana Sharma in the Caribbean and the connection of Italy with Hinduism from a Researcher in Italy.

So even though information is available in the web,it needs some effort to link information available elsewhere.

Fortunately,two oldest Languages,Sanskrit and Tamil provide enough data.

Resources available around the world indicate the presence five ancient civilizations.

Uyghur Flag.Image.
Uyghur Flag.

Uyghur,

Atlantis,

Hyperborean,

Lemuria and

Rama Empire.

Of these I have touched upon Hyperborean civilization,written in detail about Lemuria being 230 Million years old,Rama Empire covering the world,Atlantis and Ramayana connection and Lemurians being the ancestors of Rama.

It is essential that one remembers that the landmass of ancient age was different from what it is today.

There was no Europe,Americas,Africa,Australia or Asia as we know of them now.

In this connection I have written on Rodina,Pangea,Lemuria,all being Super Continents.

There was another area lying in the periphery of Lemuria,the Home of Tamils.

It also had Tamil Culture.

The area was called MU.

The MU civilization was quite advanced and a document linking Tamils with MU people is reported to be in a room in Ekambareswara Temple,Kanchipuram,Tamil Nadu.

This has been brought forth by Churchward in his research works.

There seems to have been an advanced civilization ,which we can point at some point NorthEast of Australia,going by the present map of the world.

This civilization extended towards the west encompassing the entire land mass,including what is now Africa,Atlantic and Americas.

On the northern side it seemed to have extended to Arctic through China,Russia.

(Remember all these events were before the Himalayas formed some forty million years ago.

And Shiva’s Marriage with Parvati took place after the fformation of Himalayas. ) 

At that point of time evolution seems to have taken place in this region and an advanced culture developed.

Then three Great Floods struck and people had to migrate.

Manu,the ancestor of Lord Ramayana moved north of Vindhya mountains and Manu’s son Ikshvaku founded the Surya balsa,The Solar Dynasty.

Some people were left behind and among them was Ila,daughter of Manu and she founded the Lunar Dynasty,Chandra Vamsa.

One curious information at this juncture is that Shiva worship seems to have been prevalent during this period and this period predates The,Vedic age.

One finds only an indirect reference to Shiva in the Vedas,in the Sri Rudram addressed to Rudra as ‘Nama Sivaaya cha,Sivadharaaya Cha’

Shiva seems to have left the area during the flood ,along with his son Ganesh towards the west traversing all the way to Arctic where The Rig Veda was composed.

One can find references to Shiva in The Middle east,Africa,Americas ,Europe and Russia.

I have written articles on these in detail.

After the Rig Veda was composed Shiva seems to have returned to India from the Arctic through Russia,Iran.

One can find references to Ganesha and Shiva in Azherbaijn as well.

This entry by Shiva was interpreted as Aryan Invasion.

Shiva’s other son Subrahmanya,called Murugan traveled towards the east.

Note the letter MU,the first letter of Murugan.

In classical Tamil the prefix of MU indicates very ancient.

Elders are called Moothoor,Old age as Mudhumai and Madurai was called as Madurai Moodhoor.

In the process of Shiva returning to India he passed through the area,which probably had a civilization or Shiva founded one.

It was the Uyghur Civilization.

I am providing excerpts from an article on Uyghur Civilization below and the Link.

I shall be writing more on Uyghur ,Dravidas,and Santana Sharma.
 

 Uyghur Empire was possibly the first, and unquestionably the largest, most important, and most powerful of all the colonial empires belonging to Mu. Colonization commenced just north of Burma more than 70,000 years ago.

The Uyghur Empire stretched its powerful arms from the Pacific Ocean across Central Asia and into Eastren Europe from the Caspian Sea on. This was before the British Isles became separated from the continent of Europe.

The southern boundary of the Uyghur Empire was along the northern boundaries of Cochin China, Burma, India, and Persia,and this was before the Himalayas and the other Asiatic mountains were raised.

Their northern boundary extended into Siberia, but how far there is no record to tell. Remains of their cities have been found in the southern parts of Siberia.

Legendary history states that the Uyghurs extended themselves all through the central parts of Europe. The Book of Manu, an ancient Hindu book, says: ” The Uyghurs had a settlement on the northern and eastern shores of the Caspian sea.”

They settled in northern Spain, northern France, and far down into the Balkan region. The late archeological discoveries in Moravia are Uyghur remains, and the evidences in which ethnologists have based their theories that man originated in Asia have been marks left by the advancing Uyghurs in Europe.

Chinese legend tells that the Uyghurs were at the height of their civilization about 17,000 years ago. This date agrees with geological phenomenon.

An ancient record in a monastery states: “The capital City of the Uyghurs with all its people was destroyed by a flood which extended throughout the eastern part of the Empire, destroying all and everything.” This ancient record is absolutely corroborated by geological phenomena.

 ancient record in a monastery states: “The capital City of the Uyghurs with all its people was destroyed by a flood which extended throughout the eastern part of the Empire, destroying all and everything.” This ancient record is absolutely corroborated by geological phenomena.

At the time the Uyghur Empire was at its peak, the mountain had not been raised and what is now the Gobi Desert (Teklimakan)was a rich well-watered plain. Here the capital city of the Uyghurs was situated, almost due south from Lake Baikal. In 1896 a party of explorers, upon information received in Tibet, visited the site of the ancient city of Khara Khota. They had been told that the Uyghur capital city lay under the ruins of Khara Khota. They dug through these ruins and then through a stratum of boulders,gravel and sand fifty feet in thickness, and finally came upon the ruins of the capital city.

The history of the Uyghurs is the history of the Aryan races, for all of the true Aryan races descended from Uyghur forefathers. The Uyghurs formed chains of settlements across the central parts of Europe back in Tertiary Times. After the Empire was destroyed by the great magnetic cataclysm and mountain rising, the surviving remnants of humanity or their descendants again formed settlements in Europe. This was during the Pleistocene Time. The slaves, Tautens, Celts, Irish,Bretons and Basques are all descended from Uyghur stock. The Bretons,Basques, and genuine Irish are the descendants of those who survived the magnetic cataclysm and mountain raising.

Some Chinese records, bearing a date of 500 B.C. Describe the Uyghurs as having been “light-haired, blue-eyed people.” ” The Uyghurs were all of a light complexion, milk-white skin, with varying color of eyes and hair. In the north blue eye and light hair predominated. In the south were found those with dark hair and dark eyes.”

The Uyghurs had reached a high state of civilization and culture.They knew astrology, mining, the textile industries,architecture, mathematics, agriculture, writing, reading, medicine, ect. They were experts in decorative art or silk, metals, and wood, and they made statues of gold, silver, bronze, and clay and this was before the history of Egypt commenced.

The history of Central Asia is the history of the Uyghurs. The Uyghur people are a distinct, vibrant cultural element of Central Asia. Whether you examine the role of Uyghur scholars in Genghis Khan’s court as administrators, peruse the artistic wonders of their architectural accomplishments involving the Buddhist, Christian or Islamic periods, or read translations of the numerous written works on medicine,history or just their humor, one cannot but realize the unique and vital contributions of the Uyghur people to history.[Jack Churchward]

Currently, the majority of the Uyghur people live under the rule of the Chinese government. I would be remiss were I not to mention that this centuries’ old culture is under attack. Uyghur language text books are banned from classrooms and book burnings have consumed thousands of books, just for being correct about history. [Jack Churchward]

In the late 1930s, Turkey’s Independence leader Ataturk promoted research on Mu and other lost continents, in the hope of establishing connections between the Turkish civilization and other ancient cultures, such as the Uyghur, Indian, Mayan, and Aztec.

I have written on the relationship between Tamils,Mayans and Aztecs.

And the Gobekli Tepe Temple was built by Brahmins.

Caspian sea was Kashyap Sagar.

River Danube was named after Chanukah,mother of Dhanavas.

Block Quote image and reference.

http://www.uighur.nl/uyghur-history/

Human History To be Rewritten Six Pre Historic Mu Lemuria Rama Atlantis Uyghur Hyperborean

And there is ample evidence to prove the existence of UFOs,UMOs(unidentified marine objects,classified data released by the then USSR.

On UFOs,the released classified filed from the US are voluminous,including the testimony of Apollo Astronaut.

Then there is Area B51 in the US which is a secret location and A BBC crew was arrested for trying to enter the area.

There are proven UFO sightings.

I have written on these,under UFO,Astrophysics.

And there is this instance of US troops disappearing in Afghanisthan,while investigating the remains of an ancient Vimana,Aircraft.

There is a tunnel from Mount Kailash to Iraq,through Romania.

Three stone platforms were found,in one ,one can find his life flashing by,in another the sky map appears.

Nobody is able to understand the Third Table.

Then we have Anamolies,

Human history,


The period belonging to recorded history seems to a revisit.

This is because of new archeological findings that predate recorded history and one finds a lot of anomalies in regard to our advancements in almost every field.

Things that were there during that period should not be there ,going by our recorded history.

The Wheel was used during the Period of Ramayana,Mahabharatha and even much earlier according to Indian texts.

Chariots were used.

Advanced concepts in Physics,Chmistry,Biology,Astronomy,Quantum Theory are found in Indians texts,along with Atomic theory and  theories in almost all disciplines and practical applications of theories in building Aircrafts,Radar,Space Suits,diet for Astronauts.

I have written on each of these.

And there is ample evidence to prove the existence of UFOs,UMOs(unidentified marine objects,classified data released by the then USSR.

On UFOs,the released classified filed from the US are voluminous,including the testimony of Apollo Astronaut.

Then there is Area B51 in the US which is a secret location and A BBC crew was arrested for trying to enter the area.

There are proven UFO sightings.

I have written on these,under UFO,Astrophysics.

And there is this instance of US troops disappearing in Afghanisthan,while investigating the remains of an ancient Vimana,Aircraft.

There is a tunnel from Mount Kailash to Iraq,through Romania.

Three stone platforms were found,in one ,one can find his life flashing by,in another the sky map appears.

Nobody is able to understand the Third Table.

Then we have Anamolies,

Human history,

Science Anamoloies,

Artifacts,

Time travel anomalies,

I shall be writing on each of these in detail.

I shall be examining the Civilizations of the world of prehistoric times.

Civilizations do not develop overnight.

They take thousands of years.

The same with languages//literature.

And when we speak of ancient times,We should remember that the landmass then was different from what it is today.

There were Super Continents,Rodina,Pangea,Lemuria ,Atlantis.

The effort to discredit Atlantis and Lemuria has come to nought,with archeological and geological evidences surfacing and with advanced dating tools like infra red dating and Plate tectonics studies.

We also must remember that Ocean floor is not explored even by ten percent!

Amazon is explored only by 10 percent.

We can not understand how marine beings could live under the oceans,miles deep,with water pressure crushing everything.

As to Stars,We are yet to understand the Magnitude of the Universe.

The known Universe is of Matter made of Atoms in the conventional sense.

That is Electron with negative charge,proton with positive charge and neutron,neutral.

Now we find that there is anti matter,which has these three with Electron with positive charge,Proton with Negative charge and Netron,Neutral.

Then we have Quantum Theory.

An atom is present in more than one place at the same time.

Your perception of an object,atom,changes it,and it also changes your perception of it.

Atoms communicate with each other at long distances.

Very scarce information is available on Magnetism,Gravity and Time.

Such bein the real case our knowledge is very limited and we should not abrogate ourselves into believing what we know now is the truth or facts.

Considering these points,one must be prepared to look for additional sources of Knowledge,including Intuition,theories of Interstellar visit of Aliens,Aliens manipulating our DNA.

And we should also examine the  circumstances leading to the Great Flood mentioned in all mythologies and almost all legends.

Unless we can disprove them,they are data to be verified.

What has been dismissed as legend, myth is proved to be fact.

For example,Ramayana,Mahabharata,Krishna,Dwaraka,Madurai,Poompuhar,Tamil Sandals..

I shall be attempting to understand these issues in forthcoming articles by verifying all these thoughts with the help of modern technics and wherever it is called for with Intution and from Authentic sources where most facts are verifiable except some areas,which may be due to our limitations in understanding.

To begin with I will start with the first prehistoric civilizations.

Uyghur,

Lemuria,

MU,

Rama Empire ,

Atlantis and

Hyperborean.

Featured image credit. BBC.

Midnight to Midnight Day Calendar From Hindu Day?

As the empire of Bharatvarsha functioned from the present India( read Vikramadityas World Empire),the world seems to have followed the Indian day concept,that is beginning in the morning.

That is taking 5.30 am as the Sun rises in India,12 midnight has been taken as the beginning of a new day.

One must remember that Britain was ruling the world,colonising the countries.


How did people measure a year and specifically how did the fix the time for a day?

World has been following three systems for calendar.

1.Solar,based on the movement of the Sun,called the Suryamanasa in Hinduism.

2.Lunar,based on the movement of the Moon, Chaandra Manasa.

In India both are used.

3.There is also the practice of using both together Luni Solar system.

This is practiced by the Chinese.

How is the beginning of a day calculated?

Today,the world follows midnight to midnight as one day.

The origin of this is lost .

Historically, there seems to have been four norms to decide one day.

  • day, the time based on the earth’s rotation. In the Chinese calendar, a day starts from the midnight; in the Hindu calendars, a day starts from sunrise; and in the Hebrew calendar, a day starts from sunset.’ (Wiki)
  • In Hinduism,day starts in the morning,beginning around 3.45 to 4 am called Brahma Muhurtha.
  • An interesting point is that the British were following Hindu Vikrama calendar till the middlecages befor resorting to Gregorian Calendar.


The curious fact is that England, Wales and Scotland were following the Vikrama Samvatsara till 1752 when they changed it.

Yet another proof of India having once ruled England is the fact that until 1752 A.D. the English New Year began on March 25.

That is the exact time of the year when the Indian New Year begins.

In 1752 by an act of Parliament England arbitrarily changed over to January 1 as the New Year Day.

As March 25 marks the beginning of the Indian Vikram Samvat it is plausible that England was part of Vikramaditya’s Indian empire.

Please read my article Vikramaditya Date and His World Kingdom

 https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2016/12/27/england-followed-hindu-vikrama-saka-calendar-before-1752/

Considering the fact that Hinduism spread throughout the world in ancient times and the ancestors of world civilizations trace their origins to Bharatvarsha,it is probable that the world followed Hindu concept  of day beginning in the morning during ancien times.

As the empire of Bharatvarsha functioned from the present India( read Vikramadityas World Empire),the world seems to have followed the Indian day concept,that is beginning in the morning.

That is taking 5.30 am as the Sun rises in India,12 midnight has been taken as the beginning of a new day.

One must remember that Britain was ruling the world,colonising the countries.

 

 

There are four main views of when a day begins and ends. These are 1) midnight-to-midnight 2) evening-to-evening 3) dawn-to-dawn and 4) dawn-to-sunset.

Midnight is the popular transitional point that separates one day from another, and is used in civil time throughout the world. However as this practice does not appear to have a Biblical basis, we will only consider the evening-to-evening, dawn-to-dawn and dawn-to-sunset as the possible Biblical start and end of each day…

In Judaism.

Jewish Calendar Date

When G‑d created time, He first created night and then day. Therefore, a Jewish calendar date begins with the night beforehand. While a day in the secular calendar begins and ends at midnight, a Jewish day goes from nightfall to nightfall. Shabbat begins on Friday night, and a yahrtzeit lamp is kindled the evening before the yahrtzeit (anniversary of a person’s passing), before nightfall. If the 10th of Iyar falls on a Wednesday, and a child is born Wednesday night after dark, the child’s birthday is the 11th of Iyar.

On those dates wherein certain activities are restricted — such as working on Shabbat or major holidays — the restrictions go into effect the night beforehand.

[Most fast days begin at dawn (“alot hashachar“), and as such are an exception to this rule. Yom Kippur and Tisha b’Av, however, do begin at nightfall of the previous night.]

Though the day and its restrictions begin the night beforehand, many obligations associated with specific calendar dates — such as hearing the shofar on Rosh Hashanah, taking the Four Species on Sukkot, or hearing the daytime reading of the Megillah on Purim — must be performed during daylight hours only.

Source.http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/526873/jewish/The-Jewish-Day.htm

In Islam.

In Islam, the night precedes the day.

The new hijri date begins with the setting of sun. Hence for e.g. once the sun sets after the 11th day in Ramadhaan, the 12th has already begun.

So, if today is Thursday 3:15 pm then Maghrib begins at 5:00 pm then know from the moment Maghrib time begins on that day, Friday begins.

The Islamic cycle of a day begins with the setting, not the rising of the sun. In countries such as Saudi Arabia, where the Islamic calendar alone is norm, when someone is speaking about going out on Friday night, he means the night that comes before the “day” of Friday.

Source.https://abdurrahman.org/2009/09/09/the-islamic-date-hijri-date-starts-after-maghrib/

According to The Bible,

Sam 19:11 Saul also sent messengers to David’s house to watch him and to kill him in the morning. And Michal, David’s wife, told him, saying, “If you do not save your life tonighttomorrow you will be killed.”

Michal made a distinction between “tonight” and “tomorrow”. ‘Tonight’ was not the same as ‘tomorrow’. ‘Tomorrow’ was to come after ‘tonight’, and when it came in the morning, Saul sent to kill David as He had planned. The day did not begin at evening, but in the morning.

Jonah 4:7 But as morning dawned the next day [Elohim] prepared a worm, and it so damaged the plant that it withered.

When did the worm appear? Answer: as morning dawned the next day.

Mark 16:2 Very early in the morning, on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.

Luke 24:1 Now on the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they, and certain other women with them, came to the tomb bringing the spices which they had prepared.

Matt 28:1 Now after the Sabbath, as the first day of the week began to dawn, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.

Combining all three accounts, it is clear that the women went to the tomb early in the morning, at dawn on the first day of the week. The evangels did not say at evening on the previous day. However having the mindset (without proof) that Sabbath ends at sunset, some persons try to twist what is clearly a dawn visit into an evening visit so as to make this account fit in with their erroneous theory that Sabbath ends at sunset.’

Source. http://www.knowbibletruth.com/whendoesthesabbathdaybeginandend.html )

position set forth in this study is that the Scripture teaches the terminus a quo (i.e. the start) of a new day to be at morning rather than at evening. The following evidence from Scripture is brought forth in order to demonstrate that a new day begins at morning.

1. When expressions like “tomorrow”, “that night”, “the next day”, or “the same day” are used in Scripture, the context in certain texts indicates that the night is a continuation of “the same day” that preceded it (and not the beginning of a new day). Whereas the following morning is distinguished from the previous night by being designated as “tomorrow” or as “the next day.”

 

a. Genesis 19:33-35

All the incestuous events of Gen. 19:33 occur on “that night.” However, the recounting of the events of the previous night actually occurred “on the morrow” (Gen. 19:34). Also note that the dialogue between the daughters of Lot “on the morrow” (Gen. 19:34) occurred before nightfall (“that night also“, Gen. 19:35), and yet what occurred the night before (Gen. 19:33) and what occurred the day after (before nightfall) are reckoned as two different days (“the morrow“, Gen. 19:34). This chain of events can only be reckoned as two separate days if the following morning begins a new day. If the previous evening begins a new day (as the evening view affirms), then one could not refer to the following morning and afternoon (before night) as “the morrow.” For the previous night, the next morning, and the next afternoon (before night) would all be the same day and not two separate days.

b. Exodus 16:23-25

This passage is significant for it refers to the Sabbath. In preparing for the Sabbath, God commanded Israel to gather twice as much manna on the morning of the sixth day because they were not to gather manna at all on the seventh day (Ex. 16:22, 26). On the sixth day, Moses declared, “Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD” (Ex. 16:23). When is “tomorrow“? That same evening or the following morning? The text makes it clear that they were to bake and to boil all that they needed for food on that same day (the sixth day), and the manna they did not need for that day would be preserved from spoiling until the next morning (unlike other days, cf. Ex. 16:19-20). Moses states what is to be done with the manna that did not spoil on the morning of the seventh day: “Eat that today, for today is a sabbath unto the LORD; today ye shall not find it in the field” (Ex. 16:25). The text does not indicate that leftover manna bred worms or became spoiled immediately before sunset on the sixth day (which would be the beginning of a new day according to the evening view), but rather that all leftover manna became spoiled before morning. Why? Because morning was the beginning of a new day. It is also significant to note that the text does not associate the start of the Sabbath with the evening, but rather Moses declared, “Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath” (Ex. 16:23). The “tomorrow” when the Sabbath began was the following morning (Ex. 16:23). On the morning of the seventh day Moses stated, “Today is a sabbath unto the LORD” (16:25). There is no indication that the Sabbath began the night before. Is there even one example in Scripture where “tomorrow” refers to the evening that immediately follows the morning and afternoon that precedes it? I have not yet found such a passage.

Source.http://www.reformedpresbytery.org/books/sabbath/sabbath.htm

Ancient Greek Ambassador Worshiped Vishnu

A Hindu is one who follows certain guidelines of Life and Beyond.

Not necessary to have been born a Hindu.

One need not believe in God even for Atheism is also accepted as a Faith in Hinduism.

However there are certain rules ,qualifications required to study the Vedas, the Sacred Books of the Hindus.

Hindus, though not advocating religious Conversion accepts people from the other Faiths .

There are no ceremonies involved.

Example of this is the worship of Lord Vishnu, by Helidorus, Ambassador to India to Gupta King’s court.

He erected a column in tribute to Lord Vishnu and it is called Heliodorous Column


Hinduism does not advocate conversion.

 

It believes that Religion is a question of personal choice and holds it sacred.

 

It does not believe in numbers game.

 

Hinduism is like a Doctor.

 

If and when you are sick you go to  Doctor.

 

The Doctor prescribes you medicines.

 

He does not force you to take the medicine.

 

It is in your interest to take it.

 

The Doctor is not affected by your action.

 

Hinduism is like the Doctor.

 

It tells you the paths traversed by people who have realized God hood.

 

In the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna explains about the various systems of Hindu Thought to Arjuna.

 

In the last chapter(18),just about to conclude the discourse , informs Arjuna,

 

‘I have told you what is utmost secret.

 

You examine them carefully and follow whatever suits and what your disposition tells You’

 

That’s all.

 

Hinduism is a way of Life.

 

Strictly speaking it is difficult to define who a Hindu is.

 

A Hindu is one who follows certain guidelines of Life and Beyond.

 

Not necessary to have been born a Hindu.

 

One need not believe in God even for Atheism is also accepted as a Faith in Hinduism.

 

However there are certain rules ,qualifications required to study the Vedas, the Sacred Books of the Hindus.

 

Hindus, though not advocating religious Conversion accepts people from the other Faiths .

 

There are no ceremonies involved.

 

Example of this is the worship of Lord Vishnu, by Helidorus, Ambassador to India to Gupta King’s court.

 

He erected a column in tribute to Lord Vishnu and it is called Heliodorous Column.

 

Heliodorous Pillar.jpg
Heliodorous Pillar.

 

It is known that Heliodorus was sent to the court of King Bhagabhadra by Antiakalidas, the Greek king of Taxila. The kingdom of Taxila was part of the Bactrian region in northwest India, conquered by Alexander the Great in 325 B.C. By the time of Antialkidas, the area under Greek rule included what is today Afghanistan, Pakistan and Punjab.(2)

The column erected by Heliodorus first came to notice in 1877, during an archaeological survey by General Cunningham. The inscription, however, went unnoticed, because of the pillar’s thick coating of red lead paste. It had been the custom of pilgrims who had worshipped there to smear the column with vermillion paste. The column, Cunningham deduced from its shape, was from the period of the Imperial Guptas (3) (A.D. 300-550). Thirty-two years later, however, when the inscription was brought to light, it became clear that the monument was several centuries older. (4)..

 

Heliodorous Column.jpg
The Heliodorous inscription on the Heliodorous Column.

 

A reproduction of the inscription, along with the transliteration and translation of the ancient Brahmi text, is given here as it appeared in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

1)   Devadevasu Va[sude]vasa Garudadhvajo ayam

2)   Karito ia Heliodorena bhaga

3)   Vatena Diyasa putrena Takhasilakena

4)   Yonadatena agatena maharajasa

5)   Amtalikitasa upa[m]ta samkasam-rano

6)   Kasiput[r]asa [Bh]agabhadrasa tratarasa

7)   Vasena [chatu]dasena rajena vadhamanasa

” This Garuda-column of Vasudeva (Visnu), the god of gods, was erected here by Heliodorus, a worshipper of Vishnu, the son of Dion, and an inhabitant of Taxila, who came as Greek ambassador from the Great King Antialkidas to King Kasiputra Bhagabhadra, the Savior, then reigning prosperously in the fourteenth year of his kingship.”

 

1) Trini amutapadani-[su] anuthitani

2) nayamti svaga damo chago apramado

“Three immortal precepts (footsteps)..when practiced lead to heaven-self restraint, charity, conscientiousness.”

From the inscriptions it is seems clear Heliodorus was influenced by Vedic principles that he could be considered to be a Vaisnava, a follower or worshipper of Visnu. Professor Kunja Govinda Goswami of Calcutta University concludes that Heliodorus ” was well acquainted with the texts dealing with the Bhagavat [Vaisnava] relgion.” (6)

 

Citation.

http://archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/heliodorus-column

 

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