Midnight to Midnight Day Calendar From Hindu Day?

How did people measure a year and specifically how did the fix the time for a day?

World has been following three systems for calendar.

1.Solar,based on the movement of the Sun,called the Suryamanasa in Hinduism.

2.Lunar,based on the movement of the Moon, Chaandra Manasa.

In India both are used.

3.There is also the practice of using both together Luni Solar system.

This is practiced by the Chinese.

How is the beginning of a day calculated?

Today,the world follows midnight to midnight as one day.

The origin of this is lost .

Historically, there seems to have been four norms to decide one day.

  • day, the time based on the earth’s rotation. In the Chinese calendar, a day starts from the midnight; in the Hindu calendars, a day starts from sunrise; and in the Hebrew calendar, a day starts from sunset.’ (Wiki)
  • In Hinduism,day starts in the morning,beginning around 3.45 to 4 am called Brahma Muhurtha.
  • An interesting point is that the British were following Hindu Vikrama calendar till the middlecages befor resorting to Gregorian Calendar.

The curious fact is that England, Wales and Scotland were following the Vikrama Samvatsara till 1752 when they changed it.

Yet another proof of India having once ruled England is the fact that until 1752 A.D. the English New Year began on March 25.

That is the exact time of the year when the Indian New Year begins.

In 1752 by an act of Parliament England arbitrarily changed over to January 1 as the New Year Day.

As March 25 marks the beginning of the Indian Vikram Samvat it is plausible that England was part of Vikramaditya’s Indian empire.

Please read my article Vikramaditya Date and His World Kingdom


Considering the fact that Hinduism spread throughout the world in ancient times and the ancestors of world civilizations trace their origins to Bharatvarsha,it is probable that the world followed Hindu concept  of day beginning in the morning during ancien times.

As the empire of Bharatvarsha functioned from the present India( read Vikramadityas World Empire),the world seems to have followed the Indian day concept,that is beginning in the morning.

That is taking 5.30 am as the Sun rises in India,12 midnight has been taken as the beginning of a new day.

One must remember that Britain was ruling the world,colonising the countries.



There are four main views of when a day begins and ends. These are 1) midnight-to-midnight 2) evening-to-evening 3) dawn-to-dawn and 4) dawn-to-sunset.

Midnight is the popular transitional point that separates one day from another, and is used in civil time throughout the world. However as this practice does not appear to have a Biblical basis, we will only consider the evening-to-evening, dawn-to-dawn and dawn-to-sunset as the possible Biblical start and end of each day…

In Judaism.

Jewish Calendar Date

When G‑d created time, He first created night and then day. Therefore, a Jewish calendar date begins with the night beforehand. While a day in the secular calendar begins and ends at midnight, a Jewish day goes from nightfall to nightfall. Shabbat begins on Friday night, and a yahrtzeit lamp is kindled the evening before the yahrtzeit (anniversary of a person’s passing), before nightfall. If the 10th of Iyar falls on a Wednesday, and a child is born Wednesday night after dark, the child’s birthday is the 11th of Iyar.

On those dates wherein certain activities are restricted — such as working on Shabbat or major holidays — the restrictions go into effect the night beforehand.

[Most fast days begin at dawn (“alot hashachar“), and as such are an exception to this rule. Yom Kippur and Tisha b’Av, however, do begin at nightfall of the previous night.]

Though the day and its restrictions begin the night beforehand, many obligations associated with specific calendar dates — such as hearing the shofar on Rosh Hashanah, taking the Four Species on Sukkot, or hearing the daytime reading of the Megillah on Purim — must be performed during daylight hours only.


In Islam.

In Islam, the night precedes the day.

The new hijri date begins with the setting of sun. Hence for e.g. once the sun sets after the 11th day in Ramadhaan, the 12th has already begun.

So, if today is Thursday 3:15 pm then Maghrib begins at 5:00 pm then know from the moment Maghrib time begins on that day, Friday begins.

The Islamic cycle of a day begins with the setting, not the rising of the sun. In countries such as Saudi Arabia, where the Islamic calendar alone is norm, when someone is speaking about going out on Friday night, he means the night that comes before the “day” of Friday.


According to The Bible,

Sam 19:11 Saul also sent messengers to David’s house to watch him and to kill him in the morning. And Michal, David’s wife, told him, saying, “If you do not save your life tonighttomorrow you will be killed.”

Michal made a distinction between “tonight” and “tomorrow”. ‘Tonight’ was not the same as ‘tomorrow’. ‘Tomorrow’ was to come after ‘tonight’, and when it came in the morning, Saul sent to kill David as He had planned. The day did not begin at evening, but in the morning.

Jonah 4:7 But as morning dawned the next day [Elohim] prepared a worm, and it so damaged the plant that it withered.

When did the worm appear? Answer: as morning dawned the next day.

Mark 16:2 Very early in the morning, on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.

Luke 24:1 Now on the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they, and certain other women with them, came to the tomb bringing the spices which they had prepared.

Matt 28:1 Now after the Sabbath, as the first day of the week began to dawn, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.

Combining all three accounts, it is clear that the women went to the tomb early in the morning, at dawn on the first day of the week. The evangels did not say at evening on the previous day. However having the mindset (without proof) that Sabbath ends at sunset, some persons try to twist what is clearly a dawn visit into an evening visit so as to make this account fit in with their erroneous theory that Sabbath ends at sunset.’

Source. http://www.knowbibletruth.com/whendoesthesabbathdaybeginandend.html )

position set forth in this study is that the Scripture teaches the terminus a quo (i.e. the start) of a new day to be at morning rather than at evening. The following evidence from Scripture is brought forth in order to demonstrate that a new day begins at morning.

1. When expressions like “tomorrow”, “that night”, “the next day”, or “the same day” are used in Scripture, the context in certain texts indicates that the night is a continuation of “the same day” that preceded it (and not the beginning of a new day). Whereas the following morning is distinguished from the previous night by being designated as “tomorrow” or as “the next day.”


a. Genesis 19:33-35

All the incestuous events of Gen. 19:33 occur on “that night.” However, the recounting of the events of the previous night actually occurred “on the morrow” (Gen. 19:34). Also note that the dialogue between the daughters of Lot “on the morrow” (Gen. 19:34) occurred before nightfall (“that night also“, Gen. 19:35), and yet what occurred the night before (Gen. 19:33) and what occurred the day after (before nightfall) are reckoned as two different days (“the morrow“, Gen. 19:34). This chain of events can only be reckoned as two separate days if the following morning begins a new day. If the previous evening begins a new day (as the evening view affirms), then one could not refer to the following morning and afternoon (before night) as “the morrow.” For the previous night, the next morning, and the next afternoon (before night) would all be the same day and not two separate days.

b. Exodus 16:23-25

This passage is significant for it refers to the Sabbath. In preparing for the Sabbath, God commanded Israel to gather twice as much manna on the morning of the sixth day because they were not to gather manna at all on the seventh day (Ex. 16:22, 26). On the sixth day, Moses declared, “Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD” (Ex. 16:23). When is “tomorrow“? That same evening or the following morning? The text makes it clear that they were to bake and to boil all that they needed for food on that same day (the sixth day), and the manna they did not need for that day would be preserved from spoiling until the next morning (unlike other days, cf. Ex. 16:19-20). Moses states what is to be done with the manna that did not spoil on the morning of the seventh day: “Eat that today, for today is a sabbath unto the LORD; today ye shall not find it in the field” (Ex. 16:25). The text does not indicate that leftover manna bred worms or became spoiled immediately before sunset on the sixth day (which would be the beginning of a new day according to the evening view), but rather that all leftover manna became spoiled before morning. Why? Because morning was the beginning of a new day. It is also significant to note that the text does not associate the start of the Sabbath with the evening, but rather Moses declared, “Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath” (Ex. 16:23). The “tomorrow” when the Sabbath began was the following morning (Ex. 16:23). On the morning of the seventh day Moses stated, “Today is a sabbath unto the LORD” (16:25). There is no indication that the Sabbath began the night before. Is there even one example in Scripture where “tomorrow” refers to the evening that immediately follows the morning and afternoon that precedes it? I have not yet found such a passage.



Ancient Greek Ambassador Worshiped Vishnu

Heliodorous Pillar.jpg

Hinduism does not advocate conversion.


It believes that Religion is a question of personal choice and holds it sacred.


It does not believe in numbers game.


Hinduism is like a Doctor.


If and when you are sick you go to  Doctor.


The Doctor prescribes you medicines.


He does not force you to take the medicine.


It is in your interest to take it.


The Doctor is not affected by your action.


Hinduism is like the Doctor.


It tells you the paths traversed by people who have realized God hood.


In the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna explains about the various systems of Hindu Thought to Arjuna.


In the last chapter(18),just about to conclude the discourse , informs Arjuna,


‘I have told you what is utmost secret.


You examine them carefully and follow whatever suits and what your disposition tells You’


That’s all.


Hinduism is a way of Life.


Strictly speaking it is difficult to define who a Hindu is.


A Hindu is one who follows certain guidelines of Life and Beyond.


Not necessary to have been born a Hindu.


One need not believe in God even for Atheism is also accepted as a Faith in Hinduism.


However there are certain rules ,qualifications required to study the Vedas, the Sacred Books of the Hindus.


Hindus, though not advocating religious Conversion accepts people from the other Faiths .


There are no ceremonies involved.


Example of this is the worship of Lord Vishnu, by Helidorus, Ambassador to India to Gupta King’s court.


He erected a column in tribute to Lord Vishnu and it is called Heliodorous Column.


Heliodorous Pillar.jpg
Heliodorous Pillar.


It is known that Heliodorus was sent to the court of King Bhagabhadra by Antiakalidas, the Greek king of Taxila. The kingdom of Taxila was part of the Bactrian region in northwest India, conquered by Alexander the Great in 325 B.C. By the time of Antialkidas, the area under Greek rule included what is today Afghanistan, Pakistan and Punjab.(2)

The column erected by Heliodorus first came to notice in 1877, during an archaeological survey by General Cunningham. The inscription, however, went unnoticed, because of the pillar’s thick coating of red lead paste. It had been the custom of pilgrims who had worshipped there to smear the column with vermillion paste. The column, Cunningham deduced from its shape, was from the period of the Imperial Guptas (3) (A.D. 300-550). Thirty-two years later, however, when the inscription was brought to light, it became clear that the monument was several centuries older. (4)..


Heliodorous Column.jpg
The Heliodorous inscription on the Heliodorous Column.


A reproduction of the inscription, along with the transliteration and translation of the ancient Brahmi text, is given here as it appeared in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

1)   Devadevasu Va[sude]vasa Garudadhvajo ayam

2)   Karito ia Heliodorena bhaga

3)   Vatena Diyasa putrena Takhasilakena

4)   Yonadatena agatena maharajasa

5)   Amtalikitasa upa[m]ta samkasam-rano

6)   Kasiput[r]asa [Bh]agabhadrasa tratarasa

7)   Vasena [chatu]dasena rajena vadhamanasa

” This Garuda-column of Vasudeva (Visnu), the god of gods, was erected here by Heliodorus, a worshipper of Vishnu, the son of Dion, and an inhabitant of Taxila, who came as Greek ambassador from the Great King Antialkidas to King Kasiputra Bhagabhadra, the Savior, then reigning prosperously in the fourteenth year of his kingship.”


1) Trini amutapadani-[su] anuthitani

2) nayamti svaga damo chago apramado

“Three immortal precepts (footsteps)..when practiced lead to heaven-self restraint, charity, conscientiousness.”

From the inscriptions it is seems clear Heliodorus was influenced by Vedic principles that he could be considered to be a Vaisnava, a follower or worshipper of Visnu. Professor Kunja Govinda Goswami of Calcutta University concludes that Heliodorus ” was well acquainted with the texts dealing with the Bhagavat [Vaisnava] relgion.” (6)





Human Migration World History India

I have often wondered about terms like Domicile and migration.

Human migration.png
Human migration.png


If we understand History and follow it, we shall know that no one can claim to be a domicile of any place!


The movement of Humans from prehistoric times is so complex and changing, it is impossible to say who was in one place first.


Whenever we read History of Human migration we find that when people move from one place,it is stated that they mixed with the people in that place.


How did these people come to be there?


And from where?


If migration takes place it has to be from one place to another.


The place from where they moved from, how did they arrive there at the first place?


European History says that Asia served as a sort of reservoir for Humans to migrate from.


How did they come to be there at all?


European history says, in migration, people came in waves from Asian, through the Urals and Russia, through the landmass of mideast .


The group that came through Russia settled down and mingled with people over there.


The other group .


The first wave settled in Spain Pyrenees, North of Africa, in England,Scotland and Wales,and in Gaul.


The second wave settled in Bulgaria, Hungary


The third wave Huns, settled finally in Germany, after raiding all the ethnic groups settled before them.


Then there were the Vikings who raided the Gauls, Anglo-Saxon.


However all the information here are theories.


There is yet another theory that states that people migrated from Africa.


Curious is that while the west acknowledges that The Vedas are the first Literature of Mankind and were in existence at least from 5000 BC

no body bothers to check the refernces found in the Vedas , Puranas, and Ithihasas on people, culture and places.


There is another Language and civilisation found in India which is as old as the Vedas .




Tamil literature is at least 500o years old.


Puranas quote Tamils, Tamil Kings.


Ramayana and Mahabharata do the same.


References are found in Sanskrit Literature, Tamil Literature  ,Vedas Puranas ,Ramayana and Mahabharata about people and places which are now Europe, US,Africa, Russia,


Middle east, Iran, Southeast Asia, Polynesia .


These references are not used, I presume, it hurts the pride of these scholars to accept India as a the cradle of Human Civilisation.


So overwhelming are the artifacts and archeological finds, they have to grudgingly accept Indus Valley civilisation!


They are yet to accept the Sarasvati Valley Civilisation.


The Tamil civilisation is totally ignored as also the influence of this culture in Huan Migration in world History.


I have also noticed a curious fact,


Hindu,Indian Religious, Cultural artifacts and archeological finds are found all over the world.


I have quite a few posts on this under Hinduism.


But not a single artifact or archeological find has been found in India relating to History or culture or Religion of the other civilisations in the world which predate Vedic period or Tamil culture.


I shall be examining the concept of Human migration from Dravida to rest of the world, including the Sarasvati Valley civilization.


This will be with help of Vedas, Puranas,Ramayana, Mahabharata, Tamil and Sanskrit Literature.





Chandra Gupta Megasthanes Never Met History Faked

How does one start a Nation’s History?


Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta, 335–380 CE.image.
Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta, 335–380 CE


What does one base it on?


Common sense would tell you to refer to the legends,literature of the Nation, check with contemporary event,s then cross check it with references , if any, if these literature is contemporary or slightly later.


Can you imagine a Nation,s History being started solely on the basis of a Character, who has not even met the man he is quoted to have met!


Well, this is what has happened to Indian History.


Of Chandra Gupta Maurya.


The man whose testimony is relied upon is Megasthanes.


Megasthanes included, interpolated  Greek Gods and Goddesses( read my post on how History invented Greek Gods).


These were later based upon along with the other names in Greek , presumably Indian, was linked to Chandra Gupta.


  1. Megasthenes has nowhere mentioned the word Maurya
  2. He makes absolutely no mention of a person called either Chanakya or Kautilya.
  3. Indian historians have recorded two Chandra guptas, one of the Maurya dynasty and another of the Gupta dynasty. Both of them had a grandson called Ashoka. While the Mauryan Chandragupta’ s son was called Bimbasara (sometimes Bindusara), The Gupta Chandragupta had a son called Samudragupta. Interestingly Megasthenese has written that Sandrakuttos had a son called Samdrakyptos, which is phonetically nearer to Samudragupta and not Bindusara.
  4. The king lists given by the Puranas say that 1500 years elapsed from the time of the Kurukshetra war to the beginning of the Nanda dynasty’s rule. If one assumes the Nandas’ period to be 5th century BCE, this would put the Bharatha war around 1900 BCE whereas the traditional view has always been 3100 BCE. This gives a difference of 1200 years which go unaccounted.
  5. Megasthanese himself says 137 generations of kings have come and gone between Krishna and Sandrakuttos, whereas the puranas give around 83 generations only between Jarasandha’s son (Krishna’s contemporary) to the Nandas of the Magadha kingdom.. Assuming an average of 20 to 25 years per generation, the difference of 54 generations would account for the gap of the 1200 years till the time of Alexander.

  1. The Chinese have always maintained that Buddhism came to China from India around 1100 -1200 BCE, whereas the western historians tend to put Buddha at 500 BCE
  2. According to the Greek accounts, Xandrammes was deposed by Sandrokottas and Sandrocyptus was the son of Sandrokottas. In the case of Chandragupta Maurya, he had opposed Dhanananda of the Nanda dynasty and the name of his son was Bindusara. Both these names, Dhanananda and Bindusara, have no phonetic similarity with the names Xandrammes and Sandrocyptus of the Greek accounts.


  1. Asoka’s empire was bigger than that of Chandragupta Maurya and he had sent missionaries to the so-called Yavana countries. But both of them are not mentioned. Colebrook has pointed out that the Greek writers did not say anything about the Buddhist Bhikkus though that was the flourishing religion of that time with the royal patronage of Asoka. Roychaudhari also wonders why the Greek accounts are silent on Buddhism.
  1. The empire of Chandragupta was known as Magadha empire. It had a long history even at the time of Chandragupta Maurya. In Indian literature, this powerful empire is amply described by this name but it is absent in the Greek accounts. It is difficult to understand as to why Megasthanese did not use this name and instead used the word Prassi which has no equivalent or counterpart in Indian accounts.
  1. To decide as to whether Pataliputra was the capital of the Mauryas, Puranas is the only source. Puranas inform us that all the eight dynasties that ruled Magadha after the Mahabharata War had Girivraja as their capital. Mauryas are listed as one of the eight dynasties. The name Pataliputra is not even hinted at, anywhere in the Puranas.

In the Greek accounts, Sandrokottas of Palimbothra is described as a contemporary of Alexander of Macedonia who invaded India during 327 BC to 323 BC This decides the approximate date of Chandragupta Maurya. Princep’s research decides the approximate date of Asoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya as in 3rd century BC Both these dates were adjusted with the reign periods of the three successive Magadha kings, Chandragupta, Bindusara and Asoka of the Maurya dynasty given in the Puranas. Thus, the date c. 320 BC was fixed as the date of coronation of Chandragupta Maurya. It is on this date that every other date of Indian history has been constructed.

Max Mueller, in 1859 AD, finalized this identity of Sandrokottas with Chandragupta Maurya and declared c. 320 BC, the date of coronation of Chandragupta Maurya as the Sheet Anchor of Indian history. M. Troyer did not agree with this conclusion and noted this fact in the introduction to his translation of Rajatarangani of Kalhana. He even communicated his views to Prof. Max Mueller in a letter but did not receive a reply from him.


Historian V. A. Smith took the chronological identity asserted by the predecessors in this historical hierarchy as the basis for further calculation of the exact dates of the different dynasties that ruled over Magadha after and before the Mauryas. He took the aid of numismatics in addition to epigraphy. He could not however get over, as if by compunction, to follow the Puranas in the enumeration of the kings and their dynasties. But he reduced their reign periods. The total reduction done by these British scholars, from Jones to Smith, comes to 1300 years according to some Indian chronologists.





The site mentioned contains great articles.


How Western Scholars Misinterpret Hinduism Max Mueller

If one were to read Indian history, one is struck by a curious fact..


History between the period of Harshavardhana onward to Mogul Emperors is hazy , if not missing.


Indian Philosophy Systems.gif
Indian Philosophy Systems.


It becomes clear after this period.


You do not get authentic records or information about the Middle ages, when Tamil and Sanskrit literature were awash with Bhakthi literatue.


For instance one does not find reference of Adi Shankaracharya in either Sanskrit or Tamil literature during this period.


One does not find reference to Shankaracharya even among Sanskrit and even among the records of kings who were ardent promoters of Sanskrit in their chronicles, either written by them or others.


You find this only by the time of Vidyaranya when he established the Vijayanagar Empire.


The information has been so scanty that it took the 33rd Acharaya of Sringeri Sharada Mutt to locate Kalady, the birth place of Shankaracharya!


Again if You look at the works of these western scholars on ancient Hindu texts, they are presented in such a way,for one who does not know Sanskrit, the presentation of these authors would seem to be very faithful and they would declare these writers as Great and even call Max Mueller as Raja Rishi!


They rearranged facts skillfully and you are left with the impression that Hinduism is full of contradictions and Indian Philosophy is a Fantasy!


The methods, primarily, for dating any work , is by Internal evidence and the external evidence.


Internal evidence is given a supplementary role to external evidence, that is that of references in the contemporary or succeeding period.


If you manipulate the external evidence then the whole History becomes misleading.


This is what the Western Scholars have done.


Some Indian writers too fell into this trap and followed these scholars.



Britishers in a quest to rule us have done a lot of conspiracies to damage our social, cultural, economic and religious systems. bhArata varSha, also known as Aryavart is the whole land beginning from foot of himAlaya-s to indian ocean. Britishers realized that our culture and spiritual base was so strong that it is not possible to convert people just by giving lectures on Bible. They concluded that the only way to push our way of life, and rule them was to demean their backbone – spirituality. To carry out their plan, they created Asiatic society and hired many professionals who were send to India with sole purpose of demeaning and denigrate our religious philosophy as inferior, mythology, primitive, supporting animal and human sacrifice, imaginative and full of superstitions.
Then began a period of collecting manuscripts and then interpret them in derogatory way. They also paidlofty amount to Max Muller, a german philologist, who is often credited of interpreting veda-s and bringing them to west and general public. MAx Muller was also one of them who purposefully interpreted our shastra-s in derogatory way. Other members of Asiatic Society were
Max Muller – Translation of rg veda in demeaning way and other articles tragetting our shastras to degrade them.
Sir William Jones
J. D. Peterson
F. Wilford
H.H. Wilson – Translation of Vishnu PurANa in demeaning way
F.E. Partiger – Critical analysis of purANas and veda-s in demeaning way
Colonel Colin Mackenzie
Franz Bopp
Pandit Taranath (Indian writer hired to write on Hinduism in derogatory way)
(the list extends to 34 names).
The list also includes Britannica encyclopedia, who added Hindu words and explained their meanings in demeaning way.
They influenced Hindu writers like
Surendradas Gupta
Dr. R.G. Bhandarkar – highly influenced by Max Muller’s works and his research
Bal Gandhar Tilak – who dated vedas to 1500-200 BC
S. Radhakrishnan – whose works are used for post graduation in History and religion of India
All these writers never wrote anything on Christianity. Why? If one is interested in studying religions of others, they also study their first religion. No one keeps studying and publishing foreign religion throughout their life and not study and publish something about their own religion. This shows the wicked mentality of the then Britishers.
  • They forged our shastras which include bhaviSya purANa, by adding Jesus, changing date of Chandragupta Maurya calling him a contemporary of Alexander.  To maintain consistency, they also pushed date of Lord Buddha and made him younger by 1500-2000 years. This also resulted in postponement of date of our beloved AcArya Adi Sankara, who as of 1999. should have been born 2500 years ago.
  • They also changed and interpolated dharma smriti-s, grihya sutra-s, purANa-s, kalpa sutra-s and our vedA-s also. They did this to endorse animal killing, sleeping with animals for carnal pleasure and other prohibited acts are actually approved by our shastra-s
  • They forged fake coins of Chandragupta Maurya to support their claims.
  • They destroyed our historic records and evidences, destroyed our faith, our culture and left of opportunity to project us, bhArtiya-s as poors chaps of inferior intelligence, and of superstitious and primitive nature.
  • Created fake Aryan Invasion theory to make us feel homeless. According to this theory, Germans (Aryans, sanskrit speaking people of high intelligence) migrated to India and they taught us everything.
  • Demean our holy deva-bhASa, sanskrit. Initially they could not find any concrete evidence of any language prior to sanskrit. So they created a fake proto-indo-european language, which is the root of all.
  • Compared our devatA-s with greek and other mythologies and equating them with nature spirits.
  • Calling our purANa-s are mythology.







Image Credit.