That the information found in the Purans and the Ithihasas of Indians,is not a figment of someone’s imagination or Poetic Hyperbole,I have found during the course of my research for the past eight years on Indian texts by checking the information with modern science,like Physics,Chemistry,Geology,Archeology,Astronomy,Carbon Dating and cross referencing the information with the ancient civilizations of the world,their literature ,religious and cultural practices,legends and Etymology.
I also cross checked with the ancient texts in Tamil.
I am yet to come across information which is untrue.
I have written on the Super Continents of Rodina,Pangea and how they validate the Hindu texts.
‘This is the latest version of the time scale, as revised and published in 2012.
|ARCHAEAN||4.56 – 2.5 BILLION YEARS AGO|
|Proterozoic||2.5 billion – 541 million years ago|
|Palaeozoic||Cambrian||541 – 485 million years ago|
|Ordovician||485 – 444 million years ago|
|Silurian||444 – 419 million years ago|
|Devonian||419 – 359 million years ago|
|Carboniferous||359 – 298 million years ago|
|Permian||298 – 252 million years ago|
|Mesozoic||Triassic||252 – 201 million years ago|
|Jurassic||201 – 145 million years ago|
|Cretaceous||145 – 65 million years ago|
|Cenozoic||Palaeocene||66 – 56 million years ago|
|Eocene||56 – 34 million years ago|
|Oligocene||34 – 23 million years ago|
|Miocene||23 – 5.3 million years ago|
|Pliocene||5.3 -2.6 million years ago|
|Quaternary||Pleistocene||2.6 million -10,000 years ago|
|Holocene||10,000 years ago to the present|
There were Nine prehistorical Super continents an i have ritten on Gondswana, Rodinia Laurasia and Ur.
- Gondwana (~510–~180 million years ago)
- Laurasia (~510–~200 million years ago)
- Pangaea (~300–~210 million years ago)
- Pannotia, also called Vendian (~600–~545 million years ago)
- Rodinia (~1.1 Ga–~750 million years ago)
- Columbia, also called Nuna (~1.8–1.5 Ga ago)
- Kenorland (~2.7 Ga ago). Neoarchean sanukitoid cratons and new continental crust formed Kenorland. Protracted tectonic magma plume rifting occurred 2.48 to 2.45 Ga and this contributed to the Paleoproterozoic glacial events in 2.45 to 2.22 Ga. Final breakup occurred ~2.1 Ga.
- Ur (~3 Ga ago). Classified as the earliest known landmass. Ur, however, was probably the largest, perhaps even the only continent three billion years ago. While probably not a supercontinent, one can argue that Ur was a supercontinent for its time, even if it was smaller than Australia is today. Still, an older rock formation now in Greenland dates back from Hadean times.’
I approached the information from the Angle of Time scales.
Now I am providing the description/reference of Pangea,which is also called as Panthalassa, from the Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana.
‘एक एकम् योजनम् पुत्रा विस्तारम् अभिगच्छत || १-३९-१४
यावत् तुरग संदर्शः तावत् खनत मेदिनीम् |
तम् एव हय हर्तारम् मार्गमाणा मम आज्ञया ||१-३९-१५
14b, 15. putraaH = oh, sons; eka ekam yojanam = one [each prince,] one, yojana – area of earth; vistaaram abhigacChata = square area, you advance – allocate for yourself; mama aaGYayaa = by my, order; tam haya hartaaram = him, horse, stealer; maargamaaNaa = while searching; turaga samdarshaH yaavat = horse’s, appearance, until; taavat mediniim khanata = till then, earth, you dig out.
” ‘Oh, sons, let each prince advance searching one square yojana of earth, by my order you dig up the earth until the appearance of the horse, while searching for the stealer of that horse. [1-39-14b, 15]
योजनानाम् सहस्राणि षष्टिम् तु रघुनंदन |
बिभिदुर् धरणीम् राम रसा तलम् अनुत्तमम् ||१-३९-२१
21. raghu nandana = oh, legatee of Raghu’s dynasty; raama = oh, Rama; yojanaanaam SaSTim sahasraaNi tu = yojana-s, thousand, sixty, thus; dharaNiim = of earth; they dug to make it as the; an uttamam = unsurpassed; rasaa talam = as sixth, subterranean field; bibhiduH = hollowed.
“Oh, Rama, the legatee of Raghu’s dynasty, thus sixty thousand square yojana-s of the earth is dug over, so as to make the earth’s outermost plane as the unsurpassed rasaa tala, the sixth subterranean and the nethermost plane. [1-39-21]
एवम् पर्वत संबाधम् जम्बू द्वीपम् नृपात्मजाः |
खनन्तो नृपशार्दूल सर्वतः परिचक्रमुः ||१-३९-२२
22. nR^ipa shaarduula = oh, tigerly king, Rama; nR^ipa aatmajaaH = king’s, sons; parvata sam baadham = with mountains, verily, congested; jambuu dviipam = Jambu Island [plateau]; evam khanantaH = this way, while digging; sarvataH paricakramuH = everywhere, they endeavoured.
“Oh, the kingly tiger Rama, the sons of Sagara have endeavoured everywhere digging over the Jambu Island which is verily congested with mountains in this way. [1-39-22]
The jambu dwiipa is a continent according to Hindu mythology where the total continents listed are seven. jambuu plakShaahya dviipau shaalmaliH ca aparo dvija | kushaH krauncaH tathaa shakaH puShkaraH ca eva ca saptamaH the seven continents are jambu- plaksha – shaalmali- kusha – kraunca – shaaka – puSkara, and jambu dwiipa is one among them.
Reference and citation.
The numbers indicated below the verses refer to the Kanda(major chapter),Sarga( chapter) and verse, in that order.
I shall be writing more on the size of the earth as revealed by these verses.i