I have written about the landmasses as mentioned in the ancient Indian Texts,the Puranas and the two Epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Indian texts refer to the landmass where Bharatvarsha was/is located is called as Jambu Dvipa.
This is referred to even today in the Sankalpa,or the Right Determination step before performing any religious function by the Hindus.
‘Jambu Dveepe Bharatavashe,Bharta Kande,in the landmass of Jandmass Jambu Island,The Land of Bharata’
‘Earth as described in the Hindu Purana.
Essentially there were five and the others being the part of this and had been given the name based on geography ,produce and the nature of the people inhabiting the world.
1.Jambu Dweepa, surrounded by Salt Sea.(lavana)
2.Palaksha Dwipa, Surrounded by Sugar Cane Juice.(Ikshu)
3.Salmali Dwipa, surrounded by a Sea of Wine(Sura)
4.Kusa Dwipa, surrounded by a sea of Clarified Butter,Ghee(Sarpi)
5Krauncha Dwipa , surrounded by a sea of Curds(Durghda)
6.Pushkara is surrounded by a Sea of Fresh Water.
Yo may read more here .
However, I found it difficult to find the Landmass being mentioned as Jambudveepa in Foreign texts.
The reason is that only Sanatana Dharma was present during those ancient times and hence tgerecwas nothing foreign to Sanatana Dharma.
However,with a little bit of effort and on the ground that Jainism and Buddhism sprang from India and came later to Sanatana Dharma,they are also ancient and that Jain and Buddhists texts should have a reference to Jambudveepa,I searched and have been able to find the landmass where Bharatvarsha is located,being referred tovas Jambu Dvipa,from an unexpected source.
China’s past is shrouded in mystery though the Chinese were referred to in the Mahabharata as Chin and were called as Mikeechchas,those who do not follow Vedic tenets,some interpret tgis term as Barbarians.
A wooden tablet belonging to 13th century and another Map of around 12th Century name Jamu Dvipa as the land of Hindus,who preceded Buddhism and was called thus during the period mentioned,12/13 th Century.
Here is the excerpt.
‘The Fozu tongji chronicles the history of Buddhism from 581 to 960 CE, and follows the format of Chinese official histories, including Imperial annals (benji 本紀), genealogies (shijia 世家), biographies (liezhuan জ傳), tables (biao 表), and monographs/treatises (zhi 志).5 It was written by the Song Buddhist monk and scholar Zhipan 志磐, and published in woodblock form between 1265 and 1270. Thirty-six of the original fifty-four sewn chapters (juan 卷) survive; these chapters cover general Buddhist knowledge as well as the doctrines of the Tiantai school (Tiantai zong天台宗), one of the most important schools of Buddhism in China and East Asia at large. Zhipan compiled the text seeking to justify the authenticity of Tiantai against the Chan school (chanzong 禪宗), a growing rival.6 Chapters 31 and 32 of the Fozu tongji, entitled “Shijie mingti zhi” 世界名體志 (An Account of Places and Shape of the World),includes eleven maps as a supplement to the text. Chapter 31 discusses the total image and structure of the Buddhist universe, starting with a description of the greater universe and ultimately focusing on the imaginary Mount Meru (chin. Xumi shan 須彌山), the place where Jambudvīpa7 (chin. Zhanbu zhou 瞻部洲), the world of human beings, lies.8 The set includes five pictorial maps that illustrate narrative descriptions of Buddhist cosmology, among which “Sanqian daqian shijie tu” 三千大千世界圖 (Map of the Entire Universe) depicts Mount Meru and Jambudvīpa to the south (See Fig. 2).9
Chapter 32 discusses the sensory world and a brief history of China and foreign countries, and includes six maps. Three of the maps, among them “Dong zhendan dili tu”, are geographic maps of the world of the living (which we will discuss below), presented as Jambudvīpa.
Two geographical maps emphasize parts of Jambudvīpa outside China, demonstrating that Buddhist authors held more interest in envisioning territories beyond China than did contemporary Chinese authors. “Han xiyu zhuguo tu” 漢西域諸國圖 (Map of the States in the Western Regions during the Han Dynasty) charts the western regions known to the Chinese during the Han period (see Fig. 3),11 while “Xitu wuyin zhi tu” 西土五印之圖 (Map of the Five Indian States in the West) plots the sites in Central Asia and India visited by the famous Tang-dynasty Buddhist monk Xuanzang 玄奘 (c. 602/603–664) during his nineteen-year pilgrimage to India in the mid-seventh century (see Fig. 4).12
Zhipan (or the real cartographer of the map) drew the above-mentioned maps based on earlier texts, like “Han xiyu zhuguo tu” and Da Tang xiyou ji 大唐西域記 (The Great Tang Records on the Western Regions), for each map.13 The locations of countries are relatively accurate compared to the written sources. “Xitu wuyin zhi tu” shows the Buddhist author’s direct interest in the original land of his religion, India (chin. Tianzhu 天竺).14 Although it clearly bears realistic information about places names and their location in India and surrounding countries, the map is nonetheless drawn from a Buddhist perspective. At an approximate center of the map lies the lake called Anavatapta, which is located at the center of Jambudvīpa (chin. Zhanbu zhou 瞻部洲), the world where human beings live according to Buddhist tradition.’
Source and citation.