The Vedas ‘, the Basic Scripture of the Hindus are not in wriiten form.
They have been transmitted orally.
The amazing fact is that the intonation of The Vedas in India,a country spread over three thousand miles in length with over 21 languages and about 1350 dialects,is the same thrughout the country.
The Vedas are believed to be not man made, they are Aparusheya, not made by Man.
They were grasped from Ether by the Rishis, Seers.
For more on Vedas please read my posts.
The Vedas have been transmitted orally by a Perceptor, Guru to the disciple Sishya in an unbroken chain.
This transmission chain is called Parampara.
There are four Vedas.
Rig, Yajur( shukla and krishna), Sama and Atharva
Each has one Parampara.
Parampara (Sanskrit: परम्परा, paramparā) denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Vedic culture and Indian religions such as Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism. It is also known as guru-shishya tradition (“succession from guru to disciple”).
The Sanskrit word literally means an uninterrupted row or series, order, succession, continuation, mediation, tradition.In the traditional residential form of education, the shishya remains with his or her guru as a family member and gets the education as a true learner.
In some traditions there is never more than one active master at the same time in the same guruparamaparya (lineage)
Types of Gurus.
In paramapara, not only is the immediate guru revered, the three preceding gurus are also worshipped or revered. These are known variously as the kala-guru or as the “four gurus” and are designated as follows:
Guru – the immediate guru
Parama-guru – the Guru of the Parampara or specific tradition (e.g. for the Śankaracharya’s this is Adi Śankara)
Parātpara-Guru – the Guru who is the source of knowledge for many traditions (e.g. for the Śankaracharya’s this is Vedavyāsa)
Parameṣṭhi-guru – the highest Guru, who has the power to bestow mokṣa (usually depicted as Śiva, being the highest Guru.
^ Monier Monier-Williams (1899). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 587(column a). OL 6534982M.
^ Srimad Bhagavatam 7.12.1, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1976, ISBN 0-912776-87-0
^ Padoux, André. “The Tantric Guru” in White, David Gordon (ed. 2000). Tantra in Practice, p. 44. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.