The national Anthem of India ,Jana Gana Mana, was composed by Rabindra Nath Tagore, to felicitate King George V and it was sung in Honor of the Emperor.
Vande Mataharam was accepted by the Indian Public as the National Anthem of India and as Muslims objected to it, Gandhi and Nehru changed it to Jana Gana Mana.
The poem was composed in December 1911, coinciding with the visit of King George V at the time of the Coronation Durbar of George V, and “Bharat Bhagya vidhata” and “Adhinayaka” was believed to be in praise of King George V as per the British newspapers. The composition was first sung during a convention of the then loyalist Indian National Congress in Calcutta on 26 Dec 1911. It was sung on the second day of the convention, and the agenda of that day devoted itself to a loyal welcome of George V on his visit to India. The event was reported thus in the British Indian press:
“The Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him specially to welcome the Emperor.” (Statesman, Dec. 28, 1911)
“The proceedings began with the singing by Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor.” (Englishman, Dec. 28, 1911)
“When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27th December 1911, a Bengali song in welcome of the Emperor was sung. A resolution welcoming the Emperor and Empress was also adopted unanimously.” (Indian, Dec. 29, 1911)
Many historians aver that the newspaper reports cited above were misguided. The confusion arose in British Indian press since a different song, “Badshah Humara” written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary, was sung on the same occasion in praise of the monarch. The nationalist Indian press stated this difference of events clearly:-
“The proceedings of the Congress party session started with a prayer in Bengali to praise God (song of benediction). This was followed by a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V. Then another song was sung welcoming King George V.” (Amrita Bazar Patrika, Dec.28,1911)
“The annual session of Congress began by singing a song composed by the great Bengali poet Ravindranath Tagore. Then a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V was passed. A song paying a heartfelt homage to King George V was then sung by a group of boys and girls.” (The Bengalee, Dec. 28, 1911)
Even the report of the annual session of the Indian National Congress of December 1911 stated this difference:
“On the first day of 28th annual session of the Congress, proceedings started after singing Vande Mataram. On the second day the work began after singing a patriotic song by Babu Ravindranath Tagore. Messages from well wishers were then read and a resolution was passed expressing loyalty to King George V. Afterwards the song composed for welcoming King George V and Queen Mary was sung.”
On 10 November 1937 Tagore wrote a letter to Mr Pulin Bihari Sen about the controversy. That letter in Bengali can be found in Tagore’s biography Ravindrajivani, volume II page 339 by Prabhatkumar Mukherjee.
“A certain high official in His Majesty’s service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India’s chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense.”
Again in his letter of 19 March 1939 Tagore writes,
“I should only insult myself if I cared to answer those who consider me capable of such unbounded stupidity as to sing in praise of George the Fourth or George the Fifth as the Eternal Charioteer leading the pilgrims on their journey through countless ages of the timeless history of mankind.” (Purvasa, Phalgun, 1354, p738.)….
Notwithstanding Tagore’s protests ,consider the following.
2) It is the acclamation of the ‘Adhinayaka’. ‘Jaya ho’ means Victory is wished for the Adhinayaka. Adhinayaka means the best hero. During 1911 there was no the best hero in India. Therefore only the king, who ruled India, then, was Adhinayaka. That king was the king of British Empire.
3) Bharata Bhagya Vidhata is a Sanskrit word, which means the Maker, who was to decide the fate of India. India was, then, governed by that British King. Naturally the fate of India was in his hands. Therefore Bharata Bhagya Vidhata was no one else but the British Emperor. There was no Indian leader powerful enough to decide the fate of India. Therefore he must not have been applauded and victory wished for any Indian leader.
4) Some people say that Bharata Bhagya Vidhata, Adhinayaka means the president of the Indian Congress. But this idea is baseless. The statement in stanzas 2nd and 3rd go against that concept. In the second stanza Ravindra states, ‘ Pooraba Paschima Ase Tava Simhasana Pase’. It means that the east and the west are situated at your throne. No leader of India possessed throne, then. President of Indian Congress had no throne. No throne in the world had the east and the west near it, except the British throne, which ruled all over the world, from the east to the west. It was rightly said ‘the sun does not set on the British Empire’. Therefore this line specifically points to the British king.
5) Ravindra writes ‘ Tava Charane Nata Matha — Oh, Rajeshwara’. It means that ‘my head bows before your feet, Oh king of kings.’ Ravindra salutes humbly before the king of kings or the emperor. There was no real king in India, then. Naturally there was no Rajeshwara, king of kings, in India to bow before him. There were many states and princes ruling over, but they were in pitiable condition, they were slaves. Thus there was no real king in India. The only king was the King of England, who ruled over India. Therefore it is clear that Ravindra prostrates before the British king.
6) ‘Gahe Tava Jaya Gatha’ says Ravindra. It means that he was singing a song of his victory. Who in India had conquered anything then? Whose victory drums Ravindra was beating? For whom victory song was sung by Ravindra? To sing victory song, there was only one king, and he was British emperor. Ravindra added his voice in the victory songs sung all over the world for the British emperor.
7) During 1911 there was tremendous effect of British supremacy over India and Indian people. Ravindra was definitely under the spell of that British effect. Its evidence I put that Ravindra had his Sir-name ‘Thakura’, but due to influence of English, he anglicised his Sir name and began writing ‘Tagore’. It was certainly the mental prostration before English style. In that mental state Ravindra must have composed the song in praise of British emperor.
8) Congress Government selected the song as national anthem in 1947, but it was against Truth. Hindusthana was divided in 1947 and Pakistan was born out of it. The remaining country was named as India or Bharat. That India did not contain Sindh, more than half of Punjab and Bengal. Then why the states Sindh, Punjaba and Bengal are inserted in the national anthem? If I were the President or the Prime Minister of Pakistan, I would have objected to inclusion of Sindh in the national anthem. Nobody has realised this Truth, so far.
9) In fact ‘Vande Mataram’ was accepted as the national anthem by all public, then. However, because some Muslims did not like to honour Indian state as their mother, they opposed Vande Mataram. Immediately Gandhi and Nehru succumbed to their pressure and changed the anthem.
10) Veer Sawarkar had already predicted in 1938 that Gandhi would insult and remove the national anthem Vande Mataram. The same happened nine years later.’