The Maitri Upanishad,also called The Maitraniya Upanishad is from the Krishna Yajur Veda,Maitraniya Shaka.
This Upanishad is uniqe in that it deals with not only Brahman, it deals with
Maya Concept to sch an extent that it is some times called the Buddhist view of Philosophy,
Saguna Brahman,that is Brahman with and without Form.
Sanskrit Text at http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_pdf/maitri.pdf
small, and shining, as the Highest Self, then having seen his Se
lf as the Self, he becomes Self less, and because he is Self-less, he is without limit, without cause, absorbed in thought. This is the highest
mystery, viz. final liberation.
And thus it is said:
‘Through the serenity of the thought he kills all actions,
good or bad; his Self serene, abiding in the Self,
obtains imperishable bliss.’
21. And thus it has been said elsewhere: The artery, called Sushumna, going upwards (from the heart to
the Brahmarandhra), serving as the passage of the Prana, is divided wit
hin the palate. Through that artery, when it has been joined by the breath (held in subjection), by the sacred syllable Om,
and by the mind (absorbed in the contemplation of Brahman), let him proceed upwards, and after turning the tip of
the tongue to the palate, without using any of the organs of sense, let greatness perceive greatness.
From thence he goes to selflessness, and through selflessness he ceases to be an enjoyer of pleasure
and pain, he obtains aloneness (kevalatva, final deliverance).
And thus it is said:
‘Having successively fixed the breath, after it had been restrained, in the palate, thence having crossed
the limit (the life), let him join himself afterwards to the limitless (Brahman) in the crown of the head.’
22. And thus it has been said elsewhere: Two Brahmans have to be meditated on, the word and the
non-word. By the word alone is the non word revealed.
Now there is the word Om.
Moving upward by it (where all words and all what is meant by them ceases), he arrives at absorption in the non
This is the way, this is the immortal, this is union, and this is bliss.
And as the spider, moving
upward by the thread, gains free space, thus also he who meditates, moving upward by the syllable
OM gains independence.
Other teachers of the word (as Brahman) think otherwise.
They listen to the sound of the ether within the
heart while they stop the ears with the thumbs. They compare it to seven noises, like rivers, like a bell,
like a brazen vessel, like the wheels of a carriage, li
ke the croaking of frogs, like rain, and as if a man
speaks in a cavern. Having passed beyond this variously apprehended sound, and having settled in the
supreme, soundless (non-word), unmanifested Brahman, they become undistinguished and
undistinguishable, as various flavours of the flowers are lost in the taste of honey.
And thus it is said:
‘Two Brahmans are to be known, the wordBrahman and the highest Brahman; he who is perfect in the
word Brahman attains the highest Brahman.’
23. And thus it has been said elsewhere: The syllable Om is what is called the word. And its end is the
silent, the soundless, fearless, sorrowless, joyful, satisfied, firm, unwavering, immortal, immovable,
certain (Brahman), called Vishnu. Let him worship these two, that he may
obtain what is higher than
everything (final deliverance). For thus it is said:
‘He who is the high and the highest god, by name Omkara, he is soundless and free from all
distinctions: therefore let a man dwell on him in the crown of his head.’
24. And thus it has been said elsewhere: The body is the bow, the syllable Om is the arrow,
and its point is the mind. Having
cut through the darkness, which consists of ignorance, it approaches that which is
not covered by darkness.
Then having cut through thatwhich was covered (the personal soul), he saw
Brahman, flashing like a wheel on fire, bright like the sun, vigorous, beyond all darkness, that which
shines forth in yonder sun, in the moon, in the fire, in the lightning. And having seen him, he obtains
And thus it has been said:
‘Meditation is directed to the highest Being (Brahman) within, and (before) to the objects (body, Om,
mind); thence the indistinct understanding becomes distinct.
And when the works of the mind are dissolved, then that bliss which requires no other witness, that is
Brahman (Atman), the immortal, the brilliant, that is the way, that is the (true) world.’
25. And thus it has been said elsewhere: He who has his senses hidden as in sleep, and who, while in
the cavern of his senses (his body), but no longer ruled by them, sees, as in a dream, with the purest
intellect, Him who is called Pranava (Om), the leader, the bright, the sleepless, free from old age, from
death, and sorrow, he is himself also called Pranava, and becomes a leader, bright, sleepless, free from
old age, from death, and sorrow.
And thus it is said:
‘Because in this manner he joins the Prana (breath), the Om, and this Universe in
its’s manifold forms or because they join themselves (to him), therefore this (process of meditation) is called Yoga (joining).
The oneness of breath, mind, and senses, and then the surrendering of all
conceptions that is called Yoga.’
26. And thus it has also been said elsewhere: As a sportsman, after drawing out the denizens
of the waters with a net, offers them (as a sacrifice) in the fire of his stomach, thus are these Pranas (vital
airs), after they have been drawn out with the syllable Om, offered in the faultless fire (Brahman).
Hence he is like a heated vessel (full of clarified butter); for as the clarified butter in the heated vessel
lights up, when touched with grass and sticks, thus does this being which is called
Not -breath (Atman) light up, when touched by the Pranas (the vital airs).
And that which flares up, that is the manifest form
of Brahman thatis the highest place of Vishnu that
is the essence of Rudra. And this, dividing his Self in
endless ways, fills all these worlds. And thus it is said:
‘As the sparks from the fire, and as the rays from the sun, thus do his Pranas and the rest in proper
order again and again proceed from him here on earth.’
27. And thus it has also been said elsewhere: This is the heat of the highest, the immortal, the
incorporeal Brahman, viz. the warmth of the body. And this body is
the clarified butter (poured on it, by
which the heat of Brahman, otherwise invisible, is lighted up). Then, being manifest, it is placed in the
ether (of the heart). Then by concentration they thus remove that ether which is within the heart, so that
its light appears, as it were. Therefore the worshipper becomes identified with that light without much
delay. As a ball of iron, if placed in the earth, becomes earth without much delay, and as, when it has
once become a clod of earth, fire and smiths have no
thing more to do with that ball of iron, thus does
thought (without delay) disappear, together with its support. And thus it is said:
‘The shrine which consists of the ether in the heart, the blissful, the highest retreat, that is our own, that
is our goal, and that is the heat and brightness of the fire and the sun.’
28. And thus it has been said elsewhere: After having left behind the body, the organs of sense, and the
objects of sense (as no longer belonging to us), and having seized the bow whose stick is fortitude and
whose string is asceticism, having struck down also with the arrow, which consists in freedom from
egotism, the first guardian of the door of Brahman(for if man looks at the world egotistically, then, taking
the diadem of passion, the earrings of greed and envy, and the staff of, sloth
, sleep, and sin, and having seized the bow whose string is anger, and whose stick is lust’ he destroys
with the arrow which consists of wishes, all beings)
having therefore killed that guardian, he crosses by means of the boat Om to the
other side of the ether within the heart, and when the ether becomes revealed (as Brahman), he enters
slowly, as a miner seeking minerals in a mine, into the Hall of Brahman. After that let him, by means of
the doctrine of his teacher, break through the shrine of Brahman’which consists of the four nets (of food,
breath, mind, knowledge, till he reaches the last shrine, that of blessedness and identity with Brahman).
Thenceforth pure, clean, undeveloped, tranquil, breathless
, bodiless, endless, imperishable, firm,
everlasting, unborn and independent, he stands on his own greatness, and having seen (the Self),
standing in his own greatness, he looks on the wheel of the world as one (who has alighted from a
chariot) looks on it
s revolving wheel. And thus it is said:
‘If a man practises Yoga for six months and is thoroughly free (from the outer world), then the perfect
Yoga (union), which is endless, high, and hidden, is accomplished.
But if a man, though well enlightened (by i
nstruction), is still pierced by (the gunas of) passion and
darkness, and attached to his children, wife, and house, then perfect Yoga is never accomplished.’
29. After he had thus spoken (to Brihadratha), Sakayanya, absorbed in thought, bowed before him,
said: ‘O King, by means of this Brahma
knowledge have the sons of Pragapati (the Valakhilyas) gone to
the road of Brahman. Through the practice of Yoga a man obtains contentment, power to endure good
and evil, and tranquillity. Let no man preach this
most secret doctrine to any one who is not his son or
his pupil, and who is not of a serene mind. To him alone who is devoted to his teacher only, and
endowed with all necessary qualities, may he communicate it.
30. Om! Having settled down in a pure place
let him, being pure himself, and firm in goodness, study the
truth, speak the truth, think the truth, and offer sacrifice to the truth. Henceforth he has become another;
by obtaining the reward of Brahman his fetters are cut asunder, he knows no hope, no
fear from others
as little as from himself, he knows no desires; and having attained imperishable, infinite happiness, he
stands blessed in the true Brahman, who longs for a true man. Freedom from desires is, as it were, the
highest prize to be taken from
the best treasure (Brahman). For a man full of all desires, being
possessed of will, imagination, and belief, is a slave; but he who is the opposite, is free.
Here some say, it is the Guna (i. e. the so
called Mahat, the principle of intellect which, acc
ording to the
Sankhyas, is the result of the Gunas or qualities), which, through the differences of nature (acquired in
the former states of existence), goes into bondage to the will, and that deliverance takes place (for the
Guna) when the fault of the wi
ll has been removed. (But this is not our view), because (call it guna,
intellect, buddhi, manas, mind, ahankara, egotism, it is not the mind that acts, but) he sees by the mind
(as his instrument), he hears by the mind; and all that we call desire, imagin
ation, doubt, belief, unbelief,
certainty, uncertainty, shame, thought, fear, all that is but mind (manas). Carried along by the waves of
the qualities, darkened in his imaginations, unstable, fickle, crippled, full of desires, vacillating, he enters
into belief, believing I am he, this is mine, and he binds his Self by his Self, as a bird with a net.
Therefore a man, being possessed of will, imagination, and belief, is a slave, but he who is the opposite
is free. For this reason let a man stand free from will, imagination, and belief
this is the sign of liberty,
this is the path that leads to Brahman, this is the opening of the door, and through it he will go to the
other shore of darkness. All desires are there fulfilled. And for this they quote a verse:
“When the five instruments of knowledge stand still together with the mind, and when the intellect does
not move, that is called the highest state.”‘
Having thus said, sakayanya became absorbed in thought. Then Marut (i. e. the King Brihadratha),
owed before him and duly worshipped him, went full of contentment to the Northern Path, for
there is no way thither by any side
road. This is the path to Brahman. Having burst open the solar door,
he rose on high and went away. And here they quote:
are endless rays (arteries) for the Self who, like a lamp, dwells in the heart: white and black,
brown and blue, tawny and reddish.
One of them (the Sushumna) leads upwards, piercing the solar orb: by it, having stepped beyond the
world of Brahman, they
go to the highest path.
The other hundred rays rise upwards also, and on them the worshipper reaches the mansions belonging
to the different bodies of gods.
But the manifest rays of dim colour which lead downwards, by them a man travels on and on helples
to enjoy the fruits of his actions here.’
Therefore it is said that the holy Aditya (sun) is the cause of new births (to those who do not worship
him), of heaven (to those who worship him as a god), of liberty (to those who worship him as Brahman).
31. Some one asks: ‘Of what nature are those organs of sense that go forth (towards their objects)?
Who sends them out here, or who holds them back?’
Another answers: ‘Their nature is the Self; the Self sends them out, or holds them back; also the
(enticing objects of sense), and the solar rays (and other deities presiding over the senses).’
Now the Self devours the objects by the five rays (the organs of sense); then who is the Self?
He who has been defined by the terms pure, clean, undeveloped
, tranquil, &c., who is to be
apprehended independently by his own peculiar signs. That sign of him who has no signs, is like what
the pervading heat is of fire, the purest taste of water; thus say some. It is speech, hearing, sight, mind,
breath; thus say
others. It is intellect, retention, remembering, knowledge; thus say others. Now all these
are signs of the Self in the same sense in which here on earth shoots are the signs of seed, or smoke,
light, and sparks of fire. And for this they quote:
‘As the sparks from the fire, and as the rays from the sun, thus do his Pranas and the rest in proper
order again and again proceed from him here on earth.’
32. From this very Self, abiding within his Self, come forth all Pranas (speech, &c.), all worlds, all Vedas,
all gods and all beings; its Upanishad (revelation) is that it is ‘the true of the true.’ Now as from a fire of
greenwood, when kindled, clouds of smoke come forth by themselves (though belonging to the fire),
thus from that great Being has been breath
ed forth all this which is the Rigveda, the Yagur veda, the
Samaveda, the Atharvangirasas (Atharvaveda), the Itihasa (legendary stories), the Purana (accounts
of the creation, &c.), Vidya (ceremonial doctrines), the Upanishads, the Slokas (verses inters persed in
the Upanishads, &c.), the Sutras (compendious statements), the Anuvyakhyanas (explanatory notes),
the Vyakhyanas (elucidations) all these things are his.
33. This fire (the Garhapatya fire) with five bricks is the year.
And its five bricks are spring, summer,rainy season, autumn, winter; and by them the fire has a head, two sides, a centre, and a tail.
This earth (the Garhapatya,Fire) here is the first sacrificial pile for Pragapati, who knows the Purusha (the Virag). It
presented the sacrificer to Vayu (the wind) by lifting him with the hands to the sky. That Vayu is Prana
Prana is Agni (the Dakshinagni
fire), and its bricks are the five vital breaths, Prana, Vyana, Apana,
Samana, Udana; and by them the fire has a head, two s
ides, a centre, and a tail. This sky (the
Dakshinagni fire) here is the second sacrificial pile for Pragapati, who knows the Purusha. It presented
the sacrificer to Indra, by lifting him with the hands to heaven. That Indra is Aditya, the sun.
That (Indra) is the Agni (the Ahavaniya
fire) and its bricks are the Rik, the Yagush, the Saman, the
Atharvangirasas, the Itihasa, and the Purana; and by them the fire has a head, two sides, a tail, and a
centre. This heaven (Ahavaniya fire) is the third sacrificialpile for Pragapati, who knows the Purusha.
With the hands it makes a present of the sacrificer to the Knower of the Self (Pragapati); then the
Knower of the Self, lifting him up, presented him to Brahman. In him he becomes full of happiness and
The earth is the Garhapatya fire, the sky the Dakshina
fire, the heaven the Ahavaniya fire; and
therefore they are also the Pavamana (pure), the Pavaka (purifying), and the Suki (bright). By this (by
the three deities, Pavamana, Pavaka, and Suki) the sacri
fice (of the three fires, the Garhapatya,
Dakshina, and Ahavaniya) is manifested. And because the digestive fire also is a compound of the
Pavamana, Pavaka, and Suki, therefore that fire is to receive oblations, is to be laid with bricks, is to be
praised, and to be meditated on. The sacrificer, when he has seized the oblation, wishes to perform his
meditation of the deity:
‘The gold coloured bird abides in the heart, and in the sun
a diver bird, a swan, strong in splendour; him
we worship in the fire.’
Having recited the verse, he discovers its meaning, viz. the adorable splendour of Savitri (sun) is to be
meditated on by him who, abiding within his mind, meditates thereon. Here he attains the place of rest
for the mind;
he holds it within his own Self. On this there are the following verses
(1) As a fire without fuel becomes quiet in its place, thus do the thoughts, when all activity ceases,
become quiet in their place.
(2) Even in a mind which loves the truth and has gone to rest in itself there arise, when it is deluded by
the objects of sense, wrongs resulting from former acts.
(3) For thoughts alone cause the round of births; let a man strive to purify his thoughts. What a man
thinks, that he is: this is the old secret.
(4) By the serenity of his thoughts a man blots out all actions, whether good or bad. Dwelling within his
Self with serene thoughts, he obtains imperishable happiness.
(5) If the thoughts of a man were so fixed on Brahman as they are on the things of this world, who would
not then be freed from bondage?
(6) The mind, it is said, is of two kinds, pure or impure; impure from the contact with lust, pure when free
(7) When a man, having freed his mind from sloth, distraction, and vacillation, becomes as it were
delivered from his mind, that is the highest point.
(8) The mind must be restrained in the heart till it comes to an end;
that is knowledge, that is liberty: all
the rest are extensions of the ties (which bind us to this life).
(9) That happiness which belongs to
a mind which by deep meditation has been washed clean from all
impurity and has entered within the Self, cannot be described here by words; it can be felt by the inward
(10) Water in water, fire in fire, ether in ether, no one can distinguish
them; likewise a man whose mind
has entered (till it cannot be distinguished from the Self), attains liberty.
(11 Mind alone is the cause of bondage and liberty for men; if attached to the world, it becomes bound;
if free from the world that is liberty.
Therefore those who do not offer the Agnihotra (as described above), who do not lay the fires (with the
bricks, as described above), who are ignorant (of the mind being the cause of the round of births), who
do not meditate (on the Self in the solar orb) are debarred from remembering the ethereal place of
Brahman. Therefore that fire is to receive oblations, is to be laid with bricks,
and is to be praised, to be meditated on.
35. Adoration to Agni, the dweller on earth, who remembers his world. Grant that
world to this thy worshipper!
Adoration to Vayu, the dweller in the sky, who remembers his world.
Grant that world to this thy worshipper!
Adoration to Aditya, the dweller in heaven, who remembers his world.
Grant that world to this thy worshipper!
Adoration to Brahman, who dwells everywhere, who remembers all. Grant all to this thy worshipper!
The mouth of the true (Brahman) is covered with a golden lid; open that, O Pushan (sun), that we may
go to the true one, who pervades all (Vishnu).
He who is the person in the sun, I am he.
And what is meant by the true one is the essence of the sun, that which is bright, personal,
and sexless; a portion (only) of the light which pervades the ether; which is, as it were, in the midst of the sun, and in
the eye,and in the fire. That is Brahman, that is immortal, that is splendour.
That is the true one, a portion (only) of the light which pervades the ether, which is in the midst of the
sun, the immortal, of which Soma (the moon) and the vital breaths also are offshoots:
that is Brahman, that is immortal, that is splendour.
That is the true one, a portion (only) of the light which pervades the ether, which in the midst of the sun
shines as Yagus, viz. as Om, as water, light, essence, immortal, Brahman, Bhuh, Bhuv
ah, Svar, Om.
‘The eight footed, the bright, the swan, bound with three threads, the infinitely small, the imperishable,
blind for good and evil, kindled with light
he who sees him, sees everything.’
A portion (only) of the light which pervades the ether, are the two rays rising in the midst of the sun.
That is the knower (the Sun), the true one. That is the Yagus, that is the heat, that is Agni (fire),
that is Vayu (wind), that is breath, that is water, that is the moon, that is bright, that is immortal
, that is the place ofBrahman, that is the ocean of light. In that ocean the sacrificers are dissolved like salt,
and that is oneness with Brahman, for all desires are there fulfilled.
And here they quote:
‘Like a lamp, moved by a gentle wind, he who dwe
lls within the gods shines forth. He who knows this,
he is the knower, he knows the difference (between the high and the highest Brahman); having obtained
unity, he becomes identified with it.
They who rise up in endless number, like spray drops (from the
sea), like lightnings from the light within
the clouds in the highest heaven, they, when they have entered into the light of glory (Brahman), appear
like so many flame
crests in the track of fire.’
36. There are two manifestations of the Brahma
light: one is tranquil, the other lively. Of that which is
tranquil, the ether is the support; of that which is lively, food. Therefore (to the former) sacrifice must be
offered on the house altar with hymns, herbs, ghee, meat, cakes, sthalipaka, and other things;
to the latter, with meat and drinks (belonging to the great sacrifices) thrown into the mouth,
for the mouth is the Ahavaniya fire;
and this is done to increase our bodily vigour, to gain the world of purity, and for the
sake of immortality.
And here they
‘Let him who longs for heaven, offer an Agnihotra. By an Agnishtoma he wins the kingdom of Yama; by
Uktha, the kingdom of Soma; by a Shodasin
sacrifice, the kingdom of Surya; by an Atiratra
sacrifice, the kingdom of Indra; by the sacrifices beginning with the twelve
night sacrifice and ending with the
thousand years’ sacrifice, the world of Pragapati.
As a lamp burns so long as the vessel that holds the wick is filled with oil, these two, the Self and the
bright Sun, remain so long as the egg (of the world) and he who dwells within it hold together.’
37. Therefore let a man perform
all these ceremonies with the syllable Om (at the beginning).
Its splendour is endless, and it is declared to be threefold, in the fire (of the altar), in the sun (the
deity), in the breath (the sacrificer).
Now this is the channel to increase the food, which makes what is offered in
the fire ascend to the sun. The sap which flows from
thence rains down as with the sound of a hymn. By
it there are vital breaths, from the
m there is offspring. And here they quote:
‘The offering which is offered in the fire, goes to the sun; the sun rains it down by his rays; thus food
comes, and from food the birth of living beings.’
And thus he said:
‘The oblation which is properly thrown on the fire, goes toward the sun; from the sun comes rain, from
rain food, from food living beings.’
38. He who offers the Agnihotra breaks through the net of desire. Then, cutting through bewilderment,
never approving of anger, meditating on one desire (that of liberty), he breaks through the shrine of
Brahman with its four nets, and proceeds thence to the ether. For having there broken through the (four)
spheres of the Sun, the Moon, the Fire, and Goodness, he then, being purified himself, beholds dwelling
in goodness, immovable, immortal, indestructible, firm, bearing the name of Vishnu, the highest abode,
endowed with love of truth and omniscience, the self dependent Intelligence (Brahman), standing in its
And here they quote:
‘In themidst of the sun stands the moon, in the midst of the moon the fire, in the midst of fire goodness,
in the midst of goodness the Eternal.’
Having meditated on him who has the breadth of a thumb within the span (of the heart) in the body, who
is smaller than small, he obtains the nature of the Highest; there all desires are fulfilled. And on this they
‘Having the breadth of a thumb within the span (of the heart) in the body, like the flame of a lamp,
burning twofold or threefold, that glorified Bra
hman, the great God, has entered into all the worlds. Om!
Adoration to Brahman! Adoration!’
1. Agni, the Gayatra (metre), the Trivrit (hymn), the Rathantara (song), the spring, the upward breath
(prana), the Nakshatras, the Vasus (dei
these rise in the East; they warm, they rain, they praise (the
sun), they enter again into him (the sun), they look out from him (the sun). He (the sun) is inconceivable,
without form, deep, covered, blameless, solid, unfathomable, without qualities,
pure, brilliant, enjoying
the play of the three qualities, awful, not caused, a master
magician, the omniscient, the mighty,
immeasurable, without beginning or end, blissful, unborn, wise, indescribable, the creator of all things,
the self of all things,
the enjoyer of all things, the ruler of all things, the centre of the centre of all things.
2. Indra, the Trishtubh (metre), the Pankadasa (hymn), the Brihat (song), the summer, the through
going breath (Vyana), Soma, the Rudras
these rise in the South;
they warm, they rain, they praise, they enter
again into him, they look out from him. He (the sun) is without end or beginning, unmeasured, unlimited,
not to be moved by another, self
dependent, without sign, without form, of endless power, the creator,
he maker of light.
3. The Maruts, the Gagati (metre), the Saptadasa (hymn), the Vairupa (song), the rainy season, the
downward breath (apana), Sukra, the Adityas
these rise in the West; they warm, they rain, they praise,
they enter again into him, they
look out from him. That is the tranquil, the soundless, fearless,
sorrowless, joyful, satisfied, firm, immovable, immortal, eternal, true, the highest abode, bearing the
name of Vishnu.
4. The Visve Devas, the Anushtubh (metre), the Ekavimsa (hymn), the V
airaga (song), the autumn, the
equal breath (samana), Varuna, the Sadhyas
these rise in the North; they warm, they rain, they praise,
they enter again into him, they look out from him. He is pure within, purifying, undeveloped, tranquil,
breathless, selfless, endless.
5. Mitra Varunau, the Pankti (metre), the Trinavatrayastrimsa (hymns), the Sakvara raivata (songs), the
snowy and dewy seasons, the outgoing breath (udana), the Angiras, the Moon
these rise above; they warm, they rain, they praise, they
enter again into him, they look out from him
who is called Pranava
(Om), the leader, consisting of light, without sleep, old age, death, and sorrow.
6. Sani (Saturn), Rahu and Ketu (the ascending and descending nodes), the serpents, Rakshas,
birds, sarabhas, elephants, &c.
these rise below; they warm, they rain, they praise, they
enter again into him, they look out from him
he who is wise, who keeps things in their right place, the
centre of all, the imperishable, the pure, the purifier, the bright, the patient, the tranquil.
7. And he is indeed the Self, smaller (than small) within the heart, kindled like fire, endowed with all
forms. Of him is all this food, within him all creatures are woven. That Self is free from sin, free from old
, from death and grief, from hunger and thirst, imagining nothing but what it ought to imagine, and
desiring nothing but what it ought to desire. He is the highest
he is the supreme master of all
beings, the guardian of all beings, a boundary keeping
all things apart in their right places. He the Self,
the lord, is indeed Sambhu, Bhava, Rudra, Pragapati, the creator of all, Hiranyagarbha, the true, breath,
the swan, the ruler, the eternal, Vishnu, Narayana. And he who abides in the fire, and he who abides in
the heart, and he who abides in the sun, they are one and the same. To thee who art this, endowed with
all forms, settled in the true ether, be adoration!
8. Now follow the impediments in the way of knowledge, O King! This is indeed the origin of
the net of
bewilderment, that one who is worthy of heaven lives with those who are not worthy of heaven. That is
it. Though they have been told that there is a grove before them, they cling to a small shrub. And others
also who are always merry, always abroad, always begging, always making a living by handiwork; and
others who are begging in towns, performing sacrifices for those who are not allowed to offer sacrifices,
who make themselves the pupils of Sudras, and Sudras who know the sacred books; and others
who are malignant, who use bad language, dancers, prize
fighters, travelling mendicants, actors, those who
have been degraded in the king’s service; and others who for money pretend that they can lay (the evil
influences) of Yakshas, Rakshasas, ghosts,
goblins, devils, serpents, imps, &c.; and others who falsely
wear red dresses, earrings, and skulls; and others who wish to entice by the jugglery of false arguments,
mere comparisons and paralogisms, the believers in the Veda
with all these he should not live
together. They are clearly thieves, and unworthy of heaven. And thus it is said:
‘The world unsettled by the paralogisms of the denial of Self, by false comparisons and arguments, does
not know what is the difference between Veda and philosophy.’
9. Brihaspati, having become Sukra, brought forth that false knowledge for the safety of Indra and for
the destruction of the Asuras. By it they show that good is evil, and that evil is good. They say that we
ought to ponder on the (new) law, which upsets
the Veda and the other sacred books. Therefore let no
one ponder on that false knowledge: it is wrong, it is, as it were, barren. Its reward lasts only as long as
the pleasure lasts, as with one who has fallen from his caste. Let that false science not be
thus it is said:
(1) Widely opposed and divergent are these two, the one known as false knowledge, the other as
knowledge. I (Yama) believe Nakiketas to be possessed by a desire of knowledge; even many
pleasures do not move thee.
(2) He who
knows at the same time both the imperfect (sacrifice, &c.) and the perfect knowledge (of the
Self), he crosses death by means of the imperfect, and obtains immortality by means of the perfect
(3) Those who are wrapped up in the midst of imper
fect knowledge, fancying themselves alone wise and
learned, they wander about floundering and deceived, like the blind led by the blind.
10. The gods and the demons, wishing to know the Self, went into the presence of Brahman (their
father, Pragapati). Ha
ving bowed before him, they said: ‘O blessed one, we wish to know the Self, do
thou tell us.’ Then, after having pondered a long while, he thought, these demons are not yet self
subdued; therefore a very different Self was told to them (from what was told
to the gods). On that Self
these deluded demons take their stand, clinging to it, destroying the true means of salvation (the Veda),
preaching untruth. What is untrue they see as true, as in jugglery. Therefore, what is taught in the
Vedas, that is true. W
hat is said in the Vedas, on that the wise keep their stand. Therefore let a
Brahman not read what is not of the Veda, or this will be the result.
11. This is indeed the nature of it (the Veda), the supreme light of the ether which is within the heart.
This is taught as threefold, in the fire, in the sun, in the breath. This is indeed the nature of it, the syllable
Om, of the ether which is within the heart. By it (by the Om) that (light) starts, rises, breathes forth,
becomes for ever the means of the wor
ship and knowledge of Brahman. That (light, in the shape of
Om), when there is breathing, takes the place of the internal heat, free from all brightness. This is like
the action of smoke; for when there is a breath of air, the smoke, first rising to the sk
y in one column,
follows afterwards every bough, envelopes it and takes its shape. It is like throwing salt (into water), like
heating ghee. The Veda comes and goes like the dissolving view of a master
magician. And here they
‘Why then is it called
“like lightning?” Because as soon as it comes forth (as Om) it lights up the whole
body. Therefore let a man worship that boundless light by the syllable Om.’
(1) The man in the eye who abides in the right eye, he is Indra, and his wife abides in the lef
(2) The union of these two takes place in the cavity within the heart, and the ball of blood which is there,
that is indeed the vigour and life of these two.