Lord Krishna says that control of mind, control of senses, undergoing hardships for sake of duty, purity (both internal and external), forgiveness, straightness of mind and body, belief in God, the scriptures and the world, knowledge of the sacred lore, knowledge of the God based on direct experience are the natural duties of Brahmin. (42nd Shloka, 18th Chapter)
The Sandhyas are the roots of the tree Brahma, four Vedas are branches and Karmas are its leaves, so roots must be cared always, means Sandhyas are must for Brahmin. LordBrahma has defined six essential duties to Brahmins;
Learn Vedas and inspire others for it, Yajna by self and inspire others.
Get donations and donate further to others.
Daily Routine of A Brahmin.
Get up two hours before the Sunrise (Five Nazhikais before the Sunrise,One Nazhikai=24 minutes).-Panca -panca-usatkale.
Cleans the teeth, take bathes in cold water and perform sandhyavandana and japa.
There are Mantras to be recited during cleaning the teeth(Danta Daavana Mantra), Bathing.
One must take Bath in a River 0r Pond a well at Home, the well water must be used only for Veda Kriyas.
Next, aupasana and agnihotra. the”devayajna”, sacrifices to the gods, followed by “Brahmayajna”, the daily study and chanting of the Vedas.
As part of this rite there are some tarpanas or libations to be offered. (For people following certain sutras these come later).
Then, the Brahmin must teach his disciples the Vedas, adhyapana, gather flowers himself for the puja he is to perform.
He must seek for his food (Bhikshai) and for the materials for the conduct of various sacrifices.
The Brahmin has the right to seek alms, but it is a restrictive, it means that he can take only the minimum needed for the upkeep and what is required for the performance of the rituals.
A considerable part of what he receives as gifts is to be paid as daksina to the priests officiating at the sacrifices he performs.
Of the six “occupations” of the Brahmin one is “pratigraha” or accepting gifts. Another is “dana”, making donations to others.
It is asked why Brahmins alone have the right to receive gifts.
The answer is that they are also enjoined to make gifts to others.
Indeed, the Brahmin accepts gifts for the purpose of the charity he has to render.
This apart, he has also to make gifts during the rites to be mentioned next, “atithya” and “bhutayajna”.
The Brahmin must bathe again and perform madhyahnika, followed by pitr-tarpana, that is he offers libations to the fathers.
This is followed by homa and puja.
Of the panca-mahayajnas, two remain- manusyayajna or honouring and feeding the guests and “bhutayajna” which includes bali to the creatures of the earth and feeding the poor (vaisvadeva).
Rice is offered in the sacrificial fire and as bali( that is without being placed in the fire).
In bali, food is placed in different parts of the house to the chanting of mantras food meant for outcastes, beggars, dogs, birds, etc.
In the manusya-yajna, guests are entertained and it is also known as atithya.
The Brahmin can eat only after going through these rites.
Until then he must not take anything except perhaps some milk or buttermilk, but never coffee or any snacks.
If he has any other sacrifices to conduct, paka, havir or soma, his mealtime will be further delayed.
If he has a sraddha to perform also he will have to eat later than usual. A sraddha ceremony must be commenced only in the “aparahna”:
Rites meant for the gods may be performed only after the completion of the sraddha.
After his meal, the Brahmin must read the Purans.
Then teach members of other castes their hereditary vocations, arts and crafts.
He does not have a moment for rest or relaxation.
Take evening bath, sandhyavandana, sacrifices and japa.
Vaisvadeva has to be performed at night also before the Brahmin has his meal and retires to bed.
On most nights he takes only light food consisting of fruits, milk.(Pakahaara)
Or as an exception , he can take fresh food prepared out of Rice, like Idli, Dosa or Upma