The Ultimate authority for The Hindus is the Vedas.
Those who follow the Vedas are Astikas, meaning “It is”
Those who deny it are ‘Nastikas, “Deniers’
Now the terms Astika and Nastika are used to denote Faith in God,Refuting God respectively .
This is incorrect.
The Vedas are not written nor were they originated from some one.
It is believed to be The Breath, both Inhaling and Exhaling of the Creator, Brahma>( Usvaasa and Visvaasa)
These , in turn were reported to have been revealed to Brahma in a flash when He did penance , contemplating Lord Narayana from whose Navel Brahma evolved
Vedas are sounds.
Brahma converted them into language with the help of his consort Goddess Sarasvati.
These sounds are intuitively grabbed by the Seers later from the Ether.
As such the Vedas were not authored.
So they are called ‘Anaadi’ beginning-less.
The Vedas are four in Number.
Yajur, (has Shukla or White Yajur;Krishna Yajur, Black Yajur)
Each Veda has four parts.
They are called ,
Thus we have,
Rig Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyakas and Upanishads.
Similarly for the other three Vedas.
The Samhitas (Sanskrit saṃhitā, “collection”), are collections of metric texts (“mantras“). There are four “Vedic” Samhitas: the Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda, most of which are available in several recensions (śākhā). In some contexts, the term Veda is used to refer to these Samhitas. This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts, apart from the Rigvedic hymns, which were probably essentially complete by 1200 BCE, dating to c. the 12th to 10th centuries BCE. The complete corpus of Vedic mantras as collected in Bloomfield‘s Vedic Concordance(1907) consists of some 89,000 padas (metric feet), of which 72,000 occur in the four Samhitas.
- The Brahmanas are prose texts that discuss, in technical fashion, the solemn sacrificial rituals as well as comment on their meaning and many connected themes. Each of the Brahmanas is associated with one of the Samhitas or its recensions. The Brahmanas may either form separate texts or can be partly integrated into the text of the Samhitas. They may also include the Aranyakas and Upanishads.
- The Aranyakas, “wilderness texts” or “forest treaties”, were composed by people who meditated in the woods as recluses and are the third part of the Vedas. The texts contain discussions and interpretations of dangerous rituals (to be studied outside the settlement) and various sorts of additional materials. It is frequently read in secondary literature.
- Īṣa, (ŚYV) “The Inner Ruler”
- Kena (SV) “Who moves the world?”
- Kaṭha (KYV) “Death as Teacher”
- Praṣna, (AV) “The Breath of Life”
- Muṇḍaka (AV) “Two modes of Knowing”
- Māṇḍūkya (AV) “Consciousness and its phases”
- Taittirīya (KYV) “From Food to Joy”
- Aitareya, (ṚV) “The Microcosm of Man”
- Chāndogya (SV) “Song and Sacrifice”
- Bṛhadāraṇyaka (ŚYV)
The Shrauta Sutras, regarded as belonging to the smriti, are late Vedic in language and content, thus forming part of the Vedic Sanskrit corpus. The composition of the Shrauta and Grhya Sutras (c. 6th century BCE) marks the end of the Vedic period, and at the same time the beginning of the flourishing of the “circum-Vedic” scholarship of Vedanga, introducing the early flowering of classical Sanskrit literature in the Mauryan and Gupta periods.
While production of Brahmanas and Aranyakas ceases with the end of the Vedic period, there is a large number of Upanishads composed after the end of the Vedic period. While most of the tenMukhya Upanishads can be considered to date to the Vedic or Mahajanapada period, most of the 108 Upanishads of the full Muktika canon date to the Common Era.
The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads often interpret the polytheistic and ritualistic Samhitas in philosophical and metaphorical ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute (Brahman), and the soul or the self (Atman), introducing Vedanta philosophy, one of the major trends of later Hinduism.
One who belongs to a particular Shaka must learn from a Guru, The Preceptor.
For Veda Mantras Download and Texts.
Library of Vedic Texts.
Vedic Text with Hindi Commentary.
*RV ,Rig Veda
SYV, Shukla Yajur,
SV, Sama Veda,
AV, Atharva Veda,
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