As none of the parameters tried, have lived up to reasonable classification, it was decided t go into the causes of Behavior, because it is behavior that determines the Life of an Individual and has an impact on the Society.
Behavior is mostly determined by the Genes,expressed in the form of dispositions.though the Hindus were aware of the environment playing a vital part.
He commanded respect from every one.
In the battle, when Sikandi was placed in front of Arjuna, for Drona would not bear arms against a woman turned man, he asks Lord krishna,
“What Dharma is This?
You know I would not fight against Sikandi and Arjuna is facing me,you are placing Sikandi in front of me?
You ceased to be a Brahmin when you stopped teaching and started fighting, that too on the side of Evil.
Now, you are a Kshatriya, fight like a Kshatriya
Karna also says the same to him when he was appointed the Chief of the Army after Bhishmacharya.
Aswathama, after the death of his father Drona’s death, seeking to avenge his death and thinking that he would please Duryodhana, kills all the offspring of the Pandavas, save Parikshit, informs Duryodhana of his deed.
Duryodhana , bleeding to death, says to him,
‘You, in your anger have killed my sons, for Pandavas are my brothers,it is a different issue that I had to fight them.
That does not mean that their children are my enemies.
As a Brahmin, you should have thought of this.
At least , as a Kshatriya, you should have compassion ,Kshama,
You did neither.
You are now neither a Brahmin by disposition or a Kshatriya by duties”
Karna, though a Kshatriya by birth , was not recognized as such, because he was brought up by a Charioteer,
Viswamitra was a Kshatriya by birth, became a Brahmin by disposition and gave the world the Gayathri mantra, the sacred mantra of the Hindus.
Parasurama, a Brahmin by birth is not revered as such for killed his mother at the bidding of his father and he avenged the Kshatriyas for having killed his father Jamadagni for 21 Generatiosn till he was vanquished by Lord Rama.
Nor his Father Jamadagni’s name is among the Gothras of Brahmins for he bade his son to kill his wife.
His wife Renuka Devi, though of Brahmin lineage by Birth and Marriage, after resurrection was made a Minor Deity, called Mariamman.
Now we come across an interesting concept,
That of assigning Caste to God!
Vishnu is a Kshatriya.
Brahma is a Kshatriya.
These two perform the functions of Protecting, Creating respectively.
As these two activities lead to Births and Deaths, Samsara,- these activities are of a Kshatriya.
Siva is called a Brahmin for He dispenses Knowledge, not to be confused with Rudra, the Annihilator.
The term Siva means ‘Auspicious’
He is the embodiment of Sat, Chit, and Anandam(Being,Consciousness and Bliss).
Brhaahmanosya Mukmaaseeth Bhaahoo Raajanyakruthah
Uruthathasya Yadhvaisyah: Pathbyaagum Soodhro Ajaayatha
His mouth formed the Brahmin (teacher or Priest), his two arms were made the Rajaanya (Kshathriya or warrior), his two thighs the Vaisyaa (traders or Agriculturist) and from his feet the Soodhra (worker or servant) was born.(Purusha Sooktham)
Another seeming contradiction is that while The Vishnu Purana is categorized as a Sathva(Noble,Pure,Diligent,Calmness) Purana while Siva Purana as Tamasa Purana( Indifference)
Probable that these are so named as to indicate the qualities of the Reader , Vishnu Purana for Karma,Bhakti Yogins while Siva Purana for karma Yogins(Non action , action with detachment)!
Ravana was a Brahmin by birth but by duties he was a Kshatriya.
He was respected for his knowledge and compassion .
His fatal flaw was to lust after other’s wife.
His status as Kshatriya did not affect his status as a Brahmin as Lord Rama performed Tharpana for him for Brahmahathi Dosha(the sin of slaying a Brahmin) at Rameswaram; normally Tharpana is not performed by the Victors if the slain were to be Kshatriyas unless they happen to be relatives, for example by the Pandavas for the Kauravas.-Pandavas performed the Tharpna for the slain Kauravas..
It may be noted that Birth alone does not determine the Caste, though it is also a factor.
Disposition, performance of duties, the way one is brought up determines the Caste.
An interesting fact is that while Kshatriyas can become Brahmins, Brahmins can never become Kshatriyas in its full connotation
Ravana was an exception who could balance both the functions, that of remaining a Brahmin by Wisdom and Knowledge and a Kshatriya by the performance of his duties.
As shown in the case of Aswathama, a Brahmin becomes neither, in fact without a Caste, if he vacillates between Kshatriya Dharma and Brahmana Dharma.
Therefore, the Classification of Caste is determined by , mainly Four factors.
1. Realizing Brahman, Reality
4.How one is brought up and whom he marries.
Now let us see how the word Caste has come into our Lexicon.
There is no word to denote ‘Caste’ as we understand it now in Hindu Thought.
“The English word “caste” derives from the Spanish and Portuguese casta, which the Oxford English Dictionary quotes John Minsheu‘s Spanish dictionary (1599) to mean, “race, lineage, or breed.” When the Spanish colonized the New World, they used the word to mean a “clan or lineage.” However, it was the Portuguese who employed casta in the primary modern sense when they applied it to the many in-marrying hereditary Hindu social groups they encountered upon their arrival in India in 1498. The use of the spelling “caste,” with this latter meaning, is first attested to in English in 1613.(wiki)
This is totally alien to Hindu Concept.
Caste is called as Varna , indicates disposition, disposition.
- Ksahtriya Surnames Andhra Pradesh (ramanan50.wordpress.com)