Posts Tagged ‘Veda’

Vedas Not Clear Women Chastity Pancha Kanyas Chaste?

In Hinduism on August 1, 2014 at 09:09

I have been under the impression that he Vedas and the Epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata are very strict in the  chastity of women.


There is also a view that women were suppressed and that there was no sexual intransigence during this period.



And in such cases the punishment was severe by a Male dominated Vedic society.


I searched the texts , both the Sruthi and Smriti.


I have not been able to find a clear-cut definition of chastity of women relating to Physical interaction in the Vedas.


Corrections, inputs are welcome.



Smritis, especially the Manu Smriti is eloquent in describing the Adultery by men and the punishment to be meted out to them, the need to protect women


and how society will disintegrate because of a woman being not Chaste.


However I have  not been able to locate the definition of Adultery by women specifically.


One finds the instance of Jamadagni, father of Parashurama, asking Parasuram to cut off his mother Renuka’s head.


That a part of her became to be worshiped as Mariamman is a different story.


There is also the instance of Lord Rama asking Sita to prove her chastity by Fire.


Compare this with the Panchakanyas, Five Virgins who are worshiped as the embodiment of Virtue and chastity in Hinduism.



अहल्य द्रौपदी सीता तारा मन्दोदरी तथा
पञ्चकन्या स्मरेन नित्यं महा पातक नाशनं


ahalyā draupadī sītā tārā mandodarī tathā ।
pañcakanyāḥ smarennityaṃ mahāpātakanāśinī

English translation
Ahalya, Draupadi, Sita, Tara and Mandodari
One should forever remember the panchakanya who are the destroyers of great sins

A variant replaces Sita with Kunti:[4]

Sanskrit transliteration
ahalyā draupadī kuṃtī tārā mandodarī tathā ।
pañcakanyāḥ smarennityaṃ mahāpātakanāśinīm

Differences are underlined.

Orthodox Hindus, especially Hindu wives, remember the Panchakanya in this daily morning prayer. Their names are extolled and the prayer is pratah smaraniya, prescribed to be recited in the early hours of the morning.

The panchakanya literally means five kanyas. Kanya may be translated as girl, daughter, maiden or virgin.

Though all being married, the choice of the word kanya, not nari(woman) or sati (chaste wife), seems interesting to scholar Pradip Bhattacharya”

Of these five,


Ahalya was violated by Indra,


Draupadi had five Husbands,


Tara lived with her husband Vaali’s Brother , Sugrreeva


Mandodai married Vibhishana, Ravanas’ brother, after Ravana’s death?


Only Sita fits the concept of Chastity and loayalty to the core!


That’s why She is treated as Moher by all, Thayar in Tamil.




I am confounded!




Caste Sytem Among Early Tamils

In Hinduism, Tamils on July 26, 2014 at 08:34

I have recently published an article about the Tamil Culture was a part of Sanatana Dharma and that the Tamils did not have an independent Culture of their own.


Even at the time of writing I knew that the article would draw a lot of flak from Tamil Arvalars, literal translation of this is-one who is passionate in Tamil-,it is a different  matter that they can not even pronounce the Tamil Zha, La and la properly.


True to form I have received a communication that my information about Sanatana Dharma and Tamil is wrong and some research paper links were attached with the communication.

The Tamil Land was divided, it is unique among all the civilizations, into five geographical entities.


1.Kurinchi (Mountainous Areas)

Higher castes: Poruppan, Verpan, Silamban, Kodichy

Lower castes: Kuravar, Kurathiyar, Kanavar

2.Mullai (Forest regions)

Higher castes: Nadan, Thonral, Manaivi, Kizathi

Lower castes: Idaiyar, Idaichiyar, Ayar, Aychiyar

3.Marutam (Countryside

Higher castes:Uran, Makiznan, Manaivi, Kizathi

Lower castes: uzavar, Uzaththiyar, Kadaiyar, Kadaichiyar

4.Neytal (Seashore)

Higher castes:Serppan, Thuraivan, Pulamban, Parathi, Nulaichi

Lower castes: Nulaiyar, Nulaichiyar, Parathar, Parathiar, Alavar, Alathiyar

5.Palai (Wasteland/arid lands)

Higher castes:Vidalai, Igulai, Meeli, Eyitri

Lower castes:Maravar, Eyinar, Eyitriar, Marathiyar”


To the best of my knowledge these descriptions denote the group of people living in the specific geographical areas and there seems to be no caste implications about this.

But as I mentioned in my earlier article there is mention of Anthanar, Marayor(Brahmins) in Puranaanuru, the ancient Tamil Work.


Also there is mention of the six duties of Brahmins as well.

Therefore it is evident that while these geographical divisions allotted names ad profession  to people in those areas, the Caste system as practiced in the Sanatana Dharma was present.


Culturally, the megalithic people of the South shared many beliefs and practices with megalithic builders elsewhere in the subcontinent and beyond. Yet certain practices and artefacts were at least compatible with the Vedic world and may well have prepared for a ready acceptance of Vedic concepts�a natural assimilative process still observable in what has been called the �Hinduization� of tribals. Thus several cists surrounded by stone-circles have four vertical slabs arranged in the shape of a swastika.[14] The famous 3.5 metre-high figure of Mottur (in North Arcot district), carved out of a granite slab, is �perhaps the first anthropomorphic representation of a god in stone in Tamil Nadu.�[15] Some megalithic burials have yielded iron or bronze objects such as mother goddess, horned masks, the trishul etc. As the archaeologist I.�K. Sarma observes, such objects are

intimately connected with the worship of brahmanical Gods of the historical period, such as Siva, Kartikeya and later Amba. The diadems of Adichanallur burials are like the mouth-pieces used by the devotees of Murugan.[16]

The archaeologist K.�V. Raman also notes�:

Some form of Mother-Goddess worship was prevalent in the Megalithic period … as suggested by the discovery of a small copper image of a Goddess in the urn-burials of Adichchanallur. More recently, in Megalithic burials the headstone, shaped like the seated Mother, has been located at two places in Tamil Nadu.[17]

Megalithic culture attached great importance to the cult of the dead and ancestors, which parallels that in Vedic culture. It is also likely that certain gods later absorbed into the Hindu pantheon, such as Aiyanar (or Sastha), Murugan (the later Kartik), Korravai (Durga), Naga deities, etc., were originally tribal gods of that period. Though probably of later date, certain megalithic sites in the Nilgiris were actually dolmen shrines, some of them holding Ganesh-like images, others lingams.[ 18] Megalithic practices evocative of later Hinduism are thus summarized by the British archaeologists Bridget and Raymond Allchin�:

The orientation of port-holes and entrances on the cist graves is frequently towards the south. … This demands comparison with later Indian tradition where south is the quarter of Yama. Among the grave goods, iron is almost universal, and the occasional iron spears and tridents (trisulas) suggest an association with the god Siva. The discovery in one grave of a trident with a wrought-iron buffalo fixed to the shaft is likewise suggestive, for the buffalo is also associated with Yama, and the buffalo demon was slain by the goddess Durga, consort of Siva, with a trident. … The picture which we obtain from this evidence, slight as it is, is suggestive of some form of worship of Siva.[ 19]

About the third century BC, cities and towns appear owing to yet little understood factors�; exchanges with the Mauryan and Roman empires seem to have played an important catalytic role, as also the advent of iron. From the very beginning, Buddhist, Jain and Hindu[*] streaks are all clear.

Among the earliest evidences, a stratigraphic dig by I.�K. Sarma within the garbagriha of the Parasuramesvara temple at Gudimallam,[*] brought to light the foundation of a remarkable Shivalingam of the Mauryan period (possibly third century BC)�: it was fixed within two circular pithas at the centre of a square vastu-mandala. �The deity on the frontal face of the tall linga reveals himself as a proto-puranic Agni-Rudra�[20] standing on a kneeling devayana. If this early date, which Sarma established on stratigraphic grounds and from pottery sherds, is correct, this fearsome image could well be the earliest such representation in the South.

Then we find �terracotta figures like Mother Goddess, Naga-linga etc., from Tirukkampuliyur�; a seated Ganesa from Alagarai�; Vriskshadevata and Mother Goddess from Kaveripakkam and Kanchipuram, in almost certainly a pre-Pallava sequence.�[21] Cult of a Mother goddess is also noticed in the early levels at Uraiyur,[22] and at Kaveripattinam, Kanchipuram and Arikamedu.[ 23] Excavations at Kaveripattinam have brought to light many Buddhist artefacts, but also, though of later date, a few figurines of Yakshas, of Garuda and Ganesh.[24] Evidence of the Yaksha cult also comes from pottery inscriptions at Arikamedu.[25]“


“Division of People: After the description of the division of the land, the continuing sutras 22 to 37 vividly giver the details about the division of people according to tinai, their respective duties and avocations. For each tinai, the changed names of tinai (are applicable to the people) are two kinds based on names of clan (kulappeyar) and profession (tozhirpeyar) [22]. Tinai names for males and females are formed as Ayar (shepherd) and Vettuvar (hunters) and there are chiefs (kizhars) for them (23). Similarly, if we analyze the people of other regions, we can observe that the names of clan and profession are applied to each tinai (24). Kakkilai (one sided love) and peruntinai (unequal love) are applicable to adiyor (servants) and vinaivalar (workers) and they are dealt with (in literature accordingly) [25]. The above mentioned servants and workers and enor (others), who are in the position of commanding (or being commanded) are also in the same state (26), i.e, kakkilai and peruntinai are applicable to adiyor, vinaivalar and enor. Thus, the discussion about the seven tinais about the union of man and woman under 1 . kakkilai, 2. mullai, 3. kurunji, 4. marudham, 5. neydhal, 6. palai (aintinai) and 7. peruntinai. As kalavu (love in secret) and karpu (love in open) occur in the regions of mullaiu, kurunji, marudham and neydhal, then palai, i.e, separation is discussed about. As has been already mentioned, each tinai represents the activities of man and woman who live there. Tolkappiyar adapts and adopts the palai as an activating agent in the social processes and interactions of the ancient Tamils. Thus, it is said that education (othal), war or enemity (pagai) and tuthu (diplomacy) are the reasons for separation taking place in life (from the family, lover or wife) [27]. Of the above-mentioned categories, the separation due to education and diplomacy is applicable to uyarnthor i.e, the people at the top or eminent people (among the four categories). The commentator Ilamburanar specifically mentions that it s applicable to andanar (Brahmins) and arasar (Kings). Nachinarkkiniyar, another commentator says that velalars (agriculturists and others) are excluded (it is implied) as uyarnthor is mentioned (28). King can gor for war on his own accord or with others (resulting in separation) [29]. Here, the expression vendan specifically refers to king i.e, arasar (apart from the above mentioned three exigencies learning, war and diplomacy) separation takes place for earning wealth and establishing righteousness among the people of mullai (kurunji, marudham and neydal), so that rituals are conducted to people of other than that of eminence, greatness and exaltation (30). The people, thus who earn money or wealth may be called vanigar (business men). Ilamburanar says that the people other than that of eminence are nothing but devar (= gods), for them pujas and festivals are conducted. The expression padimai may refer to idol of such devar. Thus, the separation for the above exigency (i.e, to establish procedure relating to gods) is applicable to all four categories (31). Iamburanar specifically mentions that the four categories are the four varnas. Here, Nachinarkkiniyar explaind succinctly the difference between enor (others) and nalver (four group of people). As it is mentioned thast nalvarkkum uritte (applicable to four kinds of people), it is evident that besides vanigar as mentioned above, two categories or vellalars are also included. The duties of king can be performed by pinnor (i.e, vanigar and vellalar), who follow him in the order). The duties of king includes guarding, protection and preservation. As the expression Mannar pinnor denotes plural, it includes other kings, agriculturists (Velalar) and the like (32). For the higher group of the above mentioned authorized two (i.ew, vanigar and vellalar), a separation can take place for the purpose of learning / education (33). The above mentioned authorized two groups can perform dutioes for kings are vanigar and velalar of which the higher group is Vanigar. Therefore, it is evident that vanigar can also go for studying (othu). Arasar has already been permitted under sutra 28. therefore, for andanar, arasar and vanigar separation can take place for learning. Nachinarkkiniyar explains that as the place of Othu (learning) takes place after the appearance of Vedas, it is mentioned vothinan (othu refers to Vedas).

3.1. The duties of Vendar (king) can be performed by those other than king also, where admissible (34). The duty of king is mentioned as diplomacy by the commentator instead of popular meaning ruling / governance. Thus, it is implied that the act of diplomacy is applicable to Vanigar and Vellalar in other words, applicable to all fou categories. Some say enor (others) denotes chieftains. The act of separation is a privilege for them (i.e, vanigar and Vellalar) in connection with wealth (i.e, to earn wealth by trade and commerce) [35]. If uyarnthor have separation for easrning wealth, then that amounts to going away from good conduct or moral values (36). Though specifically the word Andanar or any other expression is not used to denote Brahmins, from the forgoing sutras and their implied conditions and restrictions imposed on the repeatedly mentioned four groups of people read with the commentaries of Ilamburanar, Perasiriyar and Nachinarkkiniyar, it is evident that Uyarnthor here must refer to Andanar i.e, the higher group of the people of society. As has been authorized here among the two causes for separation, i.e, separation by leg (kalir pirivu) and separation by ship (kalattir pirivu) the separation due to ship is not allowed along with the lover or wife (37). Munnir vazhakkam is going by waters of rivers, spring and ocean respectively for education, diplomacy and business or trade. This implies that not only women are prohibited for undertalking voyage, but also Andanar as they are also not supposed to yearn for money or wealth.

4. Four Divisions of Society: Under the sutra 74 of Tolkappiyam, four divisons of society is mentioned by way of describing their duties. The duties of Parppanar have been divided into six; that of Arasar into five; that of Enor into six; the region of learned who discharges their duties according to established times of past, future and present. For ascetics there are eight duties; for porunar, the duties are connected with warfare; and other duties connected with the above are meant for others; thus the vagaitinai is divided into seven categories by the poets, they say so. The previous verse / sutra 73 clearly says that vagai is just like puram of palai i.e, subject dealing with the aspects of life other than love of the exigencies created during separation for performing their respective duties. Accordingly, one has to improve their avocation and skill with great distinction withot hindrance to others. Therefore each can excel in his / her field / profession / avocation according to their skill, ability and talent. This four divisions and the respective duties mentioned described are exactly in accordance with the laws of Manu. Though Tolkappyar has not mentioned the nature of duties, as the numbers of duties have been specifically mentioned, they can be understood by the contemporary ancient Tamil literature, popularly known as Sangam literature.










Where Are Manuscripts Of Vedas

In Hinduism on July 23, 2014 at 21:21

The Vedas, the Scriptures of the Hindus are voluminous.


They were not written by any one but grasped from Ether.


Tradition of Vedic Chanting.jpg

Tradition of Vedic Chanting.


(Image copyright Indira Gandhi National Center for Arts)


There are four Vedas, Rig,Yajur, Sama and Atharva .


In addition to this, we have Upavedas,Vedangas,Parisista,  not to speak of the Smritis.


Of this lot this is what has been collected.


“The complete corpus of Vedic mantras as collected in Bloomfield‘s Vedic Concordance (1907) consists of some 89,000 padas (metrical feet), of which 72,000 occur in the four Samhitas


This is only for the Samhitas.


Brahmanas,Aranyakas,Upanishads remain.


There seems to be no information on when the Vedas were written in the form of manuscripts.


The Digitized copies  of The Rigveda Brahmanas: the Aitareya and Kausītaki Brāhmanas of the Rigveda are in American Libraries.


(Link provided below).


  1. Rgvedasamhita
    Accession No. : 5/1875-76
    Material : Birch Bark
    Uniqueness / Pecularity : The manuscript was used by Prof. F. Max Müller for the edition of the Rgveda with Sayana’s commentary. The manuscript is a beautiful specimen of the old style Manuscript of Kashmir.
  2. Bhagavata Purana
    Accession No. : 61/1907-1915
    No. of Illustrations : 128
    Uniqueness / Pecularity : It is one of the most precious mss. of the Institute’s collection. It contains 128 beautiful paintings in color.


These are Thirty Volumes of Rig Veda Samhitas which Max Mueller had quoted and wrote his Books upon.


Rest of the manuscripts’ whereabouts not known despite claims that they are in Germany, US do not seem to hold, as far as I could fathom.


Readers may contribute.


The best that had happened to Hinduism is that they have not been written but transmitted Orally.


That is the reason they have survived.


Hope efforts have been made to preserve available oral material has been saved.



The Vedas on UNESCO Register.


The Vedas comprise a vast corpus of Sanskrit poetry, philosophical dialogue, myth, and ritual incantations developed and composed by Aryans over 3,500 years ago. Regarded by Hindus as the primary source of knowledge and the sacred foundation of their religion, the Vedas embody one of the world’s oldest surviving cultural traditions.

The Vedic heritage embraces a multitude of texts and interpretations collected in four Vedas, commonly referred to as “books of knowledge” even though they have been transmitted orally. The Rig Veda is an anthology of sacred hymns; the Sama Veda features musical arrangements of hymns from the Rig Veda and other sources; the Yajur Veda abounds in prayers and sacrificial formulae used by priests; and the Atharna Veda includes incantations and spells. The Vedas also offer insight into the history of Hinduism and the early development of several artistic, scientific and philosophical concepts, such as the concept of zero.

Expressed in the Vedic language, which is derived from classical Sanskrit, the verses of the Vedas were traditionally chanted during sacred rituals and recited daily in Vedic communities. The value of this tradition lies not only in the rich content of its oral literature but also in the ingenious techniques employed by the Brahmin priests in preserving the texts intact over thousands of years. To ensure that the sound of each word remains unaltered, practitioners are taught from childhood complex recitation techniques that are based on tonal accents, a unique manner of pronouncing each letter and specific speech combinations.

Although the Vedas continue to play an important role in contemporary Indian life, only thirteen of the over one thousand Vedic recitation branches have survived. Moreover, four noted schools – in Maharashtra (central India), Kerala and Karnataka (southern India) and Orissa (eastern India) – are considered under imminent threat.













Unit Of Rain Agriculture Veda Suktha

In Hinduism on July 23, 2014 at 17:58

Hindus have not left Agriculture unattended in the Vedic Texts.


The Vedic Society was rural.


Hinduism is a Religion which has sacred Boo Suktham to praise Mother Earth.


The Cow and the Bull were venerated and worshiped.


The Plough and the Agricultural implements were worshiped during Ayudha Pooja.


The feed that has to be given to the Cows and Bull are prescribed.


Earth, being one of the Five Elements of Nature was venerated.


Earth  was is called Priithvi after the King Prithvi who was the first man to plough it.


Mother Earth is the consort of Lord Vishnu, Boo Devi.


Indra, the Chief of Devatas ids the controller of Rains.

Vrukshayur Veda Text.jpg

Vrukshayur Veda Text. Image Credit.http://www.mvoai.org/


He was offered special Pooja, failure to offer this resulted in Lord Krishna lifting the Govardhanagiri.


Sage Parasara wrote the first treatise on Agriculture, Krishi Parasara’.


He also wrote Vrukshayurved, on Trees and Ayur Veda.


In the former he discusses Rain, Rain forecasting, Unit of Rain,Rain measurement in detail, and Field crops.


He discusses seed preparation. nursery preparation, transplanting of seedlings,thrashing and harvesting.


Auspicious day and time were provided.


The Unit of Rain is called ‘Adhaka’


Rishi Garga also wrote on Agriculture.


Kashyapa wrote ‘Kasyapa Krishi Suktha’


Varahamihira discusses Rain in Bruhat Samhita.


He explains another measurement of Rain, Drona.


Kautilya Artha Shastra fame also discusses Rain and Agriculture.


Paddy(Oryza Saitva) originated from India.


Indian Texts on Agriculture.


1.Krishi Parasara

2.Krishi Kasyapa.

3.Bruhat Samhita.

4.Vrushayur Veda(By Charaka,Susruta and Vagbhata)




8.Vrukshavallabha. and


The Rig Veda.


The Ksheerapati Suktha,The Rig Veda.


क्षेत्रस्य पतिना वयं हितेनेव जयामसि
गामश्वं पोषयित्न्वा नो मृळातीदृशे ॥१॥
Kssetrasya Patinaa Vayam Hitene[a-I]va Jayaamasi |
Gaam-Ashvam Possayitnvaa Sa No Mrllaatii-Drshe ||1||

1.1: We invoke the Lord of the Kshetra (i.e. Kshetrapati or Lord of the Field) by whose Grace indeed we Prosper,
1.2: May He through His Gracious Look increase our Cattle and Horses.


क्षेत्रस्य पते मधुमन्तमूर्मिं धेनुरिव पयो अस्मासु धुक्ष्व
मधुश्चुतं घृतमिव सुपूतमृतस्य नः पतयो मृळयन्तु ॥२॥
Kssetrasya Pate Madhumantam-Uurmim Dhenur-Iva Payo Asmaasu Dhukssva |
Madhush-Cutam Ghrtam-Iva Supuutam-Rtasya Nah Patayo Mrllayantu ||2||

2.1: O Lord of the Kshetra (Field), with the Sweet Waves of Mother Nature‘s blessings, may you milk our Fields like the Milkof a Cow (i.e. yield abundant Harvest),
2.2: With the Sweetness of Rita (Mother Nature’s Divine Law confering bounty), which falls like Clarified Butter, may Youshed your Grace on us.

मधुमतीरोषधीर्द्याव आपो मधुमन्नो भवत्वन्तरिक्षम्
क्षेत्रस्य पतिर्मधुमान्नो अस्त्वरिष्यन्तो अन्वेनं चरेम ॥३॥
Madhumatiir-Ossadhiir-Dyaava Aapo Madhuman-No Bhavatv[u]-Antarikssam |
Kssetrasya Patir-Madhumaan-No Astv[u]-Arissyanto Anvenam Carema ||3||

3.1: May the Plants be Sweet (i.e. filled with Nature’s Purity), may the Sky be Sweet (i.e. filled with Nature’s Purity), may the Waters be Sweet (i.e. filled with Nature’s Purity), and may the Space be Sweet (i.e. filled with Nature’s Purity) to us.
3.2: May the Lord of the Kshetra (Field) be Sweet to us, and may we be devoted Followers of Him (i.e. take recourse to Nature’s Bounty and Prosper).

शुनं वाहाः शुनं नरः शुनं कृषतु लाङ्गलम्
शुनं वरत्रा बध्यन्तां शुनमष्ट्रामुदिङ्गय ॥४॥
Shunam Vaahaah Shunam Narah Shunam Krssatu Laanggalam |
Shunam Varatraa Badhyantaam Shunam-Assttraam-Udinggaya ||4||

4.1: May the Oxen drawing the Plough bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, May the Farmer driving the Oxen bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, May the Plough making Furrows bring Welfare and Prosperity to all,
4.2: May the Strap binding the Plough bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, and May the Goad swinging towards the Oxen bring Welfare and Prosperity to all.

शुनासीराविमां वाचं जुषेथां यद्दिवि चक्रथुः पयः
तेनेमामुप सिञ्चतम् ॥५॥
Shunaa-Siira-Avi-Maam Vaacam Jussethaam Yad-Divi Cakrathuh Payah |
Tena-Imaam-Upa Sin.catam ||5||

5.1: May Shuna and Shira (deities of the Farmers) Who created Waters (i.e. Clouds) in the Sky be Pleased with our Prayers,
5.2: And by It (i.e. by the Clouds), (may they) sprinkle Waters (in our Fields as Rains).

अर्वाची सुभगे भव सीते वन्दामहे त्वा
यथा नः सुभगाससि यथा नः सुफलाससि ॥६॥
Arvaacii Subhage Bhava Siite Vandaamahe Tvaa |
Yathaa Nah Subhagaas-Asi Yathaa Nah Suphalaas-Asi ||6||

6.1: O Devi Sita, turn towards us and be Gracious, we Extol and Worship You, …
(This is Sita of Rig Veda which is much earlier than Ramayana)
6.2:so that You become Favourable to us (by showering Your blessings), so that You become the source of abundant Harvest.

इन्द्रः सीतां नि गृह्णातु तां पूषानु यच्छतु
सा नः पयस्वती दुहामुत्तरामुत्तरां समाम् ॥७॥
Indrah Siitaam Ni Grhnnaatu Taam Puussaanu Yacchatu |
Saa Nah Payasvatii Duhaam-Uttaraam-Uttaraam Samaam ||7||

7.1: May Indra take hold of the Furrows (while we plough), and may Pushan sustain Her (i.e sustain the Furrows),
7.2: May She (i.e. Mother Earth) Who is full of Milk, yield us abundant Crops Year after Year.

शुनं नः फाला वि कृषन्तु भूमिं शुनं कीनाशा अभि यन्तु वाहैः
शुनं पर्जन्यो मधुना पयोभीः शुनासीरा शुनमस्मासु धत्तम् ॥८॥
Shunam Nah Phaalaa Vi Krssantu Bhuumim Shunam Kiinaashaa Abhi Yantu Vaahaih |
Shunam Parjanyo Madhunaa Payobhiih Shunaa-Siiraa Shunam-Asmaasu Dhattam ||8||

8.1: May the Ploughshare making Furrows on the Earth bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, May the Farmer driving the Oxenbring Welfare and Prosperity to all,
8.2: May Parjanya (the Rain God) by giving Sweet Rains (i.e. Pure Rain Waters) bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, and MayShuna and Shira bestow Welfare and Prosperity to all of us.



Citation, For Suktha.




Slokas To Recite In The Morning.

In Hinduism on July 23, 2014 at 09:03

For a Hindu, apart from performing the Morning Sandhyavandana, these slokas are to be recited.


Hindu Prays.jpg

Hindu Prays.


One would notice that these Prayers are not only for the individual but foe the world as well.

कराग्रे वसते लक्ष्मिः करमध्ये सरस्वति ।
करमूले तु गोविन्दः प्रभाते करदर्शनम् ॥
Karaagre Vasate Lakssmih Karamadhye Sarasvati |
Karamuule Tu Govindah Prabhaate Karadarshanam ||

1: At the Top of the Hand (i.e. Palm) Dwell Devi Lakshmi and at the Middle of the Hand Dwell Devi Saraswati,
2: At the Base of the Hand Dwell Sri Govinda; Therefore one should Look at one’s Hands in the Early Morning and contemplate on Them.


समुद्रवसने देवि पर्वतस्तनमण्डले ।
विष्णुपत्नि नमस्तुभ्यं पादस्पर्शं क्षमस्वमे ॥
Samudra-Vasane Devi Parvata-Stana-Mannddale |
Vissnnu-Patni Namastubhyam Paada-sparsham Kssama-Svame ||

1: (Oh Mother Earth) The Devi Who is having Ocean as Her Garments and Mountains as Her Bosom,
2: Who is the Consort of Sri Vishnu, I Bow to You; Please Forgive Us for Touching You with Our Feet.


गङ्गेच यमुने चैव गोदावरी सरस्वति ।
नर्मदा सिन्धु कावेरी जलेऽस्मिन् संनिधिं कुरु ॥
Gangge-Ca Yamune Ca-Iva Godaavarii Sarasvati |
Narmadaa Sindhu Kaaverii Jale[a-A]smin Samnidhim Kuru ||

1: O Holy Rivers Ganga and Yamuna, and also GodavariSaraswati,
2: NarmadaSindhu and Kaveri; Please be Present in this Water Near Me (and make it Holy).


प्रातः   स्मरामि   हृदि   संस्फुरदात्मतत्त्वं
Pratah Smarami Hridi Samsphurad Aatma Tattvam.
प्रातः स्मरामि हृदि संस्फुरदात्मतत्त्वं
सच्चित्सुखं परमहंसगतिं तुरीयम् ।
यत्स्वप्नजागरसुषुप्तिमवैति नित्यं
तद्ब्रह्म निष्कलमहं   भूतसङ्घः ॥१॥
Praatah Smaraami Hrdi Samsphurad-Aatma-Tattvam
Sac-Cit-Sukham Parama-Hamsa-Gatim Turiiyam |
Yat-Svapna-Jaagara-Sussuptim-Avaiti Nityam
Tad-Brahma Nisskalam-Aham Na Ca Bhuuta-Sangghah ||1||

1.1: In the Early Morning I remember (i.e. meditate on) the Pure Essence of the Atman shining within my Heart, …
1.2: … Which gives the Bliss of Sacchidananda (Existence-Consciousness-Bliss essence), which is the Supreme Hamsa(symbolically a Pure White Swan floating in Chidakasha) and takes the mind to the state of Turiya (the fourth state, Superconsciousness),
1.3: Which knows (as a witness beyond) the three states of DreamWaking and Deep Sleepalways,
1.4: That Brahman which is without any division shines as the Iand not this body which is a collection of Pancha Bhuta(Five Elements).

प्रातर्भजामि मनसा वचसामगम्यं
वाचो विभान्ति निखिला यदनुग्रहेण ।
यन्नेतिनेतिवचनैर्निगमा अवोचं_
स्तं देवदेवमजमच्युतमाहुरग्र्यम् ॥२॥
Praatar-Bhajaami Manasaa Vacasaam-Agamyam
Vaaco Vibhaanti Nikhilaa Yad-Anugrahenna |
Yan-Neti-Neti-Vacanair-Nigamaa Avocam_
s-Tam Deva-Devam-Ajam-Acyutam-Aahur-Agryam ||2||

2.1: In the Early Morning I worship That, Which is beyond the Mind and the Speech,
2.2: (And) By Whose Grace all Speech shine,
2.3: Who is expressed in the scriptures by statement “Neti Neti”, since He cannot be adequately expressed by Words,
2.4: Who is called the God of the GodsUnbornInfallible (i.e. Imperishable) and Foremost (i.e. Primordial).

प्रातर्नमामि तमसः परमर्कवर्णं
पूर्णं सनातनपदं पुरुषोत्तमाख्यम् ।
यस्मिन्निदं जगदशेषमशेषमूर्तौ
रज्ज्वां भुजङ्गम इव प्रतिभासितं वै ॥३॥
Praatar-Namaami Tamasah Param-Arka-Varnnam
Puurnnam Sanaatana-Padam Purussottama-[A]akhyam |
Yasminn-Idam Jagad-Ashessam-Ashessa-Muurtau
Rajjvaam Bhujanggama Iva Pratibhaasitam Vai ||3||

3.1: In the Early Morning I Salute That Darkness (signifying without any Form) which is of the nature of Supreme Illumination,
3.2: Which is Purna (Full), Which is the Primordial Abode, and Which is called Purushottama (the Supreme Purusha),
3.3: In Whom this endless World is settled endlessly (i.e. from the beginning of creation), …
3.4: … and (this endless World) appear like a Snake over the Rope (of the Primordial Essence).

श्लोकत्रयमिदं पुण्यं लोकत्रयविभूषणम् ।
प्रातःकाले पठेद्यस्तु  गच्छेत्परमं पदम् ॥४॥
Shloka-Trayam-Idam Punnyam Loka-Traya-Vibhuussannam |
Praatah-Kaale Patthed-Yas-Tu Sa Gacchet-Paramam Padam ||4||

4.1: These three Slokas, which are Holy (unites one with the Whole), and the ornaments of the Three Worlds,
4.2: He who recites in the early Morninggoes to (i.e. attain) the Supreme Abode (of Brahman).

ब्रह्मा   मुरारिस्त्रिपुरान्तकारी
Brahma Murari Tripurantakari
ब्रह्मा मुरारिस्त्रिपुरान्तकारी
भानुः शशी भूमिसुतो बुधश्च ।
गुरुश्च शुक्रः शनिराहुकेतवः
कुर्वन्तु सर्वे मम सुप्रभातम् ॥१॥
Brahmaa Muraaris-Tripuraantakaarii
Bhaanuh Shashii Bhuumisuto Budhash-Ca |
Gurush-Ca Shukrah Shani-Raahu-Ketavah
Kurvantu Sarve Mama Suprabhaatam ||1||

1.1: (In the early morning I remember) The Devas BrahmaMurari (The enemy of demon Mura, refers to Sri Krishna or Vishnu) and Tripurantakari (The One Who has brought an end to Tripurasuras, refers to Sri Shiva), …
1.2: … The Planets Bhanu (The Sun), Shashi (The Moon), Bumisuta (Mars) and Budha (Mercury), …
1.3: … Guru (Jupiter), Shukra (Venus), Shani (Saturn), Rahu and Ketu, …
1.4: May all of them make my Morning Auspicious.

भृगुर्वसिष्ठः क्रतुरङ्गिराश्च
मनुः पुलस्यः पुलहश्च गौतमः ।
रैभ्यो मरीचिश्च्यवनश्च दक्षः
कुर्वन्तु सर्वे मम सुप्रभातम् ॥२॥
Bhrgur-Vasisstthah Kratur-Anggiraash-Ca
Manuh Pulasyah Pulahash-Ca Gautamah |
Raibhyo Mariicish-Cyavanash-Ca Dakssah
Kurvantu Sarve Mama Suprabhaatam ||2||

2.1: (In the early morning I remember) The Sages BhriguVasisthaKratu and Angira, …
2.2: … ManuPulasyaPulaha and Gautama, …
2.3: … RaibhyaMarichiChyavana and Daksha, …
2.4: May all of them make my Morning Auspicious.

सनत्कुमारः सनकः सनन्दनः
सनातनोऽप्यासुरिपिङ्गलौ  ।
सप्त स्वराः सप्त रसातलानि
कुर्वन्तु सर्वे मम सुप्रभातम् ॥३॥
Sanatkumaarah Sanakah Sanandanah
Sanaatano[a-A]py[i]-Aasuri-Pinggalau Ca |
Sapta Svaraah Sapta Rasaatalaani
Kurvantu Sarve Mama Suprabhaatam ||3||

3.1: (In the early morning I remember) The Sages SanatkumaraSanakaSanandana, …
3.2: … SanatanaAsuri and Pingala,
3.3: The seven Swaras (Musical Notes) and the seven Nether Worlds,
3.4: May all of them make my Morning Auspicious.

सप्तार्णवाः सप्त कुलाचलाश्च
सप्तर्षयो द्वीपवनानि सप्त ।
भूरादिकृत्वा भुवनानि सप्त
कुर्वन्तु सर्वे मम सुप्रभातम् ॥४॥
Sapta-[A]arnnavaah Sapta Kula-Acalaash-Ca
Sapta-Rssayo Dviipa-Aanaani Sapta |
Bhuur-Aadi-Krtvaa Bhuvanaani Sapta
Kurvantu Sarve Mama Suprabhaatam ||4||

4.1: (In the early morning I remember) The seven Seas, the seven Kula Parvatas (seven Holy Mountains), …
4.2: … The Saptarshis (seven Sages), seven Forests, …
4.3: … The seven Worlds starting with Bhur Loka,
4.4: May all of them make my Morning Auspicious.

पृथ्वी सगन्धा सरसास्तथापः
स्पर्शी  वायुर्ज्वलितं  तेजः ।
नभः सशब्दं महता सहैव
कुर्वन्तु सर्वे मम सुप्रभातम् ॥५॥
Prthvii Sa-Gandhaa Sa-Rasaas-Tatha-Apah
Sparshii Ca Vaayur-Jvalitam Ca Tejah |
Nabhah Sa-Shabdam Mahataa Sahai[a-E]va
Kurvantu Sarve Mama Suprabhaatam ||5||

5.1: (In the early morning I remember) Mother Nature manifesting as the Prithivi (Earth) which is connected with Gandha(Smell), Apah (Water) which is connected with Rasa (Taste), …
5.2: … Vayu (Air, Wind) which is connected with Sparsha (Touch), Tejah (Fire) which is connected with Light and …
5.3: … Sky which is connected with Sabda (Sound); I remember all these Mahat Tatvas (Material Energy),
5.4: May all of them make my Morning Auspicious.

इत्थं प्रभाते परमं पवित्रं
पठेत् स्मरेद्वा शृणुयाच्च भक्त्या ।
दुःस्वप्ननाशस्त्विह सुप्रभातं
कुर्वन्तु सर्वे मम सुप्रभातम् ॥६॥
Ittham Prabhaate Paramam Pavitram
Patthet Smared-Vaa Shrnnuyaac-Ca Bhaktyaa |
Duhsvapna-Naashastv-Iha Suprabhaatam
Kurvantu Sarve Mama Suprabhaatam ||6||

6.1: In this manner, in the early Morning, this very purifying Hymn, …
6.2: … on recitingremembering or listening with Devotion,
6.3: … has the quality of destroying bad dreams and making the morning Auspicious,
6.4: … making the Morning Auspicious by the grace of the Divine.

सूर्याष्टकम्   –   आदिदेव   नमस्तुभ्यं
Suryashtakam: Adi Deva Namastubhyam
आदिदेव नमस्तुभ्यं प्रसीद मम भास्कर ।
दिवाकर नमस्तुभ्यं प्रभाकर नमोऽस्तु ते ॥१॥
Aadi-Deva Namastubhyam Prasiida Mama Bhaaskara |
Divaakara Namastubhyam Prabhaakara Namostu Te ||1||

1.1: (Salutations to Sri Suryadeva) My Salutations to You O Adideva (the first God), Please be gracious to me O Bhaskara(the Shining One),
1.2: My Salutations to You, O Divakara (the maker of the Day), and again Salutations to You, O Prabhakara (the maker of Light).

सप्ताश्वरथमारूढं प्रचण्डं कश्यपात्मजम् ।
श्वेतपद्मधरं देवं तं सूर्यं प्रणमाम्यहम् ॥२॥
Sapta-Ashva-Ratham-Aaruuddham Pracannddam Kashyapa-[A]atmajam |
Shveta-Padma-Dharam Devam Tam Suuryam Prannamaamy[i]-Aham ||2||

2.1: (Salutations to Sri Suryadeva) You are mounted on a Chariot driven by seven Horses, You are excessively Energeticand the Son of sage Kashyapa,
2.2: You are the Deva Who holds a White Lotus (in Your Hand); I Salute You, O Suryadeva.

लोहितं रथमारूढं सर्वलोकपितामहम् ।
महापापहरं देवं तं सूर्यं प्रणमाम्यहम् ॥३॥
Lohitam Ratham-Aaruuddham Sarva-Loka-Pitaamaham |
Mahaa-Paapa-Haram Devam Tam Suuryam Prannamaamy[i]-Aham ||3||

3.1: (Salutations to Sri Suryadeva) You are Reddish in colour, and mounted on a Chariot; You are the Grandfather of all persons (being the Adideva, the first God),
3.2: You are the Deva Who removes great Sins from our minds (by Your Illumination); I Salute You, O Suryadeva.

त्रैगुण्यं  महाशूरं ब्रह्मविष्णुमहेश्वरम् ।
महापापहरं देवं तं सूर्यं प्रणमाम्यहम् ॥४॥
Trai-Gunnyam Ca Mahaa-Shuuram Brahma-Vissnnu-Maheshvaram |
Mahaa-Paapa-Haram Devam Tam Suuryam Prannamaamy[i]-Aham ||4||

4.1: (Salutations to Sri Suryadeva) You are the Heroic One having the Three Gunas of BrahmaVishnu and Maheswara (i.e. Qualities of Creation, Sustenance and Dissolution),
4.2: You are the Deva Who removes great Sins from our minds (by Your Illumination); I salute You, O Suryadeva.

बृंहितं तेजःपुञ्जं  वायुमाकाशमेव  ।
प्रभुं  सर्वलोकानां तं सूर्यं प्रणमाम्यहम् ॥५॥
Brmhitam Tejah-Pun.jam Ca Vaayum-Aakaashame[a-I]va Ca |
Prabhum Ca Sarva-Lokaanaam Tam Suuryam Prannamaamy[i]-Aham ||5||

5.1: (Salutations to Sri Suryadeva) You are a massively Enlarged Mass of Fiery Energy, which (i.e. that energy) pervades everywhere like Vayu (Air) and Akasha (Sky),
5.2: You are the Lord of all the WorldsI salute You, O Suryadeva.

बन्धुकपुष्पसङ्काशं हारकुण्डलभूषितम् ।
एकचक्रधरं देवं तं सूर्यं प्रणमाम्यहम् ॥६॥
Bandhuka-Pusspa-Sangkaasham Haara-Kunnddala-Bhuussitam |
Eka-Cakra-Dharam Devam Tam Suuryam Prannamaamy[i]-Aham ||6||

6.1: (Salutations to Sri Suryadeva) You appear beautiful like a Red Hibiscus Flower and You are adorned with Garland andEar-Rings,
6.2: You are the Deva Who holds a Discus in one Hand; I salute You, O Suryadeva.

तं सूर्यं जगत्कर्तारं महातेजः प्रदीपनम् ।
महापापहरं देवं तं सूर्यं प्रणमाम्यहम् ॥७॥
Tam Suuryam Jagat-Kartaaram Mahaa-Tejah Pradiipanam |
Mahaa-Paapa-Haram Devam Tam Suuryam Prannamaamy[i]-Aham ||7||

7.1: (Salutations to Sri Suryadeva) You, O Suryadeva are the Agent behind the World (i.e. Who gives energy for action to everyone), You enliven others with great Energy (and thus imparting the ability to work),
7.2: You are the Deva Who removes great Sins from our minds (by Your Illumination); I salute You, O Suryadeva.

तं सूर्यं जगतां नाथं ज्ञानविज्ञानमोक्षदम् ।
महापापहरं देवं तं सूर्यं प्रणमाम्यहम् ॥८॥
Tam Suuryam Jagataam Naatham Jnyaana-Vijnyaana-Mokssadam |
Mahaa-Paapa-Haram Devam Tam Suuryam Prannamaamy[i]-Aham ||8||

8.1: (Salutations to Sri Suryadeva) You, O Suryadeva are the Lord of the World, Who grants Understanding and Knowledgewhich leads to Liberation,
8.2: You are the Deva Who removes great Sins from our minds (by Your Illumination); I salute You, O Suryadeva.


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