Posts Tagged ‘Veda’

Vedic Embryology Garbhopanishad

In Hinduism on September 15, 2014 at 20:02

The scriptures of the Hindus, Vedas speak of Embryology.


There are references in the Puranas to Embryology.


1.Dadisi’s Stemcell was taken from his backbone, when Dadisi gave his backbone to Indra, Chief of Devatas to enable him to create a Powerful weapon, Vajrayadudha.


2.Sage Agasthya was born in Pot, with Semen being kept in it.


3.Lord Krishna taught Abhimanyu the Chakravyuha., a Battle formation.


There are more instances, I shall be posting on this in detail.


I have published an article on Human Conception Embryology in The Vedas where I have dealt with references to Bhagavatham and Charaka Samhita.


We have a Upanishad fully devoted to Embryology.


It is Garbhopanishad by Paippalada.


Here is the Translation.



Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
The body is fivefold in nature (the five elements), existing in the five, depending on the six (tastes of food), connected with the six qualities (kama etc.,), seven Dhatus, three impurities, three Yonis (of excretion) and four kinds of food.
Why say ‘Fivefold in nature ?’ The five elements Earth, Water, Fire, Wind and Ether. In this body, whatever is hard is of Earth, liquid is water, warm is fire, whatever moves about is air and space-enclosed is ether. The function of the Earth is to support, water is to consolidate (digestion etc.,). Fire is to see, wind is for moving, Ether is to give space (for vital functions).
The eyes are used in seeing form, ears for sound, tongue for taste, the skin and nose for touch and smell respectively; genital for pleasure, Apana is for evacuation (of bowels). The person cognises through the intellect, wills with the mind and speaks with the tongue.
The six-fold support is the six tastes (of food): sweet, acid, salty, pungent, bitter and astringent.
1-7. Sadja, Risabha, Gandhara, Panchama, Madhyama, Dhaivata, Nisadha – these are the seven agreeable and disagreeable sounds. White, Red, Black smoke-coloured, Yellow, Tawny and Pale-White – these are the colours of the seven Dhatus (primary Humours). Why ? For Devadatta (any person) there springs up in his mind desire for enjoyment of objects. From relish of food blood is born, from it is flesh, thence fat, bones, marrow, semen; by the combination of semen and blood the foetus is born.
Vital warmth springs up in the womb and the belly. In the seat of the warmth bile, Prana flows – at the proper season ordained by the creator.
8. The embryo lying (in the womb) for (a day) and night is a confused mass; after seven days it becomes a bubble; after a fortnight, a mass and in a month, it hardens. In two months develops the region of the head; in three months, the feet; in the fourth, belly and hip; in the fifth, the backbone; in the sixth, nose, eyes and ears; in the seventh the embryo quickens with life and in the eighth month, it becomes complete.
9. By the dominance of the father’s semen, the child becomes male; the mother’s – female. When equal, a eunuch. If, at the time of impregnation, the parents are agitated, the child will be blind, crippled, hunch-backed or stunted in growth. If the couple have vital-air-trouble, the semen enters in two parts resulting in twins.
10. In the eighth month, in conjunction with the five vital airs the Jiva gets the capacity to know its past affairs (of past births), conceives of the imperishable Atman as Om, through perfect knowledge and meditation. Having known Om he sees in the body the eight Prakritis derived from it the five elements, mind, intellect and ego and the sixteen changes [see Prasnopanishad].
11. The body becomes complete in the ninth month and remembers the past birth. Actions done and not done flash to him and he recognises the good and bad nature of Karma.
12-17. ‘I have seen thousands of wombs, eaten several kinds of food and sucked many breasts; born and dead often, I am immersed in grief but see no remedy. If I can get out of this, I will resort to Sankhya-Yoga which destroys misery and yields liberation; or I resort to Maheshvara who destroys misery. Or I resort to Narayana, who destroys misery. If I did good and bad deeds for the sake of my dependants, I shall myself be burnt for the deeds – the others who enjoyed the fruits go away (unaffected).
18. The person being squeezed as it were by a machine is touched by all-pervading air and forgets previous births and deeds.
19. Why is the body so called ? It has three fires: the Kosthagni ripens all that is eaten; the Darsanagni helps one see colour etc., the Jnanagni is the mind which helps perform good and bad deeds.
20. The Daksinagni is in the heart; Garhapatya in the belly and Ahavaniya in the mouth; the intellect is the performer’s consort, contentment is Diksha, sense organs are the utensils, head is the jar, hair is the sacred grass, the mouth the interior of the altar etc.

Here ends the Garbhopanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda.

*Translated by Dr. A. G. Krishna Warrier
Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai.


Date of Garbhopanishad.

Moore hints at amazement with the Garbha Upanishad in almost the same breath. Regarding this text, he writes:
A brief Sanskrit treatise on ancient Indian embryology is thought to have been written in 1416 B.C.

This scripture of the Hindus, called Garbha Upanishad, describes ancient ideas concerning the embryo.

It states:
From the conjugation of blood and semen the embryo comes into existence.

During the period favorable to conception, after the sexual intercourse, (it) becomes a Kalada (one-day-old embryo).

After remaining seven nights it becomes a vesicle.

After a fortnight it becomes a sperical mass. After a month it becomes a firm mass [12]

Pre-2000 BCE
The first question concerns the date of the Garbha Upanishad. Since it is ascribed to Pippalāda, we need to determine this sage’s place in the Vedic tradition, although it is believed that the text may not be as old as the sage. Pippalāda is also the instructing sage of the Praśna Upani¬ad and the author of the Atharvaveda śākhā named after him (Paippalāda śākhā). As a principal arranger of the Atharvaveda, he should be assigned to at least the middle of the second millennium BCE, if the ›gveda is to be taken to be no later than 2000 BCE, as is suggested by hydrological evidence related to the drying up of the Sarasvatī river around this time, and the fact that the ›gveda celebrates this river as the great river of its time, flowing from the mountains to the sea.
According to the Purāªas, Pippalāda was the disciple of the ›¬i Vedasparśa, and he instructed Yudhi¬−hira in the significance of the A¡gāravrata, which is based on a dialogue between ˜ukra and Virocana.
The physiological knowledge in the Garbha Upani¬ad is consistent with that found in the oldest Upani¬ads. Like the other texts, it speaks of recursion, but it doesn’t list as many channels (veins and nerves) as the other texts do. This indicates that this Upani¬ad may be older than what has been assumed.
Pippalāda answers six questions in the Praśna Upani¬ad, a number that is reminiscent of the six darśanas. The six questions touch upon six different aspects of reality: forms (nyāya), basis of life (mīmā÷sā), origins (sā÷khya), devas within (yoga), next world (vedānta), and modifications (vaiśe¬ika). This is not an argument for the lateness of the Praśna Upani¬ad, but rather for the remote antiquity of six bases to reality, which mirroring the six directions..



(Link does not seem to work)



Definiton of Bhagvan God Hinduism

In Hinduism on September 13, 2014 at 23:19

Hinduism uses the term Bhagavan to denote God.


Bhag means Fortune, unlimited Wealth.



In Hinduism material wealth is not considered as Wealth or Fortune.


Attributes or Qualities that are Eternal are considered so.


The Authority of Hinduism is the Vedas and they declare the Reality as devoid of Attributes, Nirguna.


It is a Principle.


It is indescribable, Avaktavya.


This is the reason the Upanishads, while describing the Reality, uses the ,Neti Nyaya’


That is the process of describing a thing by excluding others from it.


Brahman, The Reality is described as Neither Tall.nor Short, neither Male, nor Female……


By excluding the Attributes through which we can know anything, the message implied is that the Reality is Unknowable.


But can be experienced.


This method of description is called the ‘Neti Nyaya’


Yet,Hinduism advocates Image worship in the form of Gods, Symbols.


This is because the Human Mind, being limited, can not grasp or concentrate on Nothing.


The worship of Idols of God is the first step.


This worship of Personal God, Iswara(Iswara means personal God in Indian Philosophy,is called Saguna Aradhana.


As one evolves by worshiping the Personal Gods, he will realize that the Reality is in and beyond the Personal Gods.


Please read my posts under Hinduism on this issue.


Especially the one ‘Does God have and Form’.


So the term Bhagavan is used to denote the Saguna Brahman, God


Bhag implies six attributes:


Absolute Fame,


Absolute Dharma,


Absolute Wealth,


Absolute Knowledge,


Absolute Beauty and,


Absolute Detachment.


One possessing these attributes is Bhagavan, the Supreme Person or God..


The ancient language Tamil has two names for God.


“Kadavul’, beyond the Mind.


‘Iraivan, one who dwells in the heart.


I shall be posting on each of these Attributes.



Subramanya Shodasa Nama For Bride Wealth

In Hinduism on September 12, 2014 at 15:16

Asya Sri Subramanya ShodasaNama Stotra maha Mantrasya
Agastyo Bhagavan Rishi Anushtup Chandaha_ha
Subramanyo Devatha Mama ishtartha  Sidhdhyarthe Jape Viniyoga_ha



For the manthra of 16 names of Lord Subrahmanya,

The sage is Agasthya, the meter is Anushtup , God addressed is Lord Subrahmanya

And chanting of this Manthra is done for fulfilling my wishes

ShadVakthram SikhiVaahanam TriNayanam Chitraambaraalankrutham
Sakthim VajraMasim TrisoolaMabhayam Khetam DhanusChakrakam
Paasam KukkutaMankusam cha HasthairdaDhaanam Sadaa
Dhyaayeed Deephsitaa Sidhidam SivaSutham Skandam Suraaraadhitham



I meditate on the light of occult powers, the son of Shiva ,

Skanda and the god who is  worshipped by devas,

Who has six mouths, who rides on a peacock,

Who has three eyes , who wears ornamental silk cloth,

Who holds in his hands Shakthi, Vajrayudha, trident ,  sword , protecting  symbol,

Shield, Bow, holy wheel , rope , cock , goad and symbol of boon.

Prathamo GnaanaSaktyatma  Dwiteeya-ha SkandaEva cha
Agni Garbha_sthruteeyastu Baahuleya_schaturdhaka-ha
Gaangeya-ha panchamaha proktaha shashta_Saravanodbhava-ha
Saptama-ha Kaartikeyascha Kumaara_schaatama sthatha

Navamaha Shanmukha-ha prokthaha Taarakari-hi smrutho dasa
Ekadasascha Senaanee-hi Guho dwaadasa eva cha
Trayodaso Brahmachari Sivateja_schaturdasa-ha
Krounchadaari panchadasaha shodasa_sSikihivahana-ha


First as the soul of the strength of truth , second as Skanda*,

Third as one born from fire , fourth as one with strong arms,

Fifth as one told as the one born out of ganga,

Sixth as one who rose out of the stream of Sarvana,

Seventh as one  who was looked after by Kruthika maidens,

Eighth as a lad, ninth as one with six faces,

Tenth as one who killed Tharakasura,

Eleventh as the commander in chief,

Twelfth as the one who is in the cave of mind,

Thirteenth as one who searches for Brahmam ,

Fourteenth as the innate power of Lord Shiva,

Fifteenth as the one who holds Krouncha mountain,

And sixteenth as the God who rides the peacock.
* That which is beyond the mind


Shodasaithani Namani Yo Japeth Bhakti Samyutha-ha
Bruhaspati Samo budhdhyaa Tejasaa Bramhanassama-ha
Kanyarthi Labhate Kanyam Gnanathi Gnanamapnuyath
Vidyarthi Labhate Vidyam Dhanarthi Dhana Masnuthe
Yadyad Prathayathe Marthya-ha Tatsarvam Labhate Dhruvam


He who chants these asixteennames with great devotion,

Would become as wise as Brahaspathi, the teacher of devas,

Would have the  great luminescence of Brahma,

And he who seeks a bride will get a bride,

He who seeks wisdom will be blessed with wisdom,

He who seeks knowledge would be blessed with knowledge,

He who searches for wealth would get great wealth ,

And the man who prays would speedily get all that he wants..


Translation by Sri .P.R,Ramchander.

Ramayana Sundara Kanda Navaha Slokas Video,Benefits

In Hinduism on September 11, 2014 at 11:59

I had posted an article on  the procedure to be followed in Sundarakanda Parayana.


I deliberately left the Navaha in the article.



That is reciting the Sundara Kanda 68 Chapters in Nine Days.


Reason is that the Navaha is most effective and I wanted to post an artilce on this.


There are 68 chapters in the Sundarakanda.


And Rama Pattabhisheka from Yuddha Kanda is to be recited on the concluding day.


So for Nine days it totals to 69 chapters.


Recite Eight chapters a Day or Seven days.


On the Eighth Day , Six Chapters.


On the Ninth, concluding day , recite the balance Seven chapters.


Begin with Parayana Slokas before Sundara Kanda.


Smarthas may follow Smartha Sampradaya Parayana  Slokas and Sri Vaishnavas, Vaishnava Smpradaya Slokas.


Follow the other procedures as mentioned in my earlier post.


Link is provided here, which also details the Naivedya to be offered.


Benefits of reading Sundara Kanda.


  • Salvation can be achieved by reading the first chapter daily for six months.
  • Effect of attack of devils, ghosts, spirits can be warded off by reading 3rd chapter.
  • To get rid of dullness of brain, read 13th chapter
  • To get rid of the sin of having affair with some one else’s wife, read chapters 7-11.
  • To get permanent wealth and happiness read chapter 15.
  • To get rid of bad dreams read Chapter 27.
  • To get good behavior read chapter 20-21.
  • To rejoin with lost relatives read chapters 33-40.
  • To get rid of impending danger read chapter 36.
  • To get pardon from god for insult done to him knowingly and unknowingly read chapter 38.
  • Read chapters 42-47 to win over enemies
  • To become just and charitable read chapter 51
  • For improvement of assets like house, land etc read chapter 54.
  • To get peace and happiness read Chapter 61
  • To get perennial happiness and to attain God read chapter 67.
  • To get what one wishes read chapter 41
  • To realize God and to become one capable of sweet words read chapter 19.

The Navaha delivers all the results one desires.



No Sandhyavandan Procedure In The Vedas ?

In Hinduism on September 10, 2014 at 16:43

There was a question in Facebook as a comment on Sraddha as whether Sraddha procedures were laid down in the Vedas.


I replied that, to the best of my knowledge , the procedure for Sraddha is laid down in the Smritis and that I do not find a reference to it in the Veda.


While making this comment I made a remark that I was not sure whether Sandyavandana procedure was mentioned in the Vedas.


I received a feedback that Vedas and Upanishads do mention Sandhyavandana.


I have been able to locate the reference, which I reproduce.



“There are references in the vedas regarding Sandyavandanam. A reference occurs in “Second prasna, Second Anuvaka of Thaithria Aranyaka (Yajur Veda)”, explaining procedure of worship. The procedure of worship indicated is by offering “Arghya” (water in the palms of both hands thrown up), at the time of sunrise and sunset, meditating on Aditya (Sun).

Verses 15 & 16 of Ishvashya upanishad of Shukla Yajurveda also refers to Sun worship as above at sunrise and sunset.

Chandogya upanisad (Chapter 2 Section ix) discusses “Aditya vidya” explaining the importance of meditation of Sun or Aditya at sunrise and sunset, bringing out also the points mentioned above. Chapter 3, Section xii, of this upanishad explains meditation of aditya through gayatri. It also explains that the sun in the horizon outside and the sun element inside us are one and the same and there is no difference. The identity should be kept in mind while meditating through gayatri. This is the meaning of “Asavadityao brahma” recited during sandyavandanam.

These views are also echoed in Aditya Hridaya of the Yuddakanda of Ramayan. Agasthya explains to Sri Rama, the merits of worshipping Aditya. Aditya protects everyone, helps them in their duties, gives lustre, removes ignorance and provides happiness. He is friend of water and resides in every living thing.

Various Rishis set the procedures. Variations are there in Rig, Yajur and Sama Santhyavanthanam and Madhyaniham procedures. Various Sutras difined various procedures. Apastamba, Boudhayana, Parasara and Yajnvalkya sutras are some of them. “


1.Verses 15 and 16 of Isavasya Upanishad  refer only to the extent that the Sun is to be worshiped.


2.References in Chandogya Upanishad.


Section 2 Chapter 9 says thus,


Verse 15.

हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्यापिहितं मुखम् ।
तत्त्वं पूषन्नपावृणु सत्यधर्माय दृष्टये ॥१५॥

hiranmayena patrena satyasyapihitam mukham ।
tattvam pusannapavrnu satyadharmaya drstaye ॥ 15॥


The face of truth is covered with a
golden disc. Unveil it, O Pushan, so that I
who love the truth may see it.

16.पूषन्नेकर्षे यम सूर्य प्राजापत्य व्यूह रश्मीन् समूह तेजः ।
यत्ते रूपं कल्याणतमं तत्ते पश्यामि योऽसावसौ पुरुषः सोऽहमस्मि ॥१६॥

pusannekarse yama surya prajapatya
vyuha rasmin samuha tejah ।
yatte rupam kalyanatamam tatte pasyami
yo’savasau purusah so’hamasmi ॥ 16॥


16. O Pushan, the sole seer, O Controller,
O Sun, offspring of Praja-pati, spread forth
your rays and gather up your radiant light
that I may behold you of loveliest form.
Whosoever is that person that also am.
I do not think this is a Procedure for Sandhyavandana.
Chandogya Upanishad Section 2,Chapter 9, says thus,
1. One should meditate on the sevenfold Saman as yonder sun. The sun is the Saman because he is always the same (sama). He is the Saman because he makes everyone cherish the same thought: “He faces me,” “He faces me.”2. One should know that all beings depend upon him (i.e. the sun). What he is before his rising is the syllable Him. The animals depend upon it (i.e. Him). Therefore the animals say “Him” before the sunrise, for they partake of the syllable Him of the Saman (sun).3. What he (the sun) is just after he has risen, that is the Prastava. Men depend upon it. Therefore men love praise (prastuti) and eulogy, for they partake of the Prastava of that Saman.

4. What he is when the rays go forth, that is the Adi. Birds depend upon It. Therefore birds hold themselves without support in the sky and fly about, for they partake of the Adi of that Saman.

5. What he is just at midday, that is the Udgitha. The devas (gods) are dependent upon it. Therefore they are the best of the offspring of Prajapati, for they partake of the Udgitha of that Sa man.

6. What he is after midday and before afternoon, that is the Pratihara. The foetuses depend upon it. Therefore they are held in the womb after being conceived and do not fall, for they partake of the Pratihara of the Saman.

7. What he is after the afternoon and before sunset, that is the Upadrava. The animals of the forest depend upon it. Therefore they run (upadravanti) to the forest and their caves when they see a man, for partake of the Upadrava of that Saman.

8. What he is just after the sunset, that is the Nidhana.,The Manes depend upon it. Therefore they put them (i.e. the Manes) down (nidadhati), for they partake of the Nidhana of that Saman. Thus a man meditates on the sevenfold Saman as the sun.

Chandogya Section3, Chapter 3.

Meditation on the Udgitha as the Sun and the Vyana

1. Now is described the meditation on the Udgitha with reference to the gods: One should meditate on the Udgitha as the sun who gives warmth. When he (the sun) rises he sings the Udgitha for the benefit of all creatures. When he rises he destroys darkness and fear. He who knows this becomes the destroyer of darkness and fear.

2. This prana and that sun are the same. This is warm and that is warm. This they call svara (what goes out) and that, pratyasvara (what returns). Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha as this and that.

3. One should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyana. That which one breathes out is the prana and that which one breathes in is the apana. That which is the junction of the prana and the apana is the Vyana. This vyana is speech. Therefore when one utters speech one stops the prana and the apana.

4. That which is speech is the Rik. Therefore when a man utters a Rik he neither breathes out nor breathes in. That which is the Rik is the Saman. Therefore when a man sings a Saman, he neither breathes out nor breathes in. That which is the Saman is the Udgitha. Therefore when a man sings the Udgitha he neither breathes out nor breathes in.

5. And other works also which require strength, such as the kindling of fire by rubbing, running a race and stringing a strong bow, are performed without breathing out or breathing in. Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyana.

6. One should meditate on the letters of the word Udgitha (i.e. ut, gi and tha). Ut is the prana, for a man rises (uttishthati) by means of the prana. Gi is speech, for speeches are called girah. Tha is food, for all this subsists (sthita) on food.

7. Ut is heaven, gi the mid—region and tha the earth. Ut is the sun, gi the air and tha fire. Ut is the Sama—Veda, gi the Yajur—Veda and tha the Rig—Veda. To him who thus meditates speech yields milk and milk is speech. He who knows this and meditates on the letters of the Udgitha becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food.

8. Next follows the fulfilment of prayers. One should thus meditate on the object one wishes to obtain through meditation: he (i.e. the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Saman with which he is going chant the praise.

9. He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Rik in which that Saman occurs, on the rishi to whom it was revealed and on the deity whom he is going to praise.

10. He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the metre in which he is going to chant the praise; he should meditate on the hymn by which he is going to chant the praise.

11. He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the quarter of space facing which he is going to chant the praise.

12. Finally, he (the udgatri priest) should meditate on himself and then on the object desired and chant the praise correctly. Thus will be quickly fulfilled for him the desire, desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise, yea, desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise.


There are more references cited as below in some web sites on this subject.


Rig Veda Samhita 3.62.10


Here one finds a reference to Gayathri Mantra, no procedures.


Again The Taitriya Aranyaka says,


Pancha Maha Yajna

Pancha vaa ete mahayajnaassatati
Prataayante satati santishtante
Devayajnah pitr
yajno bhutayajno
Manushya yajno brahmayajna iti
These are the five great sacrifices which are to be performed on a daily basis and completed.
They are
deva yajna, pitr
u yajna, bhuta yajna, manushya yajna
brahma yajna  2.10.
2.11 goes on to describe the Gayatri Mantra recitation procedure.
No procedures for Sandhyavandan as a whole.
As to Agasthya instructing Rama, this too stresses the importance of Sun worship, no procedures.
One may well remember that Rama had Upanayana performed much before Yuddha Kanda and as such should have known the Sandhya vandana.
Again, No procedure.
All these do not constitute a procedure for performing Sandhyavandana.
References to worship of the Sun is mentioned, no procedures to be followed are set.
As I said of Sraddham, these procedures are set by Smriti, not by Sruthi.
Inputs clarifications welcome.








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