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Posts Tagged ‘Science’

Microbiology Darwinism In Ancient Hindu Texts Vedas

In Hinduism on April 14, 2014 at 10:46

 

Ancient Vedic Indians, during the Vedic period have developed advanced knowledge in Microbiology.

 

Biology and Surgery were developed and practiced.

 

They knew the classification of Species.

 

Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution , Survival of the Fittest was expressed.

 

Microbiology in The Vedas

Vedic Microbiology. Image credit Chakradhar

 

An Santi Parva of Mahabharata,Section XV Arjuna speaks of the world of Microbes,’which ,though not seen by the naked eyes, support Life”

 

Talks of Darwinism when he says that the strongest survive by feeding and annihilating them.

 

The Mobile and the Immobile world is Food for Living creatures.

 

Jainism had such an advanced knowledge and Piety, the Jain Monks use to sweep the path they travel gently with a fan made of Peacock feathers to make sure that the smaller organisms are not unintentionally killed by them.

 

Kara , Dhooshana,  Inderjith and Ravana’s Moola Sena were adept at fighting biological warfare.

 

Our Vedic literature recorded about 740 plants and 250 animals.

¨      The first attempt of classification is observed in Chandyogya Upanishad, which classified animals into three categories — Jivaja(Viviparous = giving birth to young ones), e.g. mammals, Andaja(Oviparous = egg lying), e.g. birds, reptiles, insects and worms, andUdbhija (Vegetal origin), e.g. minute animals. Post-Vedic Indian literature, such as Susruta Samhita (600 BC) classified all ‘substances’ into sthavara (immobile), e.g. plants, jangama (mobile), e.g. animals.

¨      Plants were further subdivided into Vanaspati (fruit yielding non-flowering plants), Vriksha (both fruit yielding and flowering plants),Virudha (shrubs and creepers), and Osadhi (plants that die with ripening of fruits).

Susruta described in detail the parts of plants, such as Ankura (sprout), Mula (root), Kanda (bulb or stem), Patra (leaf),Pushpa (flower), Phala (fruit), etc.

¨      Susruta Samhita also mentioned about classification of animals, such as Kulacara (those herbivores who frequent the river banks, e.g. elephant, buffalo, etc.), Matsya (fish), Janghala (wild herbivorous quadrupeds, e.g. deer), Guhasaya (carnivorous quadrupeds like tiger, lion, etc.). Susruta Samhita also records some observations on snakes (both venomous and non-venomous) and leeches.

 

They knew about Microbes and about fermentation.

 

They were aware of the exact combinations and temperatures at which fermentation takes place in preparing Buttermilk,Curds,Liquor.

 

The existence of Lives , which are smaller and Microscopic was analysed.

 

Germ theory of diseases was first established by Vedic Rishis and was recorded in Vedas.

 Vedas are first text in the world to record nexus between microbes and disease.

In Vedas, prime etiological factors of diseases mentioned are–

 

a) Endogenous toxins, its accumulations, and causation of a disease; b) ‘Krimi’ –’Drisya’ (visible), ‘Adrisya’ (invisible); and c) Imbalance of tridosha.

Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda followed by Āyurvedas provide rich insight into microbial sciences that existed in Bharat many thousands of years ago.

In Rigveda (1/191), Rishị Agastya pinpoints out that there are two types of poisonous creatures viz. those exceedingly poisonous and others are less poisonous.

Of them, some are visible venomous, while others are invisible one.

Some of them live in water, while others live on earth.

Perhaps Ṛsị Agastya is the first person to state that invisible creatures are also toxin producers.

He also prescribes antidotes as remedy for the poison. Atharvaveda reiterates that whenever there is accumulation of toxins within the body, disease results.

Use of Biological weapons of Mass Destruction was known.

There are large number of suktas in the Vedas which provides information about microbiological knowledge in the ancient Vedic texts.

KankotanSukta by Rishi Agastaya (Rigveda 1/191); KrimighnamSukta (Atharvaveda 5/23), KriminashnamSukta (AV. 2/32), KrimijambhanamSukta

(AV. 2/31) all by Rishi Kanva; RakshognamSukta (AV. 5/29) by Rishi Chatan; KriminashnamSukta (AV. 4/37) by Rishi Badrayani and other suktas

provides insight into the Microbial sciences in Vedas.

Not only the Vedas, Ayurvedic texts like Charaka Samhita, Susruta Samhita, Ashtanga Hridaya and many others provides rich insight into Vedic Microbiology.

 

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Introduction To Quantum No Jargons

In Astrophysics on April 10, 2014 at 11:42

I was a Speaker in a Function marking the occasion of the release of a Research Book “Downloading Nature‘s Secrets,From Akasa to Quantum Vacuum

Field by Sri.Lakshminarayananan Gopalan in Chennai on the Fifth of April 2014.

 

The book deals with the inadequacy of the present day Science, how the Vedas have anticipated these issues and how the Gayatri Mantra  unlocks these secrets.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quantum explained with Light

Are these beams of light over Sydney, Australia made of particles or waves? The true physical nature of light had been debated for years. Planck and others showed that not only light but all matter exhibited properties of both a particle and a wave.(Cameron Spencer/Getty Images)

 

 

Chart of Quantum Theory

Quantum Theory in Chart

I shall be posting on this shortly.

 

Science, as we know , rests on certain Laws, which are assumed to be true,called Axioms.

 

These laws under strict laboratory identical conditions will operate and the same Cause will produce the same result.

 

The problem is you produce the conditions obtaining in Nature and you repeat them to produce the result, which obviously has to produce the same result.

 

In other words, Science tells you How and never Why.

 

But it assumes that it is final.

 

When you can not describe or define Why , your word is not final.

 

This applies to Science .

 

Let us take the Laws of Newton.

 

I shall not be discussing the exact definitions as it would be beyond the scope of this essay.

 

I shall deal with it later.

 

An object remains Inert until it is impelled by an External Force.

 

From where does this external force come ?

 

No answer.

 

If it is assumed that it is in the Nature of things, as Axioms, then you are not solving the issue, but are ducking it and you are offering the Mechanics of Motion, that’s all.

 

In my view this does not matter, as it does not tell me any thing new in terms of my inquiry content.

 

 

For the average person, whether we know how a Thing moves does not matter so long it moves.

 

Things were falling to the ground even before Newton discovered Gravity.

 

Even if we are blissfully unaware of it , still Gravity would function.

 

 

However these theories have their uses in that these help in developing technologies that help(?) Man.

 

The second law that the rate of Momentum being directly proportionate to the force applied is also thrown out of this discussion as the first law on which this is derived from is not answering the question.

 

The same to the Third Law of Motion.

 

Science also harbors under the strain of Space and Time.

 

Unless we understand Space and Time we may not be able to understand the Laws of Nature and These terms Space and Time remain undefined till date.

 

At best, there are only descriptions and that too are being contradicted more or less on a daily basis.

 

As Emmanuel Kant put it,”Space and Time are the Two goggles through which Man perceives” Remove these,you can not conceive of anything , let alone perceive!

 

Coming back to the Theory of Motion, we now have research going on in CERN, Geneva, to find the God Particle.

 

As we all know the Atom consists of Electrons, Protons and Neutron.

 

Electrons and protons move around the Neutron. Now, when an object moves it creates energy.

 

So where do the Energies from these electrons and protons go?

 

Again, the movement of these seem to be directed.

 

Scientist want to find it as they have theoretically found that there must be some particle or force that directs these electrons and protons .

 

So the search goes on. Now apply this to the Movement of galaxies that spins and move, The same Laws apply.

 

And there is is this Theory of Expanding Universe which states that the Universe is expanding with each object in the Universe hurling away from each other and this has been proved by the Infrared shift of the Spectrum.

 

If these things keep on moving away from each other, where is does it end?

 

Where is the Edge of the Universe? Einstein tried to solve this through he general Theory of Relativity.

 

Appropriate at this point,  is that the Space and Time  become One Universe at one point  and that Time can travel both forwards and backwards.

 

And it can recoil on it self and there are Time Worms.

 

Then we have the Black-holes, which are assumed not to let even light rays to escape from it.

 

And Time runs backwards there and, theoretically if one were to enter a Black-hole, he might enter the Past travel through the Future and emerge in the Present!

 

And this gives rise, along with the effort to find the God particle leads us to Quantum Theory and Multi verses.

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Speed Of Light =Gravity=Infinity = 0 = Science?

In Science on March 26, 2014 at 09:00

The Speed( I am using this term to enable every one to understand this) is 299,792,458 metres per second,

 

This is equal to the Speed of Gravity.

 

Speed of Light is equal to Speed of Gravity(+ or – 1%)

 

The Speed of Light, according to Newton is Infinite.

 

That is you can not comprehend because there are innumerable Digits,’ it is limitless.

 

Zero can not be comprehended because there is nothing to comprehend.( some say “A positive or negative number when divided by zero is a fraction with the zero as denominator”

 

So in terms of Comprehending Infinity is as comprehensible as Zero is.

 

Therefore Infinity is equal to Zero.

 

Speed of Light is Infinite.

 

Therefore, Speed of Light is equal to Zero.

 

I am aware of the Logical Fallacy of undistributed Middle is present in my argument.

 

So do the Scientist theories!

 

We take Science because it is convenient.

 

We do not question it.

 

Then why not God?

 

* Follow Theory of Relativity, it is more fun .

 

Symbol of Infinity

Infinity symbol

 

Newtonian Gravity.

 

Therefore the theory assumes the speed of gravity to be infinite. This assumption was adequate to account for all phenomena with the observational accuracy of that time. It was not until the 19th century that an anomaly in astronomical observations which could not be reconciled with the Newtonian gravitational model of instantaneous action was noted.

 

Relativity Gravity.

General relativity predicts that gravitational radiation should exist and propagate as a wave at lightspeed: a slowly evolving and weak gravitational field will produce, according to general relativity, effects like those of Newtonian gravitation.

 

Infinity.

Infinity (symbol: ) is an abstract concept describing something without any limit and is relevant in a number of fields, predominantly mathematics and physics. The English word infinity derives from Latin infinitas, meaning “the state of being without finish”, and which can be translated as “unboundedness”, itself calqued from the Greek word apeiros, meaning “endless”

 

The Indian mathematical text Surya Prajnapti (c. 3rd–4th century BCE) classifies all numbers into three sets: enumerable, innumerable, and infinite. Each of these was further subdivided into three orders:

  • Enumerable: lowest, intermediate, and highest
  • Innumerable: nearly innumerable, truly innumerable, and innumerably innumerable
  • Infinite: nearly infinite, truly infinite, infinitely infinite

In the Indian work on the theory of sets, two basic types of infinite numbers are distinguished. On both physical and ontological grounds, a distinction was made between asaṃkhyāta (“countless, innumerable”) and ananta (“endless, unlimited”), between rigidly bounded and loosely bounded infinities.

 

Minecraft can be a great tool for visualizing complicated subjects, such as the speed of light (aka “c”). Using a straight track and simple math, we can see how the universe might be limiting speeds for very fast things, such as light.

The “doors” metaphor is admittedly, imperfect. While they do limit speed outside of “acceleration”, they falsely imply that there is something “in space” that slows things down, which does not appear to be the case at the moment. The actual mechanisms that limit objects to light speed will be the topic for a future video. (Hint: It has to do with time!)

 

Zero.

 

The rules governing the use of zero appeared for the first time in Brahmagupta‘s book Brahmasputha Siddhanta (The Opening of the Universe),[25] written in 628 AD. Here Brahmagupta considers not only zero, but negative numbers, and the algebraic rules for the elementary operations of arithmetic with such numbers. In some instances, his rules differ from the modern standard. Here are the rules of Brahmagupta:[25]

  • The sum of zero and a negative number is negative.
  • The sum of zero and a positive number is positive.
  • The sum of zero and zero is zero.
  • The sum of a positive and a negative is their difference; or, if their absolute values are equal, zero.
  • A positive or negative number when divided by zero is a fraction with the zero as denominator.
  • Zero divided by a negative or positive number is either zero or is expressed as a fraction with zero as numerator and the finite quantity as denominator.
  • Zero divided by zero is zero.

In saying zero divided by zero is zero, Brahmagupta differs from the modern position. Mathematicians normally do not assign a value to this, whereas computers and calculators sometimes assign NaN, which means “not a number.” Moreover, non-zero positive or negative numbers when divided by zero are either assigned no value, or a value of unsigned infinity, positive infinity, or negative infinity.

 

Read my Posts on Time, Astrophysics.Science.

 

Citations.

Zero Wiki

Infinity Wiki

 

 

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Time Recoils Earth Is 4.32 Billion Years Hindusim

In Astrophysics, Hinduism, Time on March 21, 2014 at 12:40

Kalpas, Manvantaras, Samvatsaras

Kalpa.

Calculation of Time by Hinduism

Time The Hindu Way.

A Kalpa is 12 hours of Brahma. 2 kalpas make a day and a night of Brahma.

 

He lives for 100 years on this time scale.
How many Mahayugas or Chaturyugas( Four) are there in a Kalpa?
There are 1000 or 1008, Mahayugas in a Kalpa Mahayugas in a Kalpa.

 

84 Chaturyugas is an hour of Brahma.

 

There are 14 Manvantaras in a Kalpa.

 

Check my post on this.( Link provided at the end of this post)

 

A Manu or an Indra lives for 1 Manvantara.

 

A Manvanatara is a 100 years of Indra.

 
There are 72 Chaturyugas to a Manvantara.

The cycle of Kalpas, beginning with Brähma-kalpa and ending with Pädma-kalpa, is repeated a thousand times, Cyclic,non- Linear

 

The present kalpa is called Sveta-varäha-kalpa.
The Bhagavatam speaks of 30 kalpa names, one for each day of his month.

 

This list does not match the list in the Vayu Purana.

The Thirty kalpas of Brahma ,

(1) Sveta-kalpa

, (2) Nilalohita,

(3) Vamadeva,

(4) Gathantara,

(5) Raurava,

(6) Prana,

(7) Brhat-kalpa,

(8) Kandarpa,

(9) Sadyotha,

(10) Isana, (

11) Dhyana,

(12) Sarasvata,

(13) Udana,

(14) Garuda,

(15) Kaurma,

(16) Narasimha,

(17) Samadhi,

(18) Agneya,

(19) Visnuja,

(20) Saura,

(21) Soma-kalpa,

(22) Bhavana,

(23) Supuma,

(24) Vaikuntha,

(25) Arcisa,

(26) Vali-kalpa,

(27) Vairaja,

(28) Gauri-kalpa,

(29) Mahesvara,  and

(30) Paitr-kalpa.
List from the Vayu Purana.
“(1) Bhava.

(2) Bhuva.

(3) Tapah.

(4) Bhava.

(5) Rambha.

(6) Ritu.

(7) Kratu.

(8) Vahni.

(9) Havyavahana.

(10) Savitra.

(11) Bhuvah.

(12) Oushika.

(13) Kushika.

(14) Gandharva.

(15) Rishabha.

(16) Shadaja.

(17) Marjaliya.

(18) Madhyama.

(19) Vairaja.

The great Vairaja Manu was born in this kalpa and his son was the great sage Dadhichi.

(20) Nishada. The race of nishadas (hunters) were created during this period

. (21) Panchama.

(22) Meghavahana.

The word megha means cloud and vahana means to bear. In this kalpa, Vishnu adopted the form of a cloud and bore Shiva on his back.

It is thus that the Kalpa received its name.

(23) Chintaka.

(24) Akuti.

(25) Vijnati.

(26) Mana.

(27) Bhava.

(28) Vrihat

. (29) Shvetalohita.

(30) Rakta.

(31)Pitavasa.

(32) Sita.

(33) Krishna

(34) Vishvarupa.”
Note: There are 864,00 seconds in our day.

Thus Kalpa is a simple multiple of this figure.

By this reckoning the earth is about 4.32 Billion Years old.

Citation .

Hinduism.

https://www.facebook.com/krishnamoorthi.balasubaramanian

Time non Linear Hindusim

 

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New Brain Area Found Assumption So Far ?

In Health on February 5, 2014 at 18:27

I have a good friend of mine, who is one of the top most Neuro Physicians of the world.

Unlike the great scientists and rationalists of Tamil Nadu, Kaunanidhi, Veeramani and Co, he believes in God.

We were talking at my Home over lunch on medical condition.

No body knows why it is so, nor how the medicine prescribed in controlling it or whether it will have side effects.

When I asked my friend who is treating me,

‘Look, Ramanan,I honestly do not know.

If it work,s continue.

Do not think it is only with your case.

Most of the cases are this way.

Doctors won’t admit it for it will lower their Image.

As to me I am prescribing praying.”Vaidyo Narayno Hari”(I Pray the Greatest Doctor, Lord Vishnu)

That’s all.

Neuro science is still evolving.

We do not know much of Brain functions.

We are exploring.

Sometimes I wonder how these medicines work!”

This from a famous specialist in one of the most complicated fields of medicines.

As if to prove him news has emerged that scientists have found a new area of Brain.

Read On.

esearchers have discovered that an area of the brain that was previously assumed to dampen response to stress, in fact does the opposite and directly promotes anxiety. In reporting their findings in the journal Cell, the investigators add a new dimension to the science of anxiety.

They describe how they found a brain circuit that connects an area called the lateral septum (LS) with other brain structures in a way that directly affects anxiety.

Corresponding author David Anderson, the Seymour Benzer Professor of Biology at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, says:

“Our study has identified a new neural circuit that plays a causal role in promoting anxiety states. Part of the reason we lack more effective and specific drugs for anxiety is that we don’t know enough about how the brain processes anxiety. This study opens up a new line of investigation into the brain circuitry that controls anxiety.”

Figures from the National Institutes of Mental Health show over 18% of adults in the US are affected by anxiety disorders, where people experience excessive worry or tension, often leading to physical symptoms.

Although previous research has focused primarily on the amygdala as being the region in the brain that processes anxiety, Prof. Anderson and colleagues had a hunch that the LS might also be involved, so they decided to study it using mice.

Does the lateral septum promote or inhibit anxiety?

The team set out to investigate a circuit called the septohippocampal axis because previous studies had already mentioned it in connection with anxiety. These had shown that in mice, stress-induced anxious behavior is accompanied by activation of brain cells in the LS, which sits inside this circuit.

But if the LS is active during stress, is it promoting anxiety, or is it limiting it?

Until this study, the belief was the LS dampened the response to stressors. But the team showed in fact the opposite was the case.

They used a technique called optogenetics, where light controls neurons or brain cells, to activate a set of neurons in the LS of mice. The particular neurons had a gene that made them active in response to light.

During this activation, the mice became more anxious. When they tested the effect further, the team found that even a brief burst of activation induced a state of anxiety that persisted for at least half an hour.

This showed that not only were these particular brain cells involved at the start of the anxiety state, but also that this state persists when they are no longer active.

But the reason that – until now – it was thought these brain cells inhibited anxiety was because they are of a type that inhibits other brain cells, says Prof. Anderson. So what was going on?

The lateral septum promotes anxiety via a double-inhibitory circuit

Prof. Anderson and his colleagues decided to test the idea that a double-negative system was involved. Neurons inhibiting inhibitory neurons. And that is indeed what they found.

When they looked at the types of connections the LS made in the brain, they found it was inhibiting neurons in the neighboring hypothalamus, most of which were themselves inhibitors.

Plus, the hypothalamic inhibitory neurons were connected to a third brain structure, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which controls the release of hormones like cortisol in response to stress and is known to be involved in anxiety.

The team found a circuit that appeared to act as a double-inhibitor where activating the LS neurons could result in increased stress and anxiety. When they activated the LS neurons, the levels of circulating stress hormones increased, suggesting the PVN was being activated.

And they also tested the converse: inhibiting the LS connections to the hypothalamus reduced the rise in stress hormones when the mice were under stress.

They concluded that this set of results confirms the double-negative idea.”

Source:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/272114.php

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