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Posts Tagged ‘Science’

Scientists Admit Fake Study Papers

In Science on July 10, 2014 at 09:05

Often I come across ‘scientific studies’ claiming outrageous and down right ridiculous statements on many disciplines,including social sciences.

 

One would claim that a woman’s sexual references can be predicted by her nail polish colors!

 

And the father of all this is Sigmund Freud, who blamed everything under the Sun for one’s behavior,especially one’s parents.

 

If you are aggressive, it is because of gregarious parents:if you are timid, it is because of retiring parents.

 

If you are a pervert, your parents are responsible.

 

But never You, for your actions or for what you are!

 

So much for these ‘Scientific studies!’

 

I have posted some articles on this.

 

Now read more news on this.

Scientist admits faking Study.jpg

Scientist admits faking Study.

 

preliminary investigative report issued on Monday by Tilburg University has concluded that dozens of research papers authored and co-authored by Stapel contain fabricated data.

“We have some 30 papers in peer-reviewed journals where we are actually sure that they are fake, and there are more to come,” says Pim Levelt, chair of the committee that investigated Stapel’s work. If all of these papers are withdrawn, Stapel’s will become one of the worst cases of scientific misconduct in history.

Stapel is the researcher behind a number of eye-catching studies which, prima facie, seem to offer provocative insights into human nature. His research topics range from the effects of beauty product ads on consumer self-esteem, to how urban decay (like littered streets) promote stereotyping and discrimination — the latter being a study we reported on here at io9.

Whether these studies are included in the 30+ papers known to contain fraudulent data remains to be seen. Tilburg University has yet to provide a list of which studies contain fudged results, though Stapel’s paper on the tie between urban decay and discrimination, published in April in the journal Science, has already been flagged with an expression of concern by the journal’s publishers.

Stapel is believed to have acted alone, deceiving colleagues, collaborators, and even PhD candidates for years by providing them with fictitious data. Given Stapel’s prominence within the field of social psychology, (not to mention the sheer volume of publications already identified as tainted), it’s safe to say that the effects of his outing will be far-reaching…..

otably, none of these mention anything about science, fact-finding, or statements about converging upon truth. (Note, in the past I’ve gone so far as to suggest that even the process of citing specific papers is biased and flawed, and that we would be better off giving aggregate citations of whole swathes of the literature.)

The second article takes almost an entirely economic, cost-benefit perspective of peer-review again focused on publishing results in journals. Only toward the end does the author directly address peer-review’s purpose in science by saying:

…[T]he most important question is how accurately the peer review system predicts the longer-term judgments of the scientific community… A tentative answer to this last question is suggested by a pilot study carried out by my former colleagues atNature Neuroscience, who examined the assessments produced by Faculty of 1000 (F1000), a website that seeks to identify and rank interesting papers based on the votes of handpicked expert ‘faculty members’. For a sample of 2,500 neuroscience papers listed on F1000, there was a strong correlation between the paper’s F1000 factor and the impact factor of the journal in which it appeared. This finding, albeit preliminary, should give pause to anyone who believes that the current peer review system is fundamentally flawed or that a more distributed method of assessment would give different results.

I strongly disagree with his final conclusion here. A perfectly plausible explanation for this result would be that scientists rate papers in “better” journals higher because they’re published in journal perceived to be better. This would appear to be a source of bias and a major flaw of the current peer-review system. Rather than giving me pause as to whether the system is flawed, one could easily interpret that result asproof of the flaw.

The most common response that I encounter when speaking with others scientists about what they think peer-review is for, however, is some form of the following:

Peer-review improves the quality of published papers.

I’m about to get very meta here, but post-doc astronomer Sarah Kendrew recently wrote a piece in The Guardian titled, “Brian Cox is wrong: blogging your research is not a recipe for disaster”.

 

More than 120 computer-generated “gibberish” research papers are being removed from the archives of scientific journal publishers Springer and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) after a French computer scientist determined the papers were fakes.

The bogus research papers, it turns out, were created by an automated word generation program that can string random, seemingly sophisticated words together in plausible English syntax.

Scientific papers, especially those dealing with computer science and mathematics, as these fake papers were, feature reams of sophisticated jargon. Even legitimate papers can seem like gibberish to an unfamiliar reader.

Citation.

http://io9.com/5855733/psychologist-admits-to-faking-dozens-of-scientific-studies

 

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2011/11/02/what-is-peer-review-for/

 

http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/6217/20140301/scholarly-journals-accepted-120-fake-research-papers-generated-by-computer-program.htm

Ocean Beneath Earth Hinduism Science Confirms

In Hinduism, Science on June 13, 2014 at 12:52

The description of the Universe is elaborate in Hindu Puranas.

 

It is the grammar of the Puranas that it must contain the description of the Evolution, Growth and Dissolution of the Universe.

 

All the Puranas contain this and these description appear in the beginning of the Puranas.

 

Though there are variations can be found in respect of some incidents relating to Hinduism, there is no difference among them in describing the Universe.

 

On the description of the Earth, following is the abstract.

 

 

 

Google Map Looks into the Sea.Image.jpg.

Google Map Looks into the Sea.Image credit.http://ww1.hdnux.com/photos/11/12/20/2401312/5/628×471.jpg

The Land Mass and Seas described in the Vishnu Purana is as under.

1.Jambu Dweepa, surrounded by Salt Sea.(lavana)

2.Palaksha Dwipa, Surrounded by Sugar Cane Juice.(Ikshu)

3.Salmali Dwipa, surrounded by a Sea of Wine(Sura)

4.Kusa Dwipa, surrounded by a sea of Clarified Butter,Ghee(Sarpi)

5Krauncha Dwipa , surrounded by a sea of Curds(Durghda)

6.Pushkara is surrounded by a Sea of Fresh Water(.http://www.indianetzone.com/32/dwipas_insular_continents.htm)

This makes Five Continents, all of them surrounded by Water.’

 

Significance sugar cane Juice etc is unclear.

 

Now look at the latest study and image of the earth as it was Millions of years ago.”

 

Now. what Science has found now is,

 

A reservoir of water three times the volume of all the oceans has been discovered deep beneath the Earth’s surface. The finding could help explain where Earth’s seas came from.

The water is hidden inside a blue rock called ringwoodite that lies 700 kilometres underground in the mantle, the layer of hot rock between Earth’s surface and its core.

The huge size of the reservoir throws new light on the origin of Earth’s water. Some geologists think water arrived in comets as they struck the planet, but the new discovery supports an alternative idea that the oceans gradually oozed out of the interior of the early Earth.

“It’s good evidence the Earth’s water came from within,” says Steven Jacobsen of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. The hidden water could also act as a buffer for the oceans on the surface, explaining why they have stayed the same size for millions of years.

Pinging the planet

Jacobsen’s team used 2000 seismometers to study the seismic waves generated by more than 500 earthquakes. These waves move throughout Earth’s interior, including the core, and can be detected at the surface. “They make the Earth ring like a bell for days afterwards,” says Jacobsen.

 

By measuring the speed of the waves at different depths, the team could figure out which types of rocks the waves were passing through. The water layer revealed itself because the waves slowed down, as it takes them longer to get through soggy rock than dry rock.

Jacobsen worked out in advance what would happen to the waves if water-containing ringwoodite was present. He grew ringwoodite in his lab, and exposed samples of it to massive pressures and temperatures matching those at 700 kilometres down.”

 

Mathematics Principle Of Threes Confirms Hinduism

In Hinduism, Science on June 11, 2014 at 08:12

Recent Mathematical Study of Numbers and Quantum has proved the Hinduism‘s Theory of Number Three.

 

Hinduism ascribes special status to Number Three.

 

Quantum Principle of Three.Image.jpg.

Harald Ritsch/IQOQI Efimov trimers are states of matter that theoretically come in an infinite range of sizes. Experimentalists recently observed consecutive trimers, verifying the strange theory.

 

Fundamental principles of Universe is three-Creation,Sustenance and Destruction(Hiding and Benevolence,Thirodhaana and Anugraha are implied in

these three.

 

The Three principles of Evolution of the Universe.

 

Purusha, Prakriti.

 

Implied in this, which is not often noticed, is the ‘Sparsa Matra’, between these two.

 

 

Sparsa is loosely defied as touch.

 

It is more than touch,more than a touch without touching, difficult to translate the Sanskrit word.

 

The Purusha and Prakriti are two entities evolves only after Sparsa Matra, just the moment after touching.

 

So along with Purusha and Prakriti, this makes the Trinity of Principles facilitating  Evolution.

 

Three Gunas, Dispositions, Sathva, Raja, and Tamas.

 

The trinity of Hindu Pantheon, Brahma, Vishnu an Rudra.

 

The Three Yogas,

 

Jnana Yoga,

 

Karma Yoga,

 

Bhakthi Yoga.

 

Pranava consists of Three letters.

 

A

U

M

 

Three layers of Nature, Light, Fire and Darkness.

 

States of Being-Immanent, Transcendent and Absolute.

 

Periods of The Day, Morning, Noon and Evening.

 

Three Primary worlds Bur, Bhuvah, Suvah.

 

Three breaths, Poorakam(inhaling0, Rechakam(exhaling) and Kumbhakam(retention).

 

The triangle of female genital organ,

 

The Three synchronization, Thoughts, Words an Deeds.

 

The mark(3) worn By shaivites and Vaishnavas(three lines on the forehead.

 

The three strands of Upaveeda.

 

Three primary Stages of life, Asrama-Brahmacharya, Gruhastha and Vanaprastha-Sanyasa can be practiced in any of the three.

 

The importance of three is elaborately explained thus.

 

Now Mathematical research has proved the Principle of three.

 

“In 1970, Vitaly Efimov was manipulating the equations of quantum mechanics in an attempt to calculate the behavior of sets of three particles, such as the protons and neutrons that populate atomic nuclei, when he discovered a law that pertained not only to nuclear ingredients but also, under the right conditions, to any trio of particles in nature.

 

While most forces act between pairs, such as the north and south poles of a magnet or a planet and its sun, Efimov identified an effect that requires three components to spring into action. Together, the components form a state of matter similar toBorromean rings, an ancient symbol of three interconnected circles in which no two are directly linked. The so-called Efimov “trimer” could consist of a trio of protons, a triatomic molecule or any other set of three particles, as long as their properties were tuned to the right values. And in a surprising flourish, this hypothetical state of matter exhibited an unheard-of feature: the ability to range in size from practically infinitesimal to infinite.

“It’s a pretty wild idea,” said Randy Hulet, a physics professor at Rice University in Houston. “You get this infinite series of molecules.”

Efimov had shown that when three particles come together, a special confluence of their forces creates the Borromean rings effect: Though one is not enough, the effects of two particles can conspire to bind a third. The nesting-doll feature — called discrete scale invariance — arose from a symmetry in the equation describing the forces between three particles. If the particles satisfied the equation when spaced a certain distance apart, then the same particles spaced 22.7 times farther apart were also a solution. This number, called a “scaling factor,” emerged from the mathematics as inexplicably as pi, the ratio between a circle’s circumference and diameter.

“It’s like layers of an onion,” Hulet said. “You see molecules at one layer. Peel the layer away, and you see that there’s a molecule there 22.7 times smaller. Every time you peel away a layer, you find another molecule.”..

 

..

Rudi Grimm and his group at the University of Innsbruck in Austria managed to create an Efimov trimer for the first time in 2006, building it from a trio of cesium atoms cooled to 10-billionths of a degree above absolute zero. It was a long-awaited triumph for Efimov, who, Grimm recalled, became very emotional when he heard the news.

But the result did not decisively prove the theory.

“With just one example, it’s very difficult to tell if it’s a Russian nesting doll,” said Cheng Chin, a professor of physics at the University of Chicago who was part of Grimm’s group in 2006. The ultimate proof would be an observation of consecutive Efimov trimers, each enlarged by a factor of 22.7. “That initiated a new race” to prove the theory, Chin said.

Eight years later, the competition to observe a series of Efimov states has ended in a photo finish. “What you see is three groups, in three different countries, reporting these multiple Efimov states all within about one month,” said Chin, who led one of the groups. “It’s totally amazing.”

 

Quoted Text and Image Citation Credit.

 

http://www.simonsfoundation.org/quanta/20140527-physicists-prove-surprising-rule-of-threes/

 

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Human Conception Embryology In The Vedas

In Hinduism on May 22, 2014 at 10:11

 

The Third Canto of Shrimad Bhagavatam, where Lord Kapila (An incarnation of Krishna who appeared in Satya-yuga as the son of Devahuti and Kardama Muni) instructs His mother at least two million years ago.

Sage Kapila is the founder of Samkhya Pkilosophy.

Interstingly Samkhya does not believe in God.

He cursed and burnt to ashes  the children of Sakara,after whom the Oceans get the name, Sagara, for disturbing His Meditation.

The descendant ,Bhagiratha brought the Ganges from Heavens , midst great difficulties to alleviate their suffering and have them granted Moksha.

Vedic and Modern Embryology.Image.Jpg.

Vedic and Modern Embryology.

 “Under the supervision of the Supreme Lord and according to the result of his work, the living entity, the soul, is made to enter into the womb of a woman through the particle of male semen to assume a particular type of body

. On the first night, the sperm and ovum mix, and on the fifth night the mixture ferments into a bubble. On the tenth night it develops into a form like a plum, and after that, it gradually turns into a lump of flesh or an egg, as the case may be.

 

“In the course of a month, a head is formed, and at the end of two months the hands, feet and other limbs take shape. By the end of three months, the nails, fingers, toes, body hair, bones and skin appear, as do the organ of generation and the other apertures in the body, namely the eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth and anus.

“Within four months from the date of conception, the seven essential ingredients of the body, namely chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen, come into existence. At the end of five months, hunger and thirst make themselves felt, and at the end of six months, the fetus, enclosed by the amnion, begins to move on the right side of the abdomen. Deriving its nutrition from the food and drink taken by the mother, the fetus grows and remains in that abominable residence of stools and urine, which is the breeding place of all kinds of worms.”

The Fetus  in The Womb.

“Placed within the amnion and covered outside by the intestines, the child remains lying on one side of the abdomen, his head turned towards his belly and his back and neck arched like a bow.

The child thus remains just like a bird in a cage, without freedom of movement. At that time, if the child is fortunate, he can remember all the troubles of his past one hundred births, and he grieves wretchedly. What is the possibility of peace of mind in that condition?

“Thus endowed with the development of consciousness from the seventh month after his conception, the child is tossed downward by the airs that press the embryo during the weeks preceding delivery. Like the worms born of the same filthy abdominal cavity, he cannot remain in one place. The living entity in this frightful condition of life, bound by seven layers of material ingredients, prays with folded hands, appealing to the Lord, who has put him in that condition.

 “The ten-month-old living entity has these desires even while in the womb. But while he thus extols the Lord, the wind that helps parturition propels him forth with his face turned downward so that he may be born. Pushed downward all of a sudden by the wind, the child comes out with great trouble, head downward, breathless and deprived of memory due to severe agony.

“The child thus falls on the ground, smeared with stool and blood, and plays just like a worm germinated from the stool. He loses his superior knowledge and cries under the spell of  maya (“illusion” which deludes the living entity into forgetfulness of the Supreme Lord). Under illusion a man thinks he can be happy in this temporary material world.  After coming out of the abdomen, the child is given to the care of persons who are unable to understand what he wants, and thus he is nursed by such persons. Unable to refuse whatever is given to him, he falls into undesirable circumstances.

 

kalalaḿ tv eka-rātreṇa pañca-rātreṇa budbudam 
daśāhena tu karkandhūḥ peśy aṇḍaḿ vā tataḥ param 

bhagavad purana 3-31-2

On the first night, the sperm and ovum mix, and on the fifth night the mixture ferments into a bubble. On the tenth night it develops into a form like a plum, and after that, it gradually turns into a lump of flesh or an egg, as the case may be.

māsena tu śiro dvābhyāḿ bāhv-ańghry-ādy-ańga-vigrahaḥ 
nakha-lomāsthi-carmāṇi lińga-cchidrodbhavas tribhiḥ 

bhagavad purana 3-31-3

In the course of a month, a head is formed, and at the end of two months the hands, feet and other limbs take shape. By the end of three months, the nails, fingers, toes, body hair, bones and skin appear, as do the organ of generation and the other apertures in the body, namely the eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth and anus.


caturbhir dhātavaḥ sapta pañcabhiḥ kṣut-tṛḍ-udbhavaḥ
ṣaḍbhir jarāyuṇā vītaḥ kukṣau bhrāmyati dakṣiṇe 

bhagavad purana 3-31-4

Within four months from the date of conception, the seven essential ingredients of the body, namely chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen, come into existence. At the end of five months, hunger and thirst make themselves felt, and at the end of six months, the fetus, enclosed by the amnion, begins to move on the right side of the abdomen.

 

Citation.

 

http://www.folknet.in/SS2008/html/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=240&Itemid=135&limitstart=5

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Racism Embedded In Brain Science. Krishna Says?

In Science on May 10, 2014 at 11:25

In the Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna informs Krishna,

 

‘Finally one  suffers because hePunya orPaapa.

Racist area of the Brain .jpg

The amygdala CLIPAREA/Shutterstock

 

Punya or Paapa is acquired because of performance of Actions, both Good and Bad.

 

So I have decided not to act, perform any act’

 

So no Punya,Paapa,no rebirth ‘Suffering or Death’

 

Krishna smiles and tells him,

 

‘May be you are right.

 

But facts seem to be otherwise.

 

No one can remain doing Nothing.

 

If you mean by sitting quiet means you do not perform an action, you are mistakes.

 

Your very Perception affects the Perceived , both Animate and Inanimate(This point has been proved by Quantum, please read my Post )

 

You have to eat.

 

What you eat has Life.

 

While breathing  you inhale and many Organisms die.

 

One can not avoid performing actions.

 

Because it is the Swabhava, Nature.

 

Look at Me.

 

There is Nothing in the World that I need for the World is in Me and me in the World.

 

Yet I perform actions.

 

Why?

 

Because once born one is controlled by the three Gunas, Satva, Rajas and Tamas.

 

So none can help doing what he does’

 

However Krishna later explains how to overcome this, by Abhyasa (Practice) and Vairagya (Right Determination)

 

On this Nature of Man, scientists have determined that racist tendencies are embedded in the Brain.

 

Read the story.

In a number of classic studies, research subjects are asked to complete a seemingly simple task, such as watching words pop up on a screen and quickly categorizing those words as either positive, like “happy,” or negative, like “fear.”

 

But right before the word appears, a face, either black or white, flashes on the screen. “What we find over and over again in the literature,” explains Amodio, “is that if a black person’s face was shown really quickly, then people are quicker at categorizing negative words than positive words that follow it. Versus if a white face was shown really quickly, people are usually quicker to categorize the positive words, compared with the negative words.”

 

These types of biases are quite prevalent.According to a research summary by Stanford University’s Recruitment to Expand Diversity and Excellence program, “about 75% of whites and Asians demonstrated an implicit bias in favor of whites compared to blacks.”

In other words, despite your best intentions, you might be a little bit racist. (Similar unconscious biases have been documented in people’s views of those of different genders, the elderly, and other groups.)

And why do these split-second negative responses exist?

The underlying problem is that our brains have evolved to see patterns in things that are complex, and to categorize the world in order to simplify it.

Thus, when we encounter another person, our brains rapidly and subconsciously try to figure out if he or she is friend or foe: in-group or out-group.

Source.

http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/05/inquiring-minds-david-amodio-your-brain-on-racism

 

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