Posts Tagged ‘Religion & Spirituality’

Pitrus Presiding Deties Sraddha

In Hinduism on September 30, 2014 at 07:13

Details of Pitrus present and the Deities of Sraddha.


1 Pururav-Aardrav and Dhurilochan

Pururav-Aardrav and Dhurilochan are deities of ancestors’ souls. They are referenced in the ritual of Shraddha.

1.2. Vasu-Rudra-Aditya

1.‘Shraddha is associated with the benevolent deities Vasu, Rudra and Aditya of the ancestors’ souls. The mantras chanted during the Shraddha and the rites performed enables one to connect to these deities.’ (6)

2. The deceased person for whom the ritual of Shraddha is being performed, is considered as a follower of Vasu, his parents are considered as followers of Rudra and his grand parents are considered as followers of Aditya. Therefore during Shraddha, the names of father, grandfather and great grandfather (or mother, grandmother and great grandmother) are pronounced as representatives of Vasu-Rudra-Aditya respectively.


Presiding Deity of
the departed ancestors
Associated mission
Vasu Desire
Rudra Dissolution
Aditya Action

During the ritual of Shraddha the Vishvedevs called Pururav-Ardrav and Dhurilochan are also invoked. Vishvedev means the ‘group of Deities which represents the Deities during a sacrificial fire’.


Pitrus, Ancestoes present during Mahalaya Sraddha.


. Father, grandfather, great grandfather (Pitrutrayi) 10. Maternal uncle
2. Mother, grandmother and great grandmother (matrutrayi) 11. Brother
3. Step mother 12. Father’s sisters
4. Mother’s father, grandfather and great grandmother (matamahatrayi) 13. Mother’s sisters
5. Mother’s mother, grandmother and great grandmother 14. Sisters
6. Wife 15. Father-in-law
7. Sons 16. Other relatives
8. Daughters 17. Guru (if the Guru-disciple relationship exists)
9. Paternal cousins 18. Disciple (if the Guru-disciple relationship exists)


Three Levels of Pitrus

In Hinduism on September 10, 2014 at 22:50

English: brahma temple in tirupattur

English: brahma temple in tirupattur (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Pitru Pooja has various levels of Pitrus.


1.Somapa Pitrus.


These  are the privileged ones among the Pitrus.


They are provided with Somaras.


Their life-span extends for the full period of kalpa and they worship ‘marutas’.


Sage Maricha belongs to this category of Pitrus.


2.Vairaja Pirtus.


Maruta Ganas respect these Pitrus.


Sanaka belongs to this category.


These have Seven Ganas.


3.  Bhaswara’ Pitrus.


They live in  Santanaka Loka,


These  are revered by the Deities.


They are ‘Brahmavadis’ (one who has realized Brahma, not Brahman)


They manifest themselves  again after every hundred Yugas.


People belonging to any caste can worship the revered Pitrus with an appropriately modified rituals and obviously with the permission of the Brahmin.


Some Prominent Pituas : Vasu’, Kashyap’, Marichi’, Sanaka
Worship of Pitrus was ordained by Brahma.


The Saptha Rishis were mentally created by Brahma and were given the pride o place.


They became arrogant and started worshiping themselves instead of worshiping Brahma


Brahma Cursed them to become bereft of their knowledge.


As a Vimochana, atonement, Brahma established the Pirtu Rituals and the Saptha Rishis’s sons performed the Sraddha and the Rishis became themselves again.


Source.  Varaha Purana.



No Sandhyavandan Procedure In The Vedas ?

In Hinduism on September 10, 2014 at 16:43

There was a question in Facebook as a comment on Sraddha as whether Sraddha procedures were laid down in the Vedas.


I replied that, to the best of my knowledge , the procedure for Sraddha is laid down in the Smritis and that I do not find a reference to it in the Veda.


While making this comment I made a remark that I was not sure whether Sandyavandana procedure was mentioned in the Vedas.


I received a feedback that Vedas and Upanishads do mention Sandhyavandana.


I have been able to locate the reference, which I reproduce.



“There are references in the vedas regarding Sandyavandanam. A reference occurs in “Second prasna, Second Anuvaka of Thaithria Aranyaka (Yajur Veda)”, explaining procedure of worship. The procedure of worship indicated is by offering “Arghya” (water in the palms of both hands thrown up), at the time of sunrise and sunset, meditating on Aditya (Sun).

Verses 15 & 16 of Ishvashya upanishad of Shukla Yajurveda also refers to Sun worship as above at sunrise and sunset.

Chandogya upanisad (Chapter 2 Section ix) discusses “Aditya vidya” explaining the importance of meditation of Sun or Aditya at sunrise and sunset, bringing out also the points mentioned above. Chapter 3, Section xii, of this upanishad explains meditation of aditya through gayatri. It also explains that the sun in the horizon outside and the sun element inside us are one and the same and there is no difference. The identity should be kept in mind while meditating through gayatri. This is the meaning of “Asavadityao brahma” recited during sandyavandanam.

These views are also echoed in Aditya Hridaya of the Yuddakanda of Ramayan. Agasthya explains to Sri Rama, the merits of worshipping Aditya. Aditya protects everyone, helps them in their duties, gives lustre, removes ignorance and provides happiness. He is friend of water and resides in every living thing.

Various Rishis set the procedures. Variations are there in Rig, Yajur and Sama Santhyavanthanam and Madhyaniham procedures. Various Sutras difined various procedures. Apastamba, Boudhayana, Parasara and Yajnvalkya sutras are some of them. “


1.Verses 15 and 16 of Isavasya Upanishad  refer only to the extent that the Sun is to be worshiped.


2.References in Chandogya Upanishad.


Section 2 Chapter 9 says thus,


Verse 15.

हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्यापिहितं मुखम् ।
तत्त्वं पूषन्नपावृणु सत्यधर्माय दृष्टये ॥१५॥

hiranmayena patrena satyasyapihitam mukham ।
tattvam pusannapavrnu satyadharmaya drstaye ॥ 15॥


The face of truth is covered with a
golden disc. Unveil it, O Pushan, so that I
who love the truth may see it.

16.पूषन्नेकर्षे यम सूर्य प्राजापत्य व्यूह रश्मीन् समूह तेजः ।
यत्ते रूपं कल्याणतमं तत्ते पश्यामि योऽसावसौ पुरुषः सोऽहमस्मि ॥१६॥

pusannekarse yama surya prajapatya
vyuha rasmin samuha tejah ।
yatte rupam kalyanatamam tatte pasyami
yo’savasau purusah so’hamasmi ॥ 16॥


16. O Pushan, the sole seer, O Controller,
O Sun, offspring of Praja-pati, spread forth
your rays and gather up your radiant light
that I may behold you of loveliest form.
Whosoever is that person that also am.
I do not think this is a Procedure for Sandhyavandana.
Chandogya Upanishad Section 2,Chapter 9, says thus,
1. One should meditate on the sevenfold Saman as yonder sun. The sun is the Saman because he is always the same (sama). He is the Saman because he makes everyone cherish the same thought: “He faces me,” “He faces me.”2. One should know that all beings depend upon him (i.e. the sun). What he is before his rising is the syllable Him. The animals depend upon it (i.e. Him). Therefore the animals say “Him” before the sunrise, for they partake of the syllable Him of the Saman (sun).3. What he (the sun) is just after he has risen, that is the Prastava. Men depend upon it. Therefore men love praise (prastuti) and eulogy, for they partake of the Prastava of that Saman.

4. What he is when the rays go forth, that is the Adi. Birds depend upon It. Therefore birds hold themselves without support in the sky and fly about, for they partake of the Adi of that Saman.

5. What he is just at midday, that is the Udgitha. The devas (gods) are dependent upon it. Therefore they are the best of the offspring of Prajapati, for they partake of the Udgitha of that Sa man.

6. What he is after midday and before afternoon, that is the Pratihara. The foetuses depend upon it. Therefore they are held in the womb after being conceived and do not fall, for they partake of the Pratihara of the Saman.

7. What he is after the afternoon and before sunset, that is the Upadrava. The animals of the forest depend upon it. Therefore they run (upadravanti) to the forest and their caves when they see a man, for partake of the Upadrava of that Saman.

8. What he is just after the sunset, that is the Nidhana.,The Manes depend upon it. Therefore they put them (i.e. the Manes) down (nidadhati), for they partake of the Nidhana of that Saman. Thus a man meditates on the sevenfold Saman as the sun.

Chandogya Section3, Chapter 3.

Meditation on the Udgitha as the Sun and the Vyana

1. Now is described the meditation on the Udgitha with reference to the gods: One should meditate on the Udgitha as the sun who gives warmth. When he (the sun) rises he sings the Udgitha for the benefit of all creatures. When he rises he destroys darkness and fear. He who knows this becomes the destroyer of darkness and fear.

2. This prana and that sun are the same. This is warm and that is warm. This they call svara (what goes out) and that, pratyasvara (what returns). Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha as this and that.

3. One should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyana. That which one breathes out is the prana and that which one breathes in is the apana. That which is the junction of the prana and the apana is the Vyana. This vyana is speech. Therefore when one utters speech one stops the prana and the apana.

4. That which is speech is the Rik. Therefore when a man utters a Rik he neither breathes out nor breathes in. That which is the Rik is the Saman. Therefore when a man sings a Saman, he neither breathes out nor breathes in. That which is the Saman is the Udgitha. Therefore when a man sings the Udgitha he neither breathes out nor breathes in.

5. And other works also which require strength, such as the kindling of fire by rubbing, running a race and stringing a strong bow, are performed without breathing out or breathing in. Therefore one should meditate on the Udgitha as the vyana.

6. One should meditate on the letters of the word Udgitha (i.e. ut, gi and tha). Ut is the prana, for a man rises (uttishthati) by means of the prana. Gi is speech, for speeches are called girah. Tha is food, for all this subsists (sthita) on food.

7. Ut is heaven, gi the mid—region and tha the earth. Ut is the sun, gi the air and tha fire. Ut is the Sama—Veda, gi the Yajur—Veda and tha the Rig—Veda. To him who thus meditates speech yields milk and milk is speech. He who knows this and meditates on the letters of the Udgitha becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food.

8. Next follows the fulfilment of prayers. One should thus meditate on the object one wishes to obtain through meditation: he (i.e. the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Saman with which he is going chant the praise.

9. He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the Rik in which that Saman occurs, on the rishi to whom it was revealed and on the deity whom he is going to praise.

10. He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the metre in which he is going to chant the praise; he should meditate on the hymn by which he is going to chant the praise.

11. He (the udgatri priest) should meditate on the quarter of space facing which he is going to chant the praise.

12. Finally, he (the udgatri priest) should meditate on himself and then on the object desired and chant the praise correctly. Thus will be quickly fulfilled for him the desire, desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise, yea, desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise.


There are more references cited as below in some web sites on this subject.


Rig Veda Samhita 3.62.10


Here one finds a reference to Gayathri Mantra, no procedures.


Again The Taitriya Aranyaka says,


Pancha Maha Yajna

Pancha vaa ete mahayajnaassatati
Prataayante satati santishtante
Devayajnah pitr
yajno bhutayajno
Manushya yajno brahmayajna iti
These are the five great sacrifices which are to be performed on a daily basis and completed.
They are
deva yajna, pitr
u yajna, bhuta yajna, manushya yajna
brahma yajna  2.10.
2.11 goes on to describe the Gayatri Mantra recitation procedure.
No procedures for Sandhyavandan as a whole.
As to Agasthya instructing Rama, this too stresses the importance of Sun worship, no procedures.
One may well remember that Rama had Upanayana performed much before Yuddha Kanda and as such should have known the Sandhya vandana.
Again, No procedure.
All these do not constitute a procedure for performing Sandhyavandana.
References to worship of the Sun is mentioned, no procedures to be followed are set.
As I said of Sraddham, these procedures are set by Smriti, not by Sruthi.
Inputs clarifications welcome.







Religion Rituals Hinduism Work

In Hinduism on August 31, 2014 at 10:17

I have come across comments like,


‘For reaching God, Self Realization, it is enough if our heart is pure,there is no necessity of the rituals, Poojas, visiting temples’


‘Love for All is the central message of Religions and of Spirituality,if I love all, there is no need for following Religion’


‘Wearing Caste-mark on the forehead, taking bath before Pooja, following strict cumbersome procedures fo the Pooja, Are they necessary?


God is everywhere,why should I perform all these,they are nothing but expressions of hypocrisy’


I have recently received a comment,


I got your Comment on My Blog, So I came Here
Seeing your blog, I find it is Spiritually Inclined. So I asking some Questions I Have

Today Hinduism is full of Rituals. I feel that it is corruption of Hinduism. What do you say.
True Hindu should worship work, not conduct rituals. What do you think.”


Let me attempt to answer as I have been doing till now to my children and close friends.


It is alright and it sounds nice to say that “I know that God is everywhere and I treat everyone equally’


Is it an honest statement?( I am speaking out myself)?


Do I treat everyone equally?


Do I love everyone and everything in the world?


Am I free from prejudices, anger, Lust for power,women, money?


Do I forgive others?


Am I helping others?


Is my heart pure enough not to feel jealous of others?


Do I place others before myself?


Am I innocent?


Did/Do I not  hurt many in my life, both professional and personal?


Am I honest and follow what I say?


My answer is NO.


So I am not qualified to be counted among those who can realize God by these methods.


There is also this perception,


That if you do your Duty, there is no necessity of worshiping God.




Lord Krishna implies this in The Bhagavad Gita.


The confusion is what ‘work’ means’ though Krishna means Karma or Action’ which is different from work.


What is the Work we are talking about?


Going to office, 10-5, working in a software company or running a Business, where we earn?


What do we do here?


We earn money to satisfy our senses.


We remain unsatisfied whatever we earn.


We remain loyal , honest to others in the work place so that our jobs, businesses are secure.


Where is the question of Altruism?


At the end of the day, after we do our life’s work, what does remain for us?


Have we evolved Happier, Contented?


Have We answered our urge to know where We are, where were We and where do We go thither?


Have I answered these questions?


Of what use this money, the result of my dedication to work to Me finally?


By saying Everything is Brahman, I am Brahman,I Love All does not make One Spiritually evolved.


Every one can not become a Ramana Maharishi by asking ‘Who Am I?


It is only by searching within oneself for answers and finding them, does one become a Jnani or a Realized Soul?


Rituals, procedures laid for them, Poojas, Dhana, Dharma, Neethi Sastras,Vedas , Puranas, Ithihasas, Yoga all these are disciplines to follow , are to enable us to reach that mental and spiritual maturity to Realize Self/God.


One in a Million can become a Ramana Maharishi,Kanchi Periyavar,Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.


Even these people had  followed a system of discipline.


Merely Working in an office, running a business does not constitute a Sadahana.


Ding even this has to have an attitude, disposition as explained in Karma Yoga.


We do not follow this even.


Till we become mature enough we need the Rituals.


You may choose your own from any from the numerous paths explained in Hinduism.



Kanchi Kamakoti Mutt Guru Parampara Acharyas List

In Hinduism on July 1, 2014 at 11:53

Sri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham Guru Parampara, Acharyas List.


This rare photo was taken just few days before HH Mettur swamigal was initiated into sanyasa by Periyava himself. You can see Periyava is teaching something to HH Mettur Swamigal.jpg.

This rare photo was taken just few days before HH Mettur swamigal was initiated into sanyasa by Periyava himself. You can see Periyava is teaching something to HH Mettur Swamigal.

  1. Adi Sankara Bhagavatpada(482 BC-477 BC)
  2. Suresvaracharya(477 BC-407 BC)
  3. Sarvajnatman(407 BC-367 BC)
  4. Sathyabodhendra Saraswati(367 BC-268 BC)
  5. Jnanandendra Saraswati(268 BC-205 BC)
  6. Suddhanandendra Saraswati(205 BC-124 BC)
  7. Aanandaghanendra Saraswati(124 BC-55 BC)
  8. Kaivalyanandayogendra Saraswati(55 BC-28 AD)
  9. Krpa Sankarendra Saraswati(28 AD-69 AD)
  10. Sureswara Saraswati (69 AD-127 AD)
  11. Sivananda Chidghanendra Saraswati(127 AD-172 AD)
  12. Chandrasekharendra Saraswati(172-235)
  13. Satchidghanendra Saraswati(235-272)
  14. Vidyaghanendra Saraswati(272-317)
  15. Gangadharendra Saraswati(317-329)
  16. Ujjvala Sankarendra Saraswati(329-367)
  17. Sadasivendra Saraswati(367-375)
  18. Shankarananda Saraswati(375-385)
  19. Martanda Vidyaghanendra Saraswati(385-398)
  20. Muka Sankarendra Saraswati(398-437)
  21. Chandrasekharendra Saraswati II(437-447)
  22. Bodhendra Saraswati(447-481)
  23. Satchisukhendra Saraswati(481-512)
  24. Chitsukhendra Saraswati(512-527)
  25. Satchidanandaghanendra Saraswati(527-548)
  26. Prajnaghanendra Saraswati(548-565)
  27. Chidvilasendra Saraswati(565-577)
  28. Mahadeve11dra Saraswati I(577-601)
  29. Purnabhodhendra Saraswati(601-618)
  30. Bhodhendra Saraswati II(618-655)
  31. Brahmanandaghanendra Saraswati(655-668)
  32. Chidanandaghanendra Saraswati(668-672)
  33. Satchidananda Saraswati(672-692)
  34. Chandrasekharendra Saraswati III(692-710)
  35. Chitsukhendra Saraswati(710-737)
  36. Chitsukhanandendra Saraswati(737-758)
  37. Vidyaghanendra Saraswati III(758-788)
  38. Abhinava Sankarendra Saraswati(788-840)
  39. Satchidvilaasendra Saraswati(840-873)
  40. Mahadevendra Saraswati II(873-915)
  41. Gangadharendra Saraswati II(915-950)
  42. Brahmanandaghanendra Saraswati(950-978)
  43. Anandaghanendra Saraswati(978-1014)
  44. Purnabhodhendra Saraswati II(1014-1040)
  45. Paramasivendra Saraswati I(1040-1061)
  46. Sandranandabhodhendra Saraswati(1061-1098)
  47. Chandrasekharendra Saraswati IV(1098-1166)
  48. Advaitanandabodhendra Saraswati(1166-1200)
  49. Mahadevendra Saraswati III(1200-1247)
  50. Chandrachudendra Saraswati I(1247-1297)
  51. Kamachandrendra Saraswati(1297-1385)
  52. Vidyateerthendra Saraswati (1297–1370)
  53. Sankaranandendra Saraswati (1370–1417)
  54. Purnananda Sadasivendra Saraswati (1417–1498)
  55. Vyasachala Mahadevendra Saraswati (1498–1507)
  56. Chandrachudhendra Saraswati II (1507–1524)
  57. Sarvajna Sadasiva Bhodhendra Saraswati (1524–1539)
  58. Paramasivendra Saraswati II (1539–1586)
  59. Atma Bodhendra Saraswati (1586–1638)
  60. Bodhendra Saraswathi (1638–1692)
  61. Advaitatma Prakasendra Saraswati (1692–1704)
  62. Mahadevendra Saraswati IV (1704–1746)
  63. ChandrasekharendraSaraswati V (1746–1783)
  64. Mahadevendra Saraswati V (1783–1813)
  65. Chandrasekharendra Saraswati VI (1813–1851)
  66. Sudarsana Mahadevendra Saraswati (1851–1891)
  67. Chandrasekharendra Saraswati VII (1891 – February 7, 1907)
  68. Mahadevendra Saraswathi V (February 7, 1907 – February 13, 1907)
  69. Chandrashekarendra Saraswati Swamigal (February 13, 1907 – January 3, 1994)
  70. Jayendra Saraswathi Swamigal
  71. Vijayendra Saraswati Swamigal





Image Credit.




There seems to be a controversy on this list.

I am collecting information and shall post on this subject.


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