ramanan50

Posts Tagged ‘Nile’

Mummified Bodies,Magical Signs Scripts

In History, Interesting and funny on December 21, 2013 at 12:17

A Crypt with Mummified bodies, surrounded by magical Codes,inscriptions were found in Sudan near Khartoum.

One of the mummies is identified as that of an Archbishop.

The Dongola Crypt

The 900-year-old crypt (entranceway shown) uncovered in Old Dongola in modern-day Sudan contains seven mummified bodies and walls covered with inscriptions written in Greek and Sahidic Coptic Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2527014/The-ancient-crypt-protected-MAGIC-900-year-old-tomb-covered-mysterious-inscriptions-protect-bodies-against-evil.html#ixzz2o5bCcg1i Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

“A mysterious 900-year-old crypt covered floor to ceiling in ‘magical’ inscriptions has been uncovered in Sudan.

The crypt, which was found containing seven naturally mummified bodies, was excavated in a monastery at Old Dongola – the capital of a lost medieval kingdom that flourished in the Nile Valley.

One of the mummies is thought to be that of Archbishop Georgios, an extremely powerful religious leader in the ancient Makuria kingdom.

The inscriptions on the walls of the crypt were written with black ink on a layer of whitewash and have been identified as Greek and Sahidic Coptic.

Researchers believe the inscriptions served as protection for the deceased against evil powers.

They were ‘intended to safeguard not only the tomb, but primarily those who were buried inside of it during the dangerous liminal period between the moment of dying and their appearance before the throne of God,’ wrote Adam Lajtar of the University of Warsaw, in the journal Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean.

According to the researchers, Archbishop Georgios’ epitaph was found nearby, stating that he died in A.D. 1113 at the age of 82. They believe one of the mummified bodies within the crypt is of the religious leader.

The other mummies within the crypt were of men all over 40 years of age, said anthropologist Robert Mahler.

They were all dressed very simply in linen clothing and the crypt was likely sealed after the last of the burials took place.

 

History.

The archaeological site of Old Dongola in what is today Sudan has a rich history. Originally built as a fortress in the fifth century, Dongola grew into a prosperous town thanks to its Nile-side location and, after its conversion to Christianity by the end of the sixth century, became the capital of the Coptic Christian kingdom of Makuria. In the seventh century, Makuria was able to defeat the forces of the Rashidun Caliphate after its successful invasion of Egypt. The ensuing peace treaty established trade relationships between Muslim Egypt and Christian Nubia that lasted for 600 years, a long period of stability that allowed the Kingdom of Makuria to flourish. The kingdom’s power began to wane in the 12th century and it was finally defeated by the Sultan of Egypt in the 14th century.

In 1993, the Polish Archaeological Mission (PAM) discovered three burial crypts in the northwest annex of a monastery in Old Dongola. Archaeologists believe they were part of a commemorative complex built either at the direction of or for the burial of Archbishop Georgios, Dongola’s primary cleric who was appointed directly by the Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria rather than via a national church hierarchy. According to a funerary stele found in the annex near the crypts, the archbishop died in 1113 A.D. when he was 82 years old.

Inside each chamber were several natural mummies, some wrapped in textiles, and the walls of the southernmost crypt were covered with inscriptions written in Greek and Sahidic Coptic. The crypts were photographed and then resealed to preserve the contents until a more thorough excavation could be done.That finally happened in 2009.

They found that the southern crypt (crypt 1) held seven mummies, one of which is thought to be the body of Archbishop Georgios. Archaeologists were not able to single out which of the bodies, if any, was the Archbishop’s. They are all adult males older than 40 and, judging from the extensive evidence of chronic and degenerative illnesses, probably older than that at the time of death. The bodies were dressed fairly modestly, mainly in linen garments, wrapped in shrouds and then interred in the crypt over a course of years. Four pectoral crosses were found in the crypt as well, two of them wood, one of them stone, one of them glass.

The inscriptions on the walls of crypt 1 provide a particularly fascinating glimpse into Makuria’s unique religious culture. Painted in black ink over a thin layer of whitewash, they cover the four walls of the barrel chamber almost entirely. They are in very good condition, except for areas where the walls themselves were damaged. The writing was all done by the same person, one Ioannes, who did us the favor of signing his name at the end of the inscriptions on the north, east and south walls. He probably signed the west wall too, but it was lost due to damage.

Ioannes was better at Coptic than he was at Greek. There are copious errors in the Greek, some of which he covered with whitewash and redid, like Medieval white-out, which suggests he may have been trying to copy a text, which suggests he had access to a library, either in the monastery or perhaps the private library of the archbishop. It’s a reversal of what you might expect, since Greek was still going great guns in the Eastern Church while Sahidic Coptic was already a dying language by the end of the 11th century.

The inscriptions begin on the west wall with an invocation of the Holy Trinity. Underneath that the writings are defined as a phylakterion malakias, a phylactery or amulet against weakness. A series of magical symbols in a frame follow, and beneath them are two lists, one of numerical cryptograms representing the names of god and angels, the other of magical divine names. Quotations from the gospels and prayers in Greek are next. One of the prayers, said to by the Virgin Mary, is well-known in a languages from Coptic to Arabic, but this is the first time it’s ever been found in Greek. Since Greek was probably its original language, it’s a highly significant find. The prayer ends abruptly with the invocation of a magical ritual meant to chase evil spirits from the tomb.

The inscription on the east wall quotes from the Gospel of Luke in Greek then moves on to a Coptic piece on the death of the Virgin Mary. It includes the prayer she spoke before she died and describes her final scene. This is an excerpt from a popular fourth century Coptic work by Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, but unlike every other extant version of the text known, the crypt inscription has a curious line: after Mary finishes praying, death appears to her “in the form of a rooster.”

Sources:

http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/date/2013/12/17

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2527014/The-ancient-crypt-protected-MAGIC-900-year-old-tomb-covered-mysterious-inscriptions-protect-bodies-against-evil.html

 

Earth At Night NASA Photo Video

In Astrophysics, videos on December 6, 2012 at 13:10

Look at India.(image)

Now we know why we have Power-cuts!

This image of Earth’s city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth’s surface.

The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region.

Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya.

The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization.

http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=55167

Earth At Night by NASA Click This for Image.

Enhanced by Zemanta

How The West Squanders Light and Energy Satellite Proof.

In Environment on July 9, 2012 at 20:43

The proof is here as to who guzzle energy and contribute to Global Pollution.

Irony is that these countries and the EU are taxing the countries like India under the guise of carbon Tax!

India is pondering to hit back.

Hope it does.

Story:

Waste of Energy

Britain and Europe at Night.

 

Waste of Energy

Light show: An image of the U.S. from space highlighting the staggering light pollution, especially on the east coast, in Houston, Texas, and San Francisco and Los Angeles on the west coast

Africa in Darkness,

In darkness: Third World countries in Africa barely register any light at night in contrast to the West, apart from an amazing trail of light from Cairo running down the Nile in Egypt

World at Night.

Global view: A satellite picture of the energy waste in the West and darkness in the rest of world showing how much more energy the rich world uses than other areas

 

At night, London is a burning bright spot, consuming enough energy to power Ireland with its light show.

But as these stunning images from space show, we in the West are guilty of wasting energy and polluting light on a staggering scale.

Now compare the Third World countries in Africa, South America and large swathes of Asia which lie in almost complete darkness

Each year London consumes 150 thousand gigawatt hours of energy, equal to the consumption of nations such as Portugal and Greece.

Campaigners have warned that 50 per cent of the UK’s population cannot see many stars because the night skies are ‘saturated’ with light pollution.

The pictures created by scientist Felix Pharand-DeschÍnes using data gathered by satellites highlight the contrast between the first and third world.

They show Egypt’s densely populated River Nile as it scorches a path through the darkness of Northern Africa while Japan is wall-to-wall light.

America shines brightly, but south of its border the countries are almost lightless and in central Asia, India and Australia barely any light is registered.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2170422/Revealed-The-stunning-images-Europe-wastes-energy-pollutes-light-Africa-South-America-Asia-darkness.html

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 3,078 other followers

%d bloggers like this: