Posts Tagged ‘Manusmriti’

Smritis List Manu Smriti Not For Us

In Hinduism on May 12, 2014 at 18:48

Smritis mean ‘those that are remebered’.


These are the orally transmitted Traditions of  Hinduism, some them have been written.



Religious Texts Of Hindus Chart.Image.jpg.

Religious Texts Of Hindus Chart

In terms of Religious Authority, they are of secondary in nature, the first and foremost being the ‘Sruthi‘,’ The Heard’ by the Rishis form the Ether,   The Vedas.


The Smritis function as unwritten code of conduct.


They lay down Norms of Behaviour in the Society and also are advisory in Nature to kings and his subjects.



Smritis also reflect the social Life of the Vedic India down the Ages.


There are Eighteen Smritis.


These are also called Dharma Sastras,Rules of Righteousness.


They are,


Yajnavalkya ,















Atri and


The Laws of Manu are intended for the Satya Yuga,

 Yajnavalkya ,for the Treta Yuga,

Sankha and Likhita are for the Dvapara Yuga and

of Parasara are for the Kali Yuga.

We are familiar with the Manu Smriti, which is not intended for KaliYuga.

Read my Post Manu Smriti not for Kali Yuga.

The Smritis are long treatises in Sanskrit prose.

These were /are transmitted Orally .

To remember, them Hinduism had devised systematic Memorizing Technics called ‘Paatas”

A sample of This procedure,

  • Forms of recitation included the jaṭā-pāṭha (literally “mesh recitation”) in which every two adjacent words in the text were first recited in their original order, then repeated in the reverse order, and finally again in the original order.[9] The recitation thus proceeded as:

word1word2, word2word1, word1word2; word2word3, word3word2, word2word3; …

  • In another form of recitation, dhvaja-pāṭha[9] (literally “flag recitation”) a sequence of N words were recited (and memorized) by pairing the first two and last two words and then proceeding as:

word1word2, word(N-1)wordN; word2word3, word(N-3)word(N-2); …; word(N-1)wordN, word1word2;

  • The most complex form of recitation, ghana-pāṭha (literally “dense recitation”), according to (Filliozat 2004, p. 139), took the form:

word1word2, word2word1, word1word2word3, word3word2word1, word1word2word3; word2word3, word3word2, word2word3word4, word4word3word2, word2word3word4; …Source.Wiki.








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Manu’s Derogatory Remarks On Women Status

In Hinduism on March 12, 2014 at 17:24

I shared some of my posts on Vedas where I have quoted from the Vedic Texts how women were accorded the highest regards ,women were Great Rishis.

One of readers from Facebook  sent in a Link which  quotes Manu on Women.

They are derogatory to Women.

Or Are they?

Before let us know what Manu Smriti is about and who Manu is.

Manu is a name for one who lays down Social norms, de facto.

This Manu changes from time to Time.

There are different Manus for different Manvanntaras, a Period of Time devised by Hindus.

Las of Manu

Manu Smriti Book by Buhler

On Manu and Manvantaras please read my posts filed under Hinduism.

So Manu  Smriti is not a fixed standard text that was followed nor does it carry the force of the Vedas.

To quote a contemporary example, Manu Smriti is like the Directive Principles of State Policy, while the Vedas are akin to the Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India.

While former need not be followed but only commendatory in nature , the latter has the force of Law and has to be followed.

In case of Conflict between the two, the Fundamental Rights will prevail.

So Vedas are like the Fundamental Rights and Manu Smriti, Directive principles of State Policy.

The major difference is that unlike the Fundamental Rights, Vedas can not be changed/amended.

As time changes, so are the customs and values.

Hence Manu Smriti also changes , depending on the Yuga.

What we now have as Manu Smriti , I am not sure is the one meant for Kali Yuga,

And The Manu Smriti reflects the Social Life.

Like the Films, the question of whether Society influences Life or the other way around, one is never sure.

With this back ground let us look at the quoted texts which are derogatory to women.


1.”Swabhav ev narinam …..” – 2/213. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this world; for that reason the wise are never unguarded in the company of females.”

I do not see anything derogatory here.

It is by  way of explanation of Nature.

Being a Seductress is not repulsive, it becomes dangerous when one falls for it. without thinking of the consequences to himself and family.

By implication it is the nature of Men to go after women,

True, but we do not admit it.

“Avidvam samlam………..” – 2/214. Women, true to their class character, are capable of leading astray men in this world, not only a fool but even a learned and wise man. Both become slaves of desire.”

This follows the earlier one and this is a fact;we may not like the fact.

Some times we refuse to accept Nature, when explained.

We may not like Gravity,but it is.

Truth need not be palatable.

Look at the Empires that have Crashed,Misery befallen ,from Ramayana to French/Russian Revolution.

Dasaratha was a wise King,Draupadi was born in Fire ,yet one’s one moment of weak will sent Lord Rama to forest and another ensured Mahabharata war.

What Bloody Mary did and the Tsarina had for Rasputin History knows.

Expressing the consequences arising out of nature is not to defame.

3.Matra swastra ………..” – 2/215. Wise people should avoid sitting alone with one’s mother, daughter or sister. Since carnal desire is always strong, it can lead to temptation.

This actually insults Men, nothing is said of women here,

And it is also a sordid fact which none seems to acknowledge is the amount of Incest that goes on.

Other Smritis also say that after the Age of ten , a Girl must not sleep in the same bed with her father,brother.

Hinduism knows Human instincts and goes by it, not by misplaced ideological non sense.

Essentially we are animals by Instinct.

One has to evolve by practice.

This verse is by way of caution and I see nothing wrong in it.

Why should women object to this?

It is for their safety and welfare.

Read under ‘interesting and funny’ in my blog.

4.Naudwahay……………..” – 3/8. One should not marry women who has/ had reddish hair, redundant  parts of the body [such as six fingers], one who is often sick, one without hair or having excessive hair and one who has red eyes.

This seems to be a correlation arrived at(may be true or untrue) between Physiognomy and Behavior.

Manu Smriti says of Men that a woman should not marry a Angaheena physically challenged,one who has deserted his wife/Family,has disease.

This is not an insult, is an advice.

5.Nraksh vraksh ………..” – 3/9. One should not marry women whose names are similar to constellations,  trees, rivers, those from a low-caste, mountains, birds, snakes, slaves or those whose names inspires terror.

This reflects the belief of the times.

For example every Nakshatra has some or other  stigma attached to it.

Chithrai Appan Theruvile-parents of children born in Chithra Nakshatra shall be on the streets, deserted by their children.

Is it?

No. It is a belief the people had.

6.Yasto na bhavet ….. …..” – 3/10. Wise men should not marry women who do not have a brother and whose parents are not socially well-known.

What is wrong in this?

Even to-day we check the family background before getting married.

The point about Brother is that one who s born with a Brother knows to deal with a Man better than the one with out a sibling.

This is a fact.

There are 40 quotes on the site,

As the blog is getting lengthy, I shall post in the next Post/s.



Thank you Mr.Sridhar Aiyangar.


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Hinduism Daily Rules To Follow.

In Hinduism on October 28, 2013 at 09:20

Hinduism sets down Rules for every one.

Lifestyle tips from the Vedas.

Hindu Rule for Life,From the Veda.

It does not say that Hindus alone should follow these rules.

Nor does it sat that only those who follow these Rules are Hindus.

These are suggested ways o Life as found by wise men.

We have these sets of Rules, not classified as rules as such in the Vedas, Puarana, Epics Like the Mahabharata and other literature .

So it becomes difficult to codify all these under one head.

But efforts have been made earlier with various Smritis, like Manu Smriti,Sukra Neethi,Vashista Needhi,Vidhura Needhi.

Even these texts are too long and at times difficult to understand.

Sree Vatsa Somadeva Sarma,under the guidance of Kanchi Maha Periyavar, published a book in Tamil,’Vaidika Samvardini’,containing the essentials of behavior according to Hinduism.

These rules, contrary to popular misconception, is to be followed by all, not meant for only Brahmins.

One wil notice that these rules have a scientific bearing and are conducive to good Health , both mental and Physical.

The Rules:

Do not look at the Sun, during,

Sun Rise,,


At Noon,

as a Reflection in Water,

and during Eclipses.

2.Always perambulate in a Clockwise direction, Brahmins,Temples,Idols of God,Cow, Married woman, and Pipal tree (AswathaTree)

* King Dileepa did beget children because he perambulated these  anti clock wise.

3. What not to do with Fire.

Blowing out by Mouth,

Jumping over,


Keeping on the ground(keep on a non combustible) container,

Douse it with Water,

Warm the feet,

Drop unclean things and

add more fire to the existing Fire.

4.How to approach a Holy Rivers.

Do not keep your feet first.

Sprinkle water on the head first(Prokshana),

Then wash feet.

Do not take bath without clothes , have a cloth for private parts’

Do not spit or gargle .

If you need to, take water in a vessel and gargle.

Do not urinate or pass motion.

Do not Drop stones.

5.Never do the following for only for one self.


Prepare Garlands.

Prepare Snacks.

These are to be offered to God and Guests first.

6.How to Sleep.

Sleep only after washing and drying  the feet.

Pray God.

Do not sleep. keeping the head in the North.

Do not sleep in a dilapidated building.

Do not Sleep in a Cot that is disrepair.

Never wake up one who is sleeping.

Never wake up the elders.

7.Do not do the following with a woman in Menstruation.

Do not go near them for the fist three days.

Do not talk with them nor hear them while eating.

Do not eat what is left after they eat.

You can approach them only after the fifth day.

8.How to treat a Cow.

perambulate in a Clock wise direction.

Scratching it.

Provide food .Never beat it in any form,

Never inform owner if the Cow grazes on the field.

8.Do not use the following which others have used,


Footwear,Seats,Vessels used for drinking water, partaking Food,bed ,Japa Mala and Garlands.


Inhale the smoke from the Corpse,

expose yourself to Early morning Sun,

Shadows of Men,

Shadows of the morally deviant.

To be Continued.

Aswatha Stotra:

Among the trees Aswatha is the most religious for all Hindus. In most of the places, an idol of God is consecrated below the tree. In Kerala and Tamil Nadu, the family which plants the tree, does sacred thread ceremony to the tree and then conducts its marriage with the neem tree. Most of the serpent temples in Kerala and Ganesa temples in Tamil Nadu are below this tree. Women who are not able to beget children are asked to go round the tree daily.  The great shade of the tree is used as the meeting place of senior citizens in every village.)



Moolatho Brahma roopaya , madhyatho Vishnu roopine,

Agratha shiva roopaya Vruksha rajaya they nama.                                          1


My salutations to the king of trees.

Whose root is the form of Brahma,

Middle is the form of Lord Vishnu,

And top is the form of Lord Shiva.


Aswatha sarva papani satha janma arjithanicha,

Nudhaswa mama vrakshendra , sarva aiswarya pradho bhava.                          2


The holy fig(banyan)  tree pushes away , all sins earned,

In several hundred births, and Oh king of trees,

Please grant me all different types  of wealth.


Ayurbalam yaso varcha , praja pasu vasooni cha,

Brahma prajnam cha medham cha thwam nodehi Vanaspathe.                           3


Would you not give me, Oh product of the forest.

Long life, fame, splendour , children , cattle and riches,

As also knowledge of God and intellectual wisdom.


Sathatham varuno raksheth thwamarad vrushtirasrayedh,

Parithasthwam nishevantham thrunani sukhamasthu they.                                   4


You are always protected by Varuna as you are rain dependent,

And you do not allow any grass to grow in the shade round you.


Akshi spandham bhujaspandham duswapnam dhurvichinthanam,

Sathroonam cha samuthanam hyaswastha samaya Prabho.                                    5


Oh Lord Aswatha , please control pain in the eye,

Pain of hands , bad dreams , bad and evil thoughts,

And help me in destruction of my enemies.


Aswathaya varenyaya sarva aiswarya pradhayine,

Namo duswapna nasaya , suswapna phala dhayine.                                                  6


Oh Aswatha who blesses us and grants all type of wealth,

My salutations to you , who destroys bad dreams and grants good dreams.


Yaam drushtwa muchythe rogai,

Sprushtwa papapai pramuchyathe,

Yad ashrayath chiran jeevi,

Tham Aswatham namamyaham.                                                                                  7


I salute that Aswatha ,

Seeing which diseases flee,

Touching which sins are destroyed ,

And surrendering to which ,

You get long healthy life.


Aswatha sumaha bhaga , subhaga , Priya darsana,

Ishta kamam cha  may dehi shatrubhyascha parabhavam.                                                8


Oh great Lord Aswatha, who is pretty and looks pretty,

Please fulfill all my desires and give disappointment to my enemies.


Aayu prajam dhanam dhanyam soubhagyam  sarva sampadam,

Dehi deva maha Vruksha , thwam aham saranam gatha.                                                    9


I surrender fully to you  and ,

So be pleased to give , oh great tree,

Long life, sons, wealth , cereals,

Great luck all types of wealth.


Rig yaju sama manthrathma, sarva roopi, parathpara,

Aswatho veda moolo asou rishibhi prochyathe sada.                                                        10


Great sages go in search of Aswatha ,

As it is the soul of Rig, Yajur and sama Vedas

And takes all forms , greater than the greatest,

And is the root of all the three Vedas.


Brahmaha guruha chaiva daridhro vyadhi peeditha,

Aavarthya  laksha sankhyam tham sthothram yedath sukhee bhavth.                               11


If this prayer is repeated one hundred thousand times,

Even those cursed by Brahma or the teacher,

And those who are  poor and diseased,

Would get cured of all ills and lead a pleasant life.


Vyaktha avyaktha swaroopaya , srushti sthithyantha karine,

Adhi madhyanth soonyaya vishtarasravase nama.                                                             12


Salutations to the very stable one,

Who has clear and unclear forms,

Who creates , looks after and destroys,

And who does not have beginning, middle and end.


Ravim rava vadharaogye,

Shivam some Shivaya cha,

Shakthim bhoume jayarthi cha,

Vanijyarthi budhe saran,                                                                                                    13


Gurou gurum cha Vidhyarthi,

Dhanarthi bhargave sriyam,

Sarva dukha vimoksharthee,

Sarvesam mandha vasare.                                                                                                 14


Sarvada sarva devam scha ,

Viseshanmada somayo,

Aswatha roopino devan,

Vruksha rajo prapoojayeth.                                                                                                15




Go round on Sundays and worshipping Sun  to get heath,

Go round on Mondays and worshipping Shiva to get pleasant life,

Go round on Tuesdays and worshipping Parvathy  ,to get victory,,

Go round on Wednesdays and worshipping devas , to get luck in business,

Go round on Thursdays  and Worshipping Guru to get good knowledge,

Go round on Fridays and worshipping Goddess Lakshmi to get wealth,

Go round on Saturdays and worshipping  the greatest god , to get rid of all sorrow.


Always all gods  especially Saturn and the moon,

Worship the God in the form of Aswatha,

And offer prayers to this Lord of all trees.




Six Sinners Who Can Be Killed Without Mercy

In Hinduism on October 8, 2013 at 19:13

Though there are many sins listed in Hinduism, Six sins are rated as the worst sins and one does not beget sin by killing those who commit them.

These sins are listed in the Vasishta Smriti and Manu Smriti.

Hell, Hinduism.

Hindu Concept of Hell.

They are,


2.One who poisons,

3.One who attempts to kill, with arms, one without arms,

4.One who grabs another’s wealth.

5.Who grabs another’s Land and

6.One who kidnaps, rapes another’s wife.

They are called the ‘aadhadhayees’

These six are worthy of being killed without a second thought.

‘Aaadhadhayye Namayaandham Hanyaaathe vaavicharayan,

Naadhadhayevadhe dhosho handhurbhavati Kaschana. Manu Smriti (8/350/351)

No sin accrues by killing one who comes with the intention of killing.

Agnitho Karadhaschiva sastrapanirthanabhah,

kshetrathaarobaharta ca shdadhe hyadhatathatyinah’   Vasitha Smriti (3 /19)

The meaning of this has been listed at the top,

However, there is another interesting view on Killing.

Sa Eva Papishtodhamo yah kurayath Kula Naasanam’

He is the greatest Sinner who destroys his Family/ Kin. –Smriti

No wonder why Arjuna was confused in Arjuna Vishada Yoga(Chapter 1 The Bhagavad Gita)

Lord Krishna explains elsewhere in the Gita.

Subtle are the ways of the Dharama, even the most Learned would find it difficult to understand that.

Manu Smriti ,Who A Brahmin Is How To Learn Veda

In Hinduism on October 1, 2013 at 23:52

I have devoted some posts on this subject.

I have been asked by email the Manu Smriti‘s stand on Brahmins and the discipline needed to learn the Vedas.

Laws of Manu

Manu Smriti.

I am reproducing  aversion of Manu Smriti on this and you may read the Full Text in the Link.

You would find details on this and also on Naming of Children and a host of information.

Manu Smriti, Chapter II.

1. Learn that sacred law which is followed by men learned (in the Veda) and assented to in their hearts by the virtuous, who are ever exempt from hatred and inordinate affection.

2. To act solely from a desire for rewards is not laudable, yet an exemption from that desire is not (to be found) in this (world): for on (that) desire is grounded the study of the Veda and the performance of the actions, prescribed by the Veda.

3. The desire (for rewards), indeed, has its root in the conception that an act can yield them, and in consequence of (that) conception sacrifices are performed; vows and the laws prescribing restraints are all stated to be kept through the idea that they will bear fruit.

4. Not a single act here (below) appears ever to be done by a man free from desire; for whatever (man) does, it is (the result of) the impulse of desire.

5. He who persists in discharging these (prescribed duties) in the right manner, reaches the deathless state and even in this (life) obtains (the fulfilment of) all the desires that he may have conceived.

6. The whole Veda is the (first) source of the sacred law, next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those who know the (Veda further), also the customs of holy men, and (finally) self-satisfaction.

7. Whatever law has been ordained for any (person) by Manu, that has been fully declared in the Veda: for that (sage was) omniscient.

8. But a learned man after fully scrutinising all this with the eye of knowledge, should, in accordance with the authority of the revealed texts, be intent on (the performance of) his duties.

9. For that man who obeys the law prescribed in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition, gains fame in this (world) and after death unsurpassable bliss.

10. But by Sruti (revelation) is meant the Veda, and by Smriti (tradition) the Institutes of the sacred law: those two must not be called into question in any matter, since from those two the sacred law shone forth.

11. Every twice-born man, who, relying on the Institutes of dialectics, treats with contempt those two sources (of the law), must be cast out by the virtuous, as an atheist and a scorner of the Veda.

12. The Veda, the sacred tradition, the customs of virtuous men, and one’s own pleasure, they declare to be visibly the fourfold means of defining the sacred law.

13. The knowledge of the sacred law is prescribed for those who are not given to the acquisition of wealth and to the gratification of their desires; to those who seek the knowledge of the sacred law the supreme authority is the revelation (Sruti).

14. But when two sacred texts (Sruti) are conflicting, both are held to be law; for both are pronounced by the wise (to be) valid law.

15. (Thus) the (Agnihotra) sacrifice may be (optionally) performed, at any time after the sun has risen, before he has risen, or when neither sun nor stars are visible; that (is declared) by Vedic texts.

16. Know that he for whom (the performance of) the ceremonies beginning with the rite of impregnation (Garbhadhana) and ending with the funeral rite (Antyeshti) is prescribed, while sacred formulas are being recited, is entitled (to study) these Institutes, but no other man whatsoever.

17. That land, created by the gods, which lies between the two divine rivers Sarasvati and Drishadvati, the (sages) call Brahmavarta.

18. The custom handed down in regular succession (since time immemorial) among the (four chief) castes (varna) and the mixed (races) of that country, is called the conduct of virtuous men.

19. The plain of the Kurus, the (country of the) Matsyas, Pankalas, and Surasenakas, these (form), indeed, the country of the Brahmarshis (Brahmanical sages, which ranks) immediately after Brahmavarta.

20. From a Brahmana, born in that country, let all men on earth learn their several usages.

21. That (country) which (lies) between the Himavat and the Vindhya (mountains) to the east of Prayaga and to the west of Vinasana (the place where the river Sarasvati disappears) is called Madhyadesa (the central region).

22. But (the tract) between those two mountains (just mentioned), which (extends) as far as the eastern and the western oceans, the wise call Aryavarta (the country of the Aryans).

23. That land where the black antelope naturally roams, one must know to be fit for the performance of sacrifices; (the tract) different from that (is) the country of the Mlekkhas (barbarians).

24. Let twice-born men seek to dwell in those (above-mentioned countries); but a Sudra, distressed for subsistence, may reside anywhere.

25. Thus has the origin of the sacred law been succinctly described to you and the origin of this universe; learn (now) the duties of the castes (varna).

26. With holy rites, prescribed by the Veda, must the ceremony on conception and other sacraments be performed for twice-born men, which sanctify the body and purify (from sin) in this (life) and after death.

27. By burnt oblations during (the mother’s) pregnancy, by the Gatakarman (the ceremony after birth), the Kauda (tonsure), and the Maungibandhana (the tying of the sacred girdle of Munga grass) is the taint, derived from both parents, removed from twice-born men.

28. By the study of the Veda, by vows, by burnt oblations, by (the recitation of) sacred texts, by the (acquisition of the) threefold sacred science, by offering (to the gods, Rishis, and manes), by (the procreation of) sons, by the great sacrifices, and by (Srauta) rites this (human) body is made fit for (union with) Brahman.

29. Before the navel-string is cut, the Gatakarman (birth-rite) must be performed for a male (child); and while sacred formulas are being recited, he must be fed with gold, honey, and butter.

30. But let (the father perform or) cause to be performed the Namadheya (the rite of naming the child), on the tenth or twelfth (day after birth), or on a lucky lunar day, in a lucky muhurta, under an auspicious constellation.

31. Let (the first part of) a Brahmana’s name (denote something) auspicious, a Kshatriya‘s be connected with power, and a Vaisya‘s with wealth, but a Sudra’s (express something) contemptible.

32. (The second part of) a Brahmana’s (name) shall be (a word) implying happiness, of a Kshatriya’s (a word) implying protection, of a Vaisya’s (a term) expressive of thriving, and of a Sudra’s (an expression) denoting service.

33. The names of women should be easy to pronounce, not imply anything dreadful, possess a plain meaning, be pleasing and auspicious, end in long vowels, and contain a word of benediction.

34. In the fourth month the Nishkramana (the first leaving of the house) of the child should be performed, in the sixth month the Annaprasana (first feeding with rice), and optionally (any other) auspicious ceremony required by (the custom of) the family.

35. According to the teaching of the revealed texts, the Kudakarman (tonsure) must be performed, for the sake of spiritual merit, by all twice-born men in the first or third year.

36. In the eighth year after conception, one should perform the initiation (upanayana) of a Brahmana, in the eleventh after conception (that) of a Kshatriya, but in the twelfth that of a Vaisya.

37. (The initiation) of a Brahmana who desires proficiency in sacred learning should take place in the fifth (year after conception), (that) of a Kshatriya who wishes to become powerful in the sixth, (and that) of a Vaisya who longs for (success in his) business in the eighth.

38. The (time for the) Savitri (initiation) of a Brahmana does not pass until the completion of the sixteenth year (after conception), of a Kshatriya until the completion of the twenty-second, and of a Vaisya until the completion of the twenty-fourth.

39. After those (periods men of) these three (castes) who have not received the sacrament at the proper time, become Vratyas (outcasts), excluded from the Savitri (initiation) and despised by the Aryans.

40. With such men, if they have not been purified according to the rule, let no Brahmana ever, even in times of distress, form a connexion either through the Veda or by marriage.

41. Let students, according to the order (of their castes), wear (as upper dresses) the skins of black antelopes, spotted deer, and he-goats, and (lower garments) made of hemp, flax or wool.

42. The girdle of a Brahmana shall consist of a of a triple cord of Munga grass, smooth and soft; (that) of a Kshatriya, of a bowstring, made of Murva fibres; (that) of a Vaisya, of hempen threads.

43. If Munga grass (and so forth) be not procurable, (the girdles) may be made of Kusa, Asmantaka, and Balbaga (fibres), with a single threefold knot, or with three or five (knots according to the custom of the family).

44. The sacrificial string of a Brahmana shall be made of cotton, (shall be) twisted to the right, (and consist) of three threads, that of a Kshatriya of hempen threads, (and) that of a Vaisya of woollen threads.

45. A Brahmana shall (carry), according to the sacred law, a staff of Bilva or Palasa; a Kshatriya, of Vata or Khadira; (and) a Vaisya, of Pilu or Udumbara.

46. The staff of a Brahmana shall be made of such length as to reach the end of his hair; that of a Kshatriya, to reach his forehead;

(and) that of a Vaisya, to reach (the tip of his) nose.

47. Let all the staves be straight, without a blemish, handsome to look at, not likely to terrify men, with their bark perfect, unhurt by fire.

48. Having taken a staff according to his choice, having worshipped the sun and walked round the fire, turning his right hand towards it, (the student) should beg alms according to the prescribed rule.

49. An initiated Brahmana should beg, beginning (his request with the word) lady (bhavati); a Kshatriya, placing (the word) lady in the middle, but a Vaisya, placing it at the end (of the formula).

50. Let him first beg food of his mother, or of his sister, or of his own maternal aunt, or of (some other) female who will not disgrace him (by a refusal).




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