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Posts Tagged ‘Manu’

Caste Apasthamba Sutra Contradicts Bhagavad Gita

In Hinduism on July 17, 2014 at 17:51

Code of Righteousness is contained  in many texts in Hinduism.

 

They are called Dharma Shastras.

 

Apasthamba Sutra.jpg

Apasthamba Sutra.

 

There are many.

 

Some of them are,

 

Apasthamba,

 

Bodhayana,

 

Vasishta,

 

Manu,

 

Gautama.

 


The Dharmasutra of Āpastamba forms a part of the larger Kalpasūtra of Āpastamba. It contains thirty praśnas, which literally means ‘questions’ or books. The subjects of this Dharmasūtra are well organized and preserved in good condition.

 

These praśanas consist of the Śrautasūtra followed by Mantrapāṭha which is used in domestic rites and is a collection of ritual formulas, the Gṛhyasūtra which deals with domestic rituals and lastly the Śulvasūtra which are principles of geometry needed for vedic rituals.

 

On Catse system, Apasthamba says thus,

 

 

Catvāro varṇā brāhmaṇa kṣatriya vaiśya śūdrāḥ || 4 ||
4. [There are] four castes — brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, vaiśyas, and śūdras.
All four are entitled to practice the Dharma set forth by the agreement of the Law-givers.
teṣāṃ pūrvaḥ pūrvo janmataś-śreyān || 5 ||
5. Among these, each preceding [caste] is superior by birth to the one
following.
aśūdrāṇām aduṣṭa-karmāṇām upāyanaṃ vedādhyayanam agnyādheyaṃ
phalavanti ca karmāṇi ||

 

Here the translation reads as’by Birth”

 

But the real meaning does not seem to be so.

 

This is a vital subject.

 

Would some one clarify on the Sanskrit Text and Translation?

 

 

अदुष्ट aduSTa adj. not guilty
अदुष्ट aduSTa adj. innocent
अदुष्ट aduSTa adj. not vitiated
अदुष्ट aduSTa adj. not bad

 

 

Bhagavad Gita.

 

According to the three modes of material nature and the work ascribed to them, the four divisions of human society were created by Me. And, although I am the creator of this system, you should know that I am yet the non-doer, being unchangeable.” (Bhagavad Gita 4.13)

 

The Caste is determined by the dispositions of the individual.

 

This subject of Three dispositions is discussed at length in the Gunathraya Vibhaaga Yoga of the Bhagavad Gita ,Chapter 14.

 

Obviously there is a contradiction of this is by Apasthamba.

 

As the Bhagavad Gita carries the weight of Sruthi its words are final.

 

Please read my posts on Caste.

 

Citation.

 

http://www.hinduwebsite.com/sacredscripts/hinduism/dharma/apasta1.asp#1.1.1

 

http://spokensanskrit.de/index.php?tinput=aduSTa&script=&direction=SE&link=yes

 

Manu To Janamejaya Mahabharat Kuru Dynasty

In Hinduism on May 29, 2014 at 20:25

This is the Family Tree of the Kurus.

 

Click on the Image to enlarge.

 

Manu to Janamejaya Family Tree. ImageGif.

Manu to Janamejaya Family Tree. Image credit.http://www.oocities.org/

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Family Tree Of Sita’s Father Janaka

In Hinduism on May 22, 2014 at 09:19

This is the Family Tree of Janaka, Father of Janaki,Sita the consort of Lord Rama.

 

 

Lord Rama,Flanked by Sita and Lakshmana, with Hanumanji at the Feet.Image.jpg.

Lord Rama,Flanked by Sita and Lakshmana, with Hanumanji at the Feet. Image credit.http://www.hindugodwallpaper.com/

  • Nimi - Nimi was son of King Ikshwaku and grandson of Manu.
  • Mithi – Founder of Mithila and the first Janaka.
  • Udavasu
  • Nandivardhana
  • Suketu
  • Devarata
  • Brihadratha
  • Mahavira
  • Sudhriti
  • Dristaketu
  • Haryasva
  • Maru
  • Pratindhaka
  • Kirtiratha
  • Devamidha
  • Vibudha
  • Mahidhrika
  • Kirtirata
  • Maharoma
  • Swarnaroma
  • Hrasvaroma
  • Seeradhwaja – Father of Sita.

The list of Janaks has been compiled from Valmiki Ramayana.[5]

Janaks after Ramayana[6]

  • Bhaanumaan
  • Shatadyumn
  • Shuchi
  • Oorjnaamaa
  • Kriti
  • Anjan
  • Kurujit
  • Arishtnemi
  • Shrutaayu
  • Supaarshwa
  • Srinjaya
  • Kshemaavee
  • Anenaa
  • Bhaumarath
  • Satyarath
  • Upagu
  • Upagupt
  • Swaagat
  • Swaanand
  • Suvarchaa
  • Supaarshwa
  • Subhaash
  • Sushrut
  • Jaya
  • Vijaya
  • Rit
  • Sunaya
  • Veetahavya
  • Dhriti
  • Bahulaashwa
  • Kriti

Note on Nimi the First of Janakas.

 

The Time ,Nimisha’ Minute is named after Nimi.

 

Once Nimi performed Yagya and invited Sage Vasishtha to be the main priest to conduct Yagya. However Sage vasishtha had already committed to conduct yagya for Lord Indra, he told Nimi that he would officiate as Head Priest after having conducted Lord Indra’s Yagya and thus Nimi will have to wait. Nimi went away without replying. Sage Vashistha got impression that King Nimi has assented to wait for him.

Sage Vasishtha conducted Lord Indra’s Yagya and rushed to preside at King Nimi’s Yagya only to find that the Yagya was already being conducted. Sage Vasishtha got angry and cursed King Nimi that “he would cease to live in corporal form”. Thus, King Nimi was left without his body. After the Yagya was conducted successfully, the priests asked the Gods to return King Nimi in his corporal form. However, King Nimi declined to go back in his body but requested that he be allowed to live in eyes of all beings. Gods assented to his desire and gave him form of eyelashes, which is present in all beings.

Source:wiki.

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Smritis List Manu Smriti Not For Us

In Hinduism on May 12, 2014 at 18:48

Smritis mean ‘those that are remebered’.

 

These are the orally transmitted Traditions of  Hinduism, some them have been written.

 

 

Religious Texts Of Hindus Chart.Image.jpg.

Religious Texts Of Hindus Chart

In terms of Religious Authority, they are of secondary in nature, the first and foremost being the ‘Sruthi‘,’ The Heard’ by the Rishis form the Ether,   The Vedas.

 

The Smritis function as unwritten code of conduct.

 

They lay down Norms of Behaviour in the Society and also are advisory in Nature to kings and his subjects.

 

 

Smritis also reflect the social Life of the Vedic India down the Ages.

 

There are Eighteen Smritis.

 

These are also called Dharma Sastras,Rules of Righteousness.

 

They are,

Manu,

Yajnavalkya ,

Parasara,

Vishnu,

Daksha,

Samvarta,

Vyasa,

Harita,

Satatapa,

Vasishtha,

Yama,

Apastamba,

Gautama,

Devala,

Sankha-Likhita,

Usana,

Atri and

                                                                                                                                                 Saunaka.



The Laws of Manu are intended for the Satya Yuga,

 Yajnavalkya ,for the Treta Yuga,

Sankha and Likhita are for the Dvapara Yuga and

of Parasara are for the Kali Yuga.

We are familiar with the Manu Smriti, which is not intended for KaliYuga.

Read my Post Manu Smriti not for Kali Yuga.

The Smritis are long treatises in Sanskrit prose.

These were /are transmitted Orally .

To remember, them Hinduism had devised systematic Memorizing Technics called ‘Paatas”

A sample of This procedure,

  • Forms of recitation included the jaṭā-pāṭha (literally “mesh recitation”) in which every two adjacent words in the text were first recited in their original order, then repeated in the reverse order, and finally again in the original order.[9] The recitation thus proceeded as:

word1word2, word2word1, word1word2; word2word3, word3word2, word2word3; …

  • In another form of recitation, dhvaja-pāṭha[9] (literally “flag recitation”) a sequence of N words were recited (and memorized) by pairing the first two and last two words and then proceeding as:

word1word2, word(N-1)wordN; word2word3, word(N-3)word(N-2); …; word(N-1)wordN, word1word2;

  • The most complex form of recitation, ghana-pāṭha (literally “dense recitation”), according to (Filliozat 2004, p. 139), took the form:

word1word2, word2word1, word1word2word3, word3word2word1, word1word2word3; word2word3, word3word2, word2word3word4, word4word3word2, word2word3word4; …Source.Wiki.

 

Citations.

 

http://sivanandaonline.org/public_html/?cmd=displaysection&section_id=572

 

https://archive.org/details/yajnavalkyasmrit00yj

https://archive.org/details/ParasharaSmriti

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Manu’s Derogatory Remarks On Women Status

In Hinduism on March 12, 2014 at 17:24

I shared some of my posts on Vedas where I have quoted from the Vedic Texts how women were accorded the highest regards ,women were Great Rishis.

One of readers from Facebook  sent in a Link which  quotes Manu on Women.

They are derogatory to Women.

Or Are they?

Before let us know what Manu Smriti is about and who Manu is.

Manu is a name for one who lays down Social norms, de facto.

This Manu changes from time to Time.

There are different Manus for different Manvanntaras, a Period of Time devised by Hindus.

Las of Manu

Manu Smriti Book by Buhler

On Manu and Manvantaras please read my posts filed under Hinduism.

So Manu  Smriti is not a fixed standard text that was followed nor does it carry the force of the Vedas.

To quote a contemporary example, Manu Smriti is like the Directive Principles of State Policy, while the Vedas are akin to the Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India.

While former need not be followed but only commendatory in nature , the latter has the force of Law and has to be followed.

In case of Conflict between the two, the Fundamental Rights will prevail.

So Vedas are like the Fundamental Rights and Manu Smriti, Directive principles of State Policy.

The major difference is that unlike the Fundamental Rights, Vedas can not be changed/amended.

As time changes, so are the customs and values.

Hence Manu Smriti also changes , depending on the Yuga.

What we now have as Manu Smriti , I am not sure is the one meant for Kali Yuga,

And The Manu Smriti reflects the Social Life.

Like the Films, the question of whether Society influences Life or the other way around, one is never sure.

With this back ground let us look at the quoted texts which are derogatory to women.

 

1.”Swabhav ev narinam …..” – 2/213. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this world; for that reason the wise are never unguarded in the company of females.”

I do not see anything derogatory here.

It is by  way of explanation of Nature.

Being a Seductress is not repulsive, it becomes dangerous when one falls for it. without thinking of the consequences to himself and family.

By implication it is the nature of Men to go after women,

True, but we do not admit it.

“Avidvam samlam………..” – 2/214. Women, true to their class character, are capable of leading astray men in this world, not only a fool but even a learned and wise man. Both become slaves of desire.”

This follows the earlier one and this is a fact;we may not like the fact.

Some times we refuse to accept Nature, when explained.

We may not like Gravity,but it is.

Truth need not be palatable.

Look at the Empires that have Crashed,Misery befallen ,from Ramayana to French/Russian Revolution.

Dasaratha was a wise King,Draupadi was born in Fire ,yet one’s one moment of weak will sent Lord Rama to forest and another ensured Mahabharata war.

What Bloody Mary did and the Tsarina had for Rasputin History knows.

Expressing the consequences arising out of nature is not to defame.

3.Matra swastra ………..” – 2/215. Wise people should avoid sitting alone with one’s mother, daughter or sister. Since carnal desire is always strong, it can lead to temptation.

This actually insults Men, nothing is said of women here,

And it is also a sordid fact which none seems to acknowledge is the amount of Incest that goes on.

Other Smritis also say that after the Age of ten , a Girl must not sleep in the same bed with her father,brother.

Hinduism knows Human instincts and goes by it, not by misplaced ideological non sense.

Essentially we are animals by Instinct.

One has to evolve by practice.

This verse is by way of caution and I see nothing wrong in it.

Why should women object to this?

It is for their safety and welfare.

Read under ‘interesting and funny’ in my blog.

4.Naudwahay……………..” – 3/8. One should not marry women who has/ had reddish hair, redundant  parts of the body [such as six fingers], one who is often sick, one without hair or having excessive hair and one who has red eyes.

This seems to be a correlation arrived at(may be true or untrue) between Physiognomy and Behavior.

Manu Smriti says of Men that a woman should not marry a Angaheena physically challenged,one who has deserted his wife/Family,has disease.

This is not an insult, is an advice.

5.Nraksh vraksh ………..” – 3/9. One should not marry women whose names are similar to constellations,  trees, rivers, those from a low-caste, mountains, birds, snakes, slaves or those whose names inspires terror.

This reflects the belief of the times.

For example every Nakshatra has some or other  stigma attached to it.

Chithrai Appan Theruvile-parents of children born in Chithra Nakshatra shall be on the streets, deserted by their children.

Is it?

No. It is a belief the people had.

6.Yasto na bhavet ….. …..” – 3/10. Wise men should not marry women who do not have a brother and whose parents are not socially well-known.

What is wrong in this?

Even to-day we check the family background before getting married.

The point about Brother is that one who s born with a Brother knows to deal with a Man better than the one with out a sibling.

This is a fact.

There are 40 quotes on the site,

As the blog is getting lengthy, I shall post in the next Post/s.

Citation.

http://nirmukta.com/2011/08/27/the-status-of-women-as-depicted-by-manu-in-the-manusmriti/

Thank you Mr.Sridhar Aiyangar.

 

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