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Posts Tagged ‘Krishna’

Independent Tamil Culture Myth

In Hinduism, Tamils on July 24, 2014 at 10:54

The Myth of an independent,secular(?) Dravidian Culture has been and is propagated.

 

Let us see whether the Statement that the Dravidian, more specifically the Tamil Culture was/is independent of Sanatana Dharma, on the basis of historical and archaeological evidence.

Panyan Coin.jpg.

Pandyan coin depicting a temple between hill symbols and elephant, Pandyas, Sri Lanka, 1st century CE.

 

1.Tamil quotes Vedas right from the Sangam Age.

 

2.Vedas and Sanskrit quote Tamil and the land of Tamils, pointedly at Dravida, meaning south of the Vindhyas.

 

3.The earliest recorded Tamil Kingdom was Pandya Kingdom.

 

Lord Krishna visited the capital of Pandyas , Madurai.

 

Arjuna married a Pandyan Princess during his pilgrimage(see my post on this-Arjuna’s Pilgrimage)

 

Ancient Chera Kingdom was from 400 BC to 397 AD.

 

Sangam Cholas 300 BC to 240 AD.

 

Central Pandya  550 BC to 1311 AD.

 

The earliest Pandya to be found in epigraph is Nedunjeliyan, figuring in the Minakshipuram record assigned from the 2nd to the 1st centuries BC.

The record documents a gift of rock-cut beds, to a Jain ascetic.

Punch marked coins in the Pandya country dating from around the same time have also been found.

 

Jainism came after Vedic Period.

 

So when Jainism had made inroads the religion that was in existence was Hinduism even in Tamil Nadu.

 

This may be known by the gifts made by the Pandya Kings to Brahmins(Vediyar, Anthanar)

 

Again we have a reference to a Chera King who participated in the Mahabharata war;he fed both the Kaurava and Pandya Armies.

 

“Reference to Perum Chorru Udiyan Cheral Adan, in the second verse of thePurananuru, an earliest text of Sangam literature, is about his feeding the two armies of the Mahabharata battle.

 

And PT Srinivasa Iyengar states that Perunchoruudiyan Chealathan had granted 100 Velis (one Veli equals 100 acres) of land to Brahmins on the condition that he should see the smoke from the Homa from the Brahimn Agraharam daily

 

He also performed Tharpana, rituals for the dead, to those  who died in the Mahabharata war.

 

Hence the religion that was practiced in Tamil Nadu was Sanatana Dharma and not an independent Tamil Culture.

 

Based on the Aryan invasion theory, it was assumed that only Apasthamba came to the South that Hinduism was introduced.

 

This is incorrect.

 

The Five gems of Tamil Valayapathi, Kundalakesi,Seevaka Sinthamani,Silappathiparam and Manimekalai.

 

All these epics dating to BC (appx) refer to Vedic practices and Silappathikaram and  Seevaka Sinthamani Manimekalai refer to Buddhism and Jainism as well.

 

The canard of an independent Tamil Culture is a Myth.

 

How and Why.

And yet, such statements do not go deep enough, as they still imply a North-South contrast and an unknown Dravidian substratum over which the layer of �Aryan� culture was deposited. This view is only milder than that of the proponents of a �separate� and �secular� Dravidian culture, who insist on a physical and cultural Aryan-Dravidian clash as a result of which the pure �Dravidian� culture got swamped. As we have seen, archaeology, literature and Tamil tradition all fail to come up with the slightest hint of such a conflict. Rather, as far as the eye can see into the past there is every sign of a deep cultural interaction between North and South, which blossomed not through any �imposition� but in a natural and peaceful manner, as everywhere else in the subcontinent and beyond.

As regards an imaginary Dravidian �secularism� (another quite inept word to use in the Indian context), it has been posited by many scholars�: Marr,[56] Zvelebil[57] and others characterize Sangam poetry as �secular� and �pre-Aryan�[58] after severing its heroic or love themes from its strong spiritual undercurrents, in a feat typical of Western scholarship whose scrutiny always depends more on the magnifying glass than on the wide-angle lens. A far more insightful view comes from the historian M.�G.�S. Narayanan, who finds in Sangam literature �no trace of another, indigenous, culture other than what may be designated as tribal and primitive.�[59] He concludes�:

The Aryan-Dravidian or Aryan-Tamil dichotomy envisaged by some scholars may have to be given up since we are unable to come across anything which could be designated as purely Aryan or purely Dravidian in the character of South India of the Sangam Age. In view of this, the Sangam culture has to be looked upon as expressing in a local idiom all the essential features of classical �Hindu� culture.[ 60]

However, it is not as if the Tamil land passively received this culture�: in exchange it generously gave elements from its own rich temperament and spirit. In fact, all four Southern States massively added to every genre of Sanskrit literature, not to speak of the signal contributions of a Shankara, a Ramanuja or a Madhwa. Cultural kinship does not mean that there is nothing distinctive about South Indian tradition�; the Tamil land can justly be proud of its ancient language, culture and genius, which have a strong stamp and character of their own, as anyone who browses through Sangam texts can immediately see�: for all the mentions of gods, more often than not they just provide a backdrop�; what occupies the mind of the poets is the human side, its heroism or delicate emotions, its bouncy vitality, refined sensualism or its sweet love of Nature. �Vivid pictures of full-blooded life exhibiting itself in all its varied moods,� as Raghunathan puts it. �One cannot but be impressed by the extraordinary vitality, variety and richness of the poetic achievement of the old Tamil.�[61] Ganapathy Subbiah adds, �The aesthetic quality of many of the poems is breathtakingly refined.�[62] It is true also that the Tamil language developed its own literature along certain independent lines�; conventions of poetry, for instance, are strikingly original and more often than not different from those of Sanskrit literature.

More importantly, many scholars suggest that �the bhakti movement began in the Tamil country and later spread to North India.�[63] Subbiah, in a profound study, not only challenges the misconceived �secular� portrayal of the Sangam texts, but also the attribution of the Tamil bhakti to a northern origin�; rather, he suggests, it was distinctly a creation of Tamil culture, and Sangam literature �a reflection of the religious culture of the Tamils.�[64]

As regards the fundamental contributions of the South to temple architecture, music, dance and to the spread of Hindu culture to other South Asian countries, they are too well known to be repeated here. Besides, the region played a crucial role in preserving many important Sanskrit texts (a few Vedic recensions, Bhasa�s dramas, the Arthashastra for instance) better than the North was able to do, and even today some of India�s best Vedic scholars are found in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.[*] As Swami Vivekananda put it, �The South had been the repository of Vedic learning.�[65]

 

 

Citation .

 

www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

 

www.micheldanino.voiceofdharma.com/tamilculture.html

 

14 Goddesses Temple Chaturdasa, Agartala Tripura

In Hinduism on July 24, 2014 at 07:56

 

Chaturdasha Temple also called as Fourteen Goddess Temple  is  situated near old Agartala, Tripura, India.

 

Chaturdasa Temple, Agartala,Tripura.jpg

Chaturdasa Temple, Agartala,Tripura.

This temple was built in honour of fourteen Gods and Goddessess, together called the Chaturdasha Devata, by King Krishna Manikya Debbarma of Tripura and these deities are ceremoniously worshipped during Kharchi Puja.

The Kokborok names of the fourteen deities are,

Lampra, Akhatra, Bikhatra, Burasa, Thumnairok, Bonirok, Sangroma, Mwtaikotor, Twima, Songram, Noksumwtai, Mailuma, Khuluma and Swkalmwtai.

Near the sacred 14 Goddess Temple during the month of July every year a Kharchi festival is organised and thousands of pilgrims and devotees visit this festival.

 

How To reach.

Agartala is the nearest airport and rail head to this temple. It is easily accessible by buses and taxis.

Unit Of Rain Agriculture Veda Suktha

In Hinduism on July 23, 2014 at 17:58

Hindus have not left Agriculture unattended in the Vedic Texts.

 

The Vedic Society was rural.

 

Hinduism is a Religion which has sacred Boo Suktham to praise Mother Earth.

 

The Cow and the Bull were venerated and worshiped.

 

The Plough and the Agricultural implements were worshiped during Ayudha Pooja.

 

The feed that has to be given to the Cows and Bull are prescribed.

 

Earth, being one of the Five Elements of Nature was venerated.

 

Earth  was is called Priithvi after the King Prithvi who was the first man to plough it.

 

Mother Earth is the consort of Lord Vishnu, Boo Devi.

 

Indra, the Chief of Devatas ids the controller of Rains.

Vrukshayur Veda Text.jpg

Vrukshayur Veda Text. Image Credit.http://www.mvoai.org/

 

He was offered special Pooja, failure to offer this resulted in Lord Krishna lifting the Govardhanagiri.

 

Sage Parasara wrote the first treatise on Agriculture, Krishi Parasara’.

 

He also wrote Vrukshayurved, on Trees and Ayur Veda.

 

In the former he discusses Rain, Rain forecasting, Unit of Rain,Rain measurement in detail, and Field crops.

 

He discusses seed preparation. nursery preparation, transplanting of seedlings,thrashing and harvesting.

 

Auspicious day and time were provided.

 

The Unit of Rain is called ‘Adhaka’

 

Rishi Garga also wrote on Agriculture.

 

Kashyapa wrote ‘Kasyapa Krishi Suktha’

 

Varahamihira discusses Rain in Bruhat Samhita.

 

He explains another measurement of Rain, Drona.

 

Kautilya Artha Shastra fame also discusses Rain and Agriculture.

 

Paddy(Oryza Saitva) originated from India.

 

Indian Texts on Agriculture.

 

1.Krishi Parasara

2.Krishi Kasyapa.

3.Bruhat Samhita.

4.Vrushayur Veda(By Charaka,Susruta and Vagbhata)

5.Tarkasangraha.

6.Kadambini.

7.Upvanvinod.

8.Vrukshavallabha. and

 

The Rig Veda.

 

The Ksheerapati Suktha,The Rig Veda.

 

क्षेत्रस्य पतिना वयं हितेनेव जयामसि
गामश्वं पोषयित्न्वा नो मृळातीदृशे ॥१॥
Kssetrasya Patinaa Vayam Hitene[a-I]va Jayaamasi |
Gaam-Ashvam Possayitnvaa Sa No Mrllaatii-Drshe ||1||

Meaning:
1.1: We invoke the Lord of the Kshetra (i.e. Kshetrapati or Lord of the Field) by whose Grace indeed we Prosper,
1.2: May He through His Gracious Look increase our Cattle and Horses.

 

क्षेत्रस्य पते मधुमन्तमूर्मिं धेनुरिव पयो अस्मासु धुक्ष्व
मधुश्चुतं घृतमिव सुपूतमृतस्य नः पतयो मृळयन्तु ॥२॥
Kssetrasya Pate Madhumantam-Uurmim Dhenur-Iva Payo Asmaasu Dhukssva |
Madhush-Cutam Ghrtam-Iva Supuutam-Rtasya Nah Patayo Mrllayantu ||2||

Meaning:
2.1: O Lord of the Kshetra (Field), with the Sweet Waves of Mother Nature‘s blessings, may you milk our Fields like the Milkof a Cow (i.e. yield abundant Harvest),
2.2: With the Sweetness of Rita (Mother Nature’s Divine Law confering bounty), which falls like Clarified Butter, may Youshed your Grace on us.

मधुमतीरोषधीर्द्याव आपो मधुमन्नो भवत्वन्तरिक्षम्
क्षेत्रस्य पतिर्मधुमान्नो अस्त्वरिष्यन्तो अन्वेनं चरेम ॥३॥
Madhumatiir-Ossadhiir-Dyaava Aapo Madhuman-No Bhavatv[u]-Antarikssam |
Kssetrasya Patir-Madhumaan-No Astv[u]-Arissyanto Anvenam Carema ||3||

Meaning:
3.1: May the Plants be Sweet (i.e. filled with Nature’s Purity), may the Sky be Sweet (i.e. filled with Nature’s Purity), may the Waters be Sweet (i.e. filled with Nature’s Purity), and may the Space be Sweet (i.e. filled with Nature’s Purity) to us.
3.2: May the Lord of the Kshetra (Field) be Sweet to us, and may we be devoted Followers of Him (i.e. take recourse to Nature’s Bounty and Prosper).

शुनं वाहाः शुनं नरः शुनं कृषतु लाङ्गलम्
शुनं वरत्रा बध्यन्तां शुनमष्ट्रामुदिङ्गय ॥४॥
Shunam Vaahaah Shunam Narah Shunam Krssatu Laanggalam |
Shunam Varatraa Badhyantaam Shunam-Assttraam-Udinggaya ||4||

Meaning:
4.1: May the Oxen drawing the Plough bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, May the Farmer driving the Oxen bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, May the Plough making Furrows bring Welfare and Prosperity to all,
4.2: May the Strap binding the Plough bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, and May the Goad swinging towards the Oxen bring Welfare and Prosperity to all.

शुनासीराविमां वाचं जुषेथां यद्दिवि चक्रथुः पयः
तेनेमामुप सिञ्चतम् ॥५॥
Shunaa-Siira-Avi-Maam Vaacam Jussethaam Yad-Divi Cakrathuh Payah |
Tena-Imaam-Upa Sin.catam ||5||

Meaning:
5.1: May Shuna and Shira (deities of the Farmers) Who created Waters (i.e. Clouds) in the Sky be Pleased with our Prayers,
5.2: And by It (i.e. by the Clouds), (may they) sprinkle Waters (in our Fields as Rains).

अर्वाची सुभगे भव सीते वन्दामहे त्वा
यथा नः सुभगाससि यथा नः सुफलाससि ॥६॥
Arvaacii Subhage Bhava Siite Vandaamahe Tvaa |
Yathaa Nah Subhagaas-Asi Yathaa Nah Suphalaas-Asi ||6||

Meaning:
6.1: O Devi Sita, turn towards us and be Gracious, we Extol and Worship You, …
(This is Sita of Rig Veda which is much earlier than Ramayana)
6.2:so that You become Favourable to us (by showering Your blessings), so that You become the source of abundant Harvest.

इन्द्रः सीतां नि गृह्णातु तां पूषानु यच्छतु
सा नः पयस्वती दुहामुत्तरामुत्तरां समाम् ॥७॥
Indrah Siitaam Ni Grhnnaatu Taam Puussaanu Yacchatu |
Saa Nah Payasvatii Duhaam-Uttaraam-Uttaraam Samaam ||7||

Meaning:
7.1: May Indra take hold of the Furrows (while we plough), and may Pushan sustain Her (i.e sustain the Furrows),
7.2: May She (i.e. Mother Earth) Who is full of Milk, yield us abundant Crops Year after Year.

शुनं नः फाला वि कृषन्तु भूमिं शुनं कीनाशा अभि यन्तु वाहैः
शुनं पर्जन्यो मधुना पयोभीः शुनासीरा शुनमस्मासु धत्तम् ॥८॥
Shunam Nah Phaalaa Vi Krssantu Bhuumim Shunam Kiinaashaa Abhi Yantu Vaahaih |
Shunam Parjanyo Madhunaa Payobhiih Shunaa-Siiraa Shunam-Asmaasu Dhattam ||8||

Meaning:
8.1: May the Ploughshare making Furrows on the Earth bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, May the Farmer driving the Oxenbring Welfare and Prosperity to all,
8.2: May Parjanya (the Rain God) by giving Sweet Rains (i.e. Pure Rain Waters) bring Welfare and Prosperity to all, and MayShuna and Shira bestow Welfare and Prosperity to all of us.

 

 

Citation, For Suktha.

www.greenmesg.org

 

 

Two Shiva One Vishnu Temple One Spot Puthia Bangladesh

In Hinduism on July 17, 2014 at 18:50

Two Shiva Temples and one dedicated to Lord Jagannath is in Puthia, Bangladesh.

 

Puthia Temple Complex consists of a cluster of notable old Hindu temples in Puthia UpazilaRajshahi DivisionBangladesh. Located 23 km to the east of Rajshahi city, it has the largest number of historic temples in Bangladesh.

Shiva Temple,Puhia,Bangladesh.jpg

Shiva Temple,Puhia,Bangladesh.

 

Panharatna Govida Temple,Puthia.jpg.

Panharatna Govida Temple,Puthia. This grand temple of Puthia, the Govinda Temple was erected in mid-nineteenth century by the queen of Puthia. The temple is dedicated to Lord Krishna, as the Puthia royal family were converted to Vaishnavism by Radhamohana Thakura. The temple has exquisite terracotta ornamentation depicting the divine romance between Krishna and Radha. The temple’s survival is threatened by the newly established college nearby and the lack of conservation efforts

 

Jagnnath Temple,Puthia.jpg

Jagnnath Temple,Puthia.

 

The temples were built by Hindu Zamindars Rajas of the Puthia Raj family who were noted philanthropists of Rajshahi. The temples have been built in terracotta in a variety of styles combining the typical Jor-bangla architecture with other influences.

The Rajbari orPalace of the Raja of Puthia and the Dol Mancha are part of the complex.

The temples are laid out around a lake with a sprawling lawn.

The Puthia Raj family was established by a holy man named Bhatsacharya, who lived in the 16th century.

Raja Man Singh, governor of the Mughal emperor Akbar, confiscated the Jagir of the refractory pathan jagirdar of Rajshahi named Lashker Khan and bestowed the Zamindary on the saintly Bhatsacharya for his learning, but he declined.

However, his son Pitambar was granted the Lashkarpur estate permanently.

On his death, his son Nilambar received the title of Raja from EmperorJahangir.

The Puthia Royal Family estate was the second largest zamindary and the wealthiest in British Bengal. After India’s partition, the then Pakistani government abolished the zamindary system and confiscated all Hindu properties.

The Royal Family migrated to India shortly afterwards.

 

How to reach.

Puthia is located 23km east of the city of Rajshahi, and 16km west of Natore. The village itself is about 1km south of the major highway. A number of buses ply the 30 minute route between the two towns for Tk 20; it is possible to simply ask to get off at Puthia, and walk the short distance into town. Another option is to catch a CNG auto-rickshaw to Puthia from one of the major towns.

Caste Apasthamba Sutra Contradicts Bhagavad Gita

In Hinduism on July 17, 2014 at 17:51

Code of Righteousness is contained  in many texts in Hinduism.

 

They are called Dharma Shastras.

 

Apasthamba Sutra.jpg

Apasthamba Sutra.

 

There are many.

 

Some of them are,

 

Apasthamba,

 

Bodhayana,

 

Vasishta,

 

Manu,

 

Gautama.

 


The Dharmasutra of Āpastamba forms a part of the larger Kalpasūtra of Āpastamba. It contains thirty praśnas, which literally means ‘questions’ or books. The subjects of this Dharmasūtra are well organized and preserved in good condition.

 

These praśanas consist of the Śrautasūtra followed by Mantrapāṭha which is used in domestic rites and is a collection of ritual formulas, the Gṛhyasūtra which deals with domestic rituals and lastly the Śulvasūtra which are principles of geometry needed for vedic rituals.

 

On Catse system, Apasthamba says thus,

 

 

Catvāro varṇā brāhmaṇa kṣatriya vaiśya śūdrāḥ || 4 ||
4. [There are] four castes — brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, vaiśyas, and śūdras.
All four are entitled to practice the Dharma set forth by the agreement of the Law-givers.
teṣāṃ pūrvaḥ pūrvo janmataś-śreyān || 5 ||
5. Among these, each preceding [caste] is superior by birth to the one
following.
aśūdrāṇām aduṣṭa-karmāṇām upāyanaṃ vedādhyayanam agnyādheyaṃ
phalavanti ca karmāṇi ||

 

Here the translation reads as’by Birth”

 

But the real meaning does not seem to be so.

 

This is a vital subject.

 

Would some one clarify on the Sanskrit Text and Translation?

 

 

अदुष्ट aduSTa adj. not guilty
अदुष्ट aduSTa adj. innocent
अदुष्ट aduSTa adj. not vitiated
अदुष्ट aduSTa adj. not bad

 

 

Bhagavad Gita.

 

According to the three modes of material nature and the work ascribed to them, the four divisions of human society were created by Me. And, although I am the creator of this system, you should know that I am yet the non-doer, being unchangeable.” (Bhagavad Gita 4.13)

 

The Caste is determined by the dispositions of the individual.

 

This subject of Three dispositions is discussed at length in the Gunathraya Vibhaaga Yoga of the Bhagavad Gita ,Chapter 14.

 

Obviously there is a contradiction of this is by Apasthamba.

 

As the Bhagavad Gita carries the weight of Sruthi its words are final.

 

Please read my posts on Caste.

 

Citation.

 

http://www.hinduwebsite.com/sacredscripts/hinduism/dharma/apasta1.asp#1.1.1

 

http://spokensanskrit.de/index.php?tinput=aduSTa&script=&direction=SE&link=yes

 

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