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Posts Tagged ‘Krishna’

Sanatana Dharma Means

In Hindusim on December 10, 2014 at 18:27

Hinduism is a name given to the culture of India by the West and the Islam Invaders.

 

The term that describes and used by the Ithihasas, Ramayana and Mahabharata` the followers of,

 

a certain way of Life as a matter of routine,

 

that such ways and procedures are followed by practice and transmitted by word of mouth.

 

This covers a wide range of the populace.

 

It includes those who believe in God, Atheists,Monists, Dualist,Non Dualist,Monotheist,Henotheist,Polytheist,Nihilist.

 

Then what exactly the term Sanatana Dharma denote?

 

The words Sanatana and Dharma have profound meaning in Sanskrit.

 

“The two words, “Sanatana Dharma”, come from the ancient Sanskrit language. “Sanatana” is a Sanskrit word that denotes that which is Anadi (beginningless),

Anantha (endless) and does not cease to be, that which is eternal and everlasting. With its rich connotations,

Dharma is not translatable to any other language. Dharma is from dhri, meaning to hold together, to sustain. Its approximate meaning is “Natural Law,” or those principles of reality which are inherent in the very nature and design of the universe.”

 

Sanatana indicates that which  does not have a beginning and ending.

 

That is it has no origin in the sense that there is no founder.

 

If what is stated has been begotten only by Reason, it can not be beginning-less, for it should have had a founder.

 

As the Truth enumerated in Hinduism has been grasped intuitively  by many it does not have a founder nor can one ascribe a Time frame.

 

You do not clock an emotion or a spiritual thought.

 

Truth is not revealed in stages, it is by a flash.

 

Dharma is a difficult term to define even for Lord Krishna , as He admits in the Bhagavad Gita.

 

It changes from age to age, aeons to aeons, from individual to individual.

 

But one thing remains firm.

 

That it supports one who follows it.

 

Dharmo Rakshati Rakshatah’

 

Dharma protects one who protects Dharma.

 

Dharma is self-sustaining.

 

The practice of it supports not only the one who follows it but sustains the Universe and beings both Living and Non Living.

 

Krishna says in the Geetha  both  Devas and man mutually help each other by performing their respective duties, Man by performing Yagnyas, Devas by ensuring Timely Rains, Sun Light and other phenomena,

 

The concept of Reality is an abstract in Hinduism.

 

It is a principle like the law of Gravity, it rolls on.

 

Name and forms are only modes to concentrate the Mind.

 

Yet there are some eternal values.

 

Satyanna Pramadhidavyam, speak nothing but the Truth,

 

Dharmanna Pramadhidavyam, perform nothing but what is sanctioned by Dharma.

 

Kuchalaana Pramadhidavya, do nothing but for the welfare of others.

 

Matru Devo Bhava, Mother is God,

 

Pitru Devo Bhava,Father is God,

 

Acharya Devo Bahava, teacher, preceptor is God,

 

Adhiti devo Bhava, Guest is God,

 

Satyam Bruyaath, speak The Truth,

 

Hitam Bruyaath, while speaking truth make sue that is spoken in a way that does not hurt others,

 

Sarve janas Sukino Bhavanthu, may All be Happy,

 

Samastha Sanmangalani Bhavanthu, May what is auspicious befall on All,

 

Thachamyora vruneemahe, Gyathum Yagyaaya, Gyathum Yagyapathayae,

 

daivi swasti rasthunaha,

 

Urthvam jigathu Beshajam,

 

Sano asthu dwipade, Sanchathuspathe.

 

Om Shanthi, Shanthi, Shanthi.

 

May the two-legged be Happy,

 

May the four-legged be happy,

 

May the trees get adequate water.

 

This is Sanatana Dharma.

 

Image Credit.

 

http://www.pinterest.com/pin/413416440766348471/

 

Check.

http://veda.wikidot.com/sanatana-dharma

 

Why Gita Should Not Be India’s National Scripture

In Uncategorized on December 9, 2014 at 20:44

The Bhagavad Gita should not be declared as India,s National Sacred Text,

 

Because it

 

Gita quote.jpg

Gita quote.

 

talks of Humanity as a whole,

 

does not attempt to proselytize,

 

it was delivered by One whose Historicity is proved,

 

And not by one whose life and teachings were chosen to be written  three hundred years after his death, for some one’s political  convenience,

 

it is not by one who remembered moral teachings after some time it was given to him by God ,that too noting it from a Stone,

 

 

synthesizes  all religious thoughts,

 

does not advocate Bigotry,

 

it addresses Human issues,

 

it transcends Races, Nations, Religions,

 

it instills hope in the Minds of Man,

 

it does not order you to follow it,

 

it does not ask you to propagate your religion by killing,

 

it delivers one from depression and confusion,

 

it speaks of Human values like Compassion, Duty,Honor,Love to all Beings ,

 

it is objected to by the paragons of virtue in Indian Parliament,

 

especially by Sage Karunanidhi and mainly because

 

it is by an Indian in the Indian soil to Mankind.

 

News.

 

PM Modi gifted the Gita to US President Barack Obama, which means it has already received the honour of a national scripture. What we require is only a formal announcement now,” Sushma Swaraj said in a public meeting to mark 5,151 years of the Bhagavad Gita at the Red Fort.

Underscoring the importance of the Gita’s role in daily life, she said its message to perform one’s duty without feeling attached to its outcome is what guides her sense of duty at the ministry.

The Gita, believed to be the advice of Lord Krishna, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata. Its call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the independence movement, including Mahatma Gandhi who referred to the Gita as his ‘spiritual dictionary’.”

 

http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/bhagavad-gita-must-be-declared-national-scripture-sushma/article1-1294171.aspx

Tamil Chola Kings Descendants of Manu Rama

In Hindusim, Tamils on December 8, 2014 at 21:20

If there is one One culture ,One advanced civilization that matches the Sanatana Dharma, it is the Tamil Culture, Literature .

 

It has been in existence for such a long period that the Vedas and Puranas quote Tamil language,Culture,Spices,Pearls,Elephant Tusks, Tamil Scholars.

 

Chola Dyansty Time Line.png

Chola Dyansty Time Line.

 

Valmiki has written a Tamil Classic,Vanmikar Arupthu,Vlmiki’s Sixty, a work dealing with practical life and Philosophy.

 

Ramayana describes the princes from Tail Kingdom being present in Sita’s Swamvar.

 

Mahabharata speaks similarly on Draupadi’s Swayamvar.

 

Chera King Udiyan Chralathan fed both the Panadava and kaurava Armies during the Mahabharata War.

 

The Pandya King fought along with the Pandavas as the Pandya Princess was married to Arjuna.

 

Krishna  married a Pandyan Princess,Pandyah, Megasthanes says and had a daughter through her.

 

Arjuna married a Pandya Princess and had a son Babruvahana, who was the only person who killed Arjuna,that Arjuna was revived is another matter.

 

In its turn Tamil quotes extensively the Vedas.

 

A King Sibi was the ancestor of Rama.

 

There are numerous references  that speak of the close relationship of the South Dravida with the Sanatana Dharma.

 

I have posted extensively on this in posts where it is warranted(Under Hinduism/Tamils)

 

I have posted an article, based on archeological, geographical evidence that Lord Rama’s ancestor Vaivaswatha Manu migrated from the South to Ayodhya to found  his kingdom.

 

Shiva with his son Ganesha left by the Arabian sea towards the middle east.

 

Now let us consider the following .

 

Tamil People settlement dates back to Palaeolithic Age.

 

That is Prehistoric Age, 1,510,000 BCE until around 3000 BCE.

 

A discovery of a rare fossilized baby brain in Viluppuram district, by a team of archeologists was reported in April 2003, It is estimated to be about 187,000 years – 200,000 years or older.

Then came the Neolithic and Iron Ages.

 

Considering the fact that Sibi and manu Needi were Cholas and are quoted by extensively by Puranas and Tamil Literature, there is definitely a possibility that the Cholas descended from the  Solar Dynasty.

 

Cross checking with the Thirvalangadu Copperplate, the Dynasty of the Tamil Kings are traced back to Solar Dynasty.

 

Genealogy from the Chola Inscriptions.

 

  • Manu
  • Ikshvaku
  • Vikukshi
  • Puranjaya
  • Kakutstha
  • Kakshivat
  • Aryaman
  • Analapratapa
  • Vena
  • Prithu
  • Dhundhumara
  • Yuvanasva
  • Mandhatri
  • Muchukunda
  • Valabha
  • Prithulaksha
  • Parthivachudamani
  • Dirghabahu
  • Chandrajit
  • Sankriti
  • Panchapa
  • Satyavrata
  • Rudrajit
  • Sibi
  • Marutta
  • Dushyanta
  • Bharata
  • Cholavarman
  • Rajakesarivarman
  • Parakesarin
  • Chitraratha
  • Chitrasva
  • Chitradhanvan
  • Suraguru (Mrityujit)
  • Chitraratha
  • Vyaghraketu
  • Narendrapati
  • Vasu (Uparichara)
  • Visvajit
  • Perunatkilli
  • Karikala
  • Kochchengannan

Genealogy from the Purana Timeline.

 

  • Eri Oliyan Vaendhi C. 3020 BCE
  • Maandhuvaazhi C. 2980 BCE
  • El Mei Nannan C. 2945 BCE
  • Keezhai Kinjuvan C. 2995 BCE
  • Vazhisai Nannan C. 2865 BCE
  • Mei Kiyagusi Aerru C. 2820 BCE
  • Aai Kuzhi Agusi Aerru C. 2810 BCE
  • Thizhagan Maandhi C. 2800 BCE
  • Maandhi Vaelan C. 2770 BCE
  • Aai Adumban C. 2725 BCE
  • Aai Nedun jaet chozha thagaiyan C. 2710 BCE
  • El Mei Agguvan a.k.a. Keezh nedu mannan C. 2680 BCE
  • Mudiko Mei Kaalaiyam Thagaiyan C. 2650 BCE
  • Ilangok keezh kaalaiyan thagaiyan a.k.a. Ilangeezh nannan C. 2645 BCE -start of Kadamba lineage by his brother Aai Keezh Nannan
  • Kaalaiyan gudingyan C. 2630 BCE
  • Nedun gaalayan dhagayan C. 2615 BCE
  • Vaengai nedu vael varaiyan C.2614 BCE
  • Vaet kaal kudingyan C. 2600 BCE
  • Maei Ila vael varaiyan C. 2590 BCE
  • Sibi Vendhi C. 2580 BCE
  • Paru nonji chaamazhingyan C. 2535 BCE
  • Vaeqratrtri chembiya chozhan C. 2525 BCE
  • Saamazhi chozhiya vaelaan C. 2515 BCE
  • Uthi ven gaalai thagan C. 2495 BCE
  • Nannan that kaalai thagan C. 2475 BCE
  • Vel vaen mindi C. 2445 BCE
  • Nedun jembiyan C. 2415 BCE
  • Nedu nonji Vendhi C. 2375 BCE
  • Maei Vael paqratrtri C. 2330 BCE
  • Aai Perun thoan nonji C. 2315 BCE
  • Kudiko pungi C. 2275 BCE
  • Perun goep poguvan C. 2250 BCE
  • Koeth thatrtri C. 2195 BCE
  • Vadi sembiyan C. 2160 BCE
  • Aalam poguvan C. 2110 BCE
  • Nedun jembiyan C. 2085 BCE
  • Perum paeyar poguvan C. 2056 BCE
  • Kadun jembiyan C. 2033 BCE
  • Nedun kathan C. 2015 BCE
  • Paru nakkan C. 1960 BCE
  • Vani sembiyan C. 1927 BCE
  • Udha chira mondhuvan C. 1902 BCE
  • Perun kaththan C. 1875 BCE
  • Kadun kandhalan C. 1860 BCE
  • Nakka monjuvan C. 1799 BCE
  • Maarko vael Maandhuvan Aaththikko C. 1786 BCE
  • Musukunthan Vaendhi C. 1753 BCE
  • Peru nakkan Thatrtri C. 1723 BCE
  • Vaer kaththan C. 1703 BCE
  • Ambalaththu Irumundruvan C. 1682 BCE
  • Kaari mondhuvan C. 1640 BCE
  • Vennakkan Thatrtri C. 1615 BCE
  • Maarko chunthuvan C. 1565 BCE
  • Vaer parunthoan mundruvan C. 1520 BCE
  • Udhan kaththan C. 1455 BCE
  • Kaariko sunthuvan C. 1440 BCE
  • Vendri nungunan C. 1396 BCE
  • Mondhuvan Vendhi C. 1376 BCE
  • Kaandhaman C. 1359 BCE
  • Mundruvan Vendhi C. 1337 BCE
  • Kaandhaman C. 1297 BCE
  • Monjuvan Vendhi C. 1276 BCE
  • Ani sembiyan C. 1259 BCE
  • Nungunan Vendhi C. 1245 BCE
  • Maarkop perum Cenni C. 1229 BCE
  • Monjuvan Nanvendhi C. 1180 BCE
  • Kop perunar chenni C. 1170 BCE
  • Monthuvan jembiyan C. 1145 BCE
  • Narchenni C. 1105 BCE
  • Caet chembiyan C. 1095 BCE
  • Nakkar chenni C. 1060 BCE
  • Parun jembiyan C.1045 BCE
  • Venjenni C. 998 BCE
  • Musugunthan C. 989 BCE
  • Maarkop perun jembiyan C. 960 BCE
  • Nedunjenni C.935 BCE
  • Thatchembiyan C. 915 BCE
  • Ambalaththu iruvaer chembiyan C. 895 BCE
  • Kaariko chenni C. 865 BCE
  • Venvaer chenni C. 830 BCE
  • Kaandhaman, C. 788 BCE
  • Kaandhalan C. 721 BCE
  • Caetchenni C. 698 BCE
  • Vani nungunan C. 680 BCE
  • Mudhu sembiyan Vendhi C. 640 BCE
  • Peelan jembiyach chozhiyan C. 615 BCE
  • Maeyan gadungo C. 590 BCE
  • Thiththan C. 570 BCE
  • Perunar killi Porvaiko C. 515 BCE
  • Kadu mundruvan C. 496 BCE
  • Kopperunjozhan C. 495 BCE
  • Narkilli Mudiththalai C. 480 BCE
  • Thevvan go chozhan C. 465 BCE
  • Naran jembiyan C. 455 BCE
  • Nakkam peela valavan C. 440 BCE
  • Iniyan thevvan jenni C. 410 BCE
  • Varcembiyan C. 395BCE
  • Nedun jembiyan C. 386 BCE
  • Nakkan aran jozhan C. 345 BCE
  • Ambalathu irungoch chenni C. 330 BCE
  • Perunar killi C. 316 BCE
  • Kochaet Cenni C. 286 BCE
  • Cerupazhi Erinda Ilanjaetcenni, C. 275 BCE
  • Nedungop perunkilli C. 220 BCE
  • Cenni Ellagan C. 205 BCE
  • Perun gilli C. 165 BCE
  • Kopperun jozhiyav ilanjaetcenni C. 140 BCE
  • Perunar killi Mudiththalai ko C. 120 BCE
  • PerumpootCenni C. 100 BCE
  • Ilam perunjenni C. 100 BCE
  • Perungilli Vendhi aka Karikaalan I C. 70 BCE
  • Nedumudi Killi C. 35 BCE
  • Ilavanthigaipalli Thunjiya Maei Nalangilli Caet Cenni, C. 20 BCE
  • Aai Vaenalangilli C. 15 BCE
  • Uruvapakraer Ilanjaetcenni, C. 10 – 16 CE
  • 16 CE – 30 CE Kingdom ruled by a series of Uraiyur chieftains
  • Karikaalan II Peruvalaththaan, C. 31 CE
  • Vaer paqradakkai Perunar killi, C. 99 CE
  • Perun thiru mavalavan, Kuraapalli Thunjiya C. 99 CE
  • Nalangilli C. 111 CE
  • Perunarkilli, Kula mutrtraththu Thunjiya C. 120 CE
  • Perunarkilli, Irasasuya vaetta C. 143 CE
  • Vael kadunkilli C. 192 CE
  • Kochenganaan C. 220 CE
  • Nalluruththiran C. 245 CE

Many scholars dispute this despite evidence from from the Puranas and Chola Inscriptions.

 

Purana evidence is disputed despite the fact the geographical features mentioned in them, Kings reign tally with other verified facts and accredited by archeology.

 

Chola inscription are also not due credence because it happens to be excavated mostly by Indians and it does not agree with the concocted story of Aryan Invasion Theory.

 

What a scholarship!

 

The fact that Ramas’ ancestor was from the South, the Floods mentioned in the Tamil Classics tally with this event, I am of the opinion that the Cholas descended from te common parentage of Lord Rama.

 

One group migrated to North, another towards  the Middle-east and yet another survived and stayed back in the south.

 

* I will be tracing the Pandya and Chra Dynasty as well.

 

Citations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appropriate Bhagavad Gita Verse In Egyptian Pyramid

In Hindusim on December 8, 2014 at 12:15

I have been exploring the spread of Sanatana Dharma throughout the world.

 

 

 

This, I have approached from,

 

1.Presence of Hindu Gods,Goddesses in the countries of the world.

2.Cultural similarities between Sanatana Dharma and the various countries.

3.Legends ,Religious practices of the countries.

4.Literary works.

5.Archeological evidence indicating the presence of Sanatana Dharama.

6.Linguistic affiliation between Sanskrit,Tamil,Brahmi scripts and the local languages.

7.Travelers chronicles.

8.Cross referencing world literature, Religious quotes.

9.Geographical descriptions.

 

I have posted articles on the existence of Sanatana Dharama in

 

Vietnam,

Indonesia,

Sri Lanka,

Thailand,

Cambodia,

Japan,

Polynesian group of Islands,

Australia,

Antarctica,

Burma,

Russia,

China,

Russia,

Iran,

Iraq,

Middle east,

Italy,

Bulgaria,

Spain,

France,

England,

Norway and Sweden,

Egypt,

Peru,

Mexico,

Arctic.

 

Now there is evidence that the Egyptians were aware of the Bhagavad Gita.

 

In one of the Pyramids, dating back to 3000 BC, a verse, from the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita was found inscribed.

 

There are some scholars who say: This proves that Krishna learned his Geeta philosophy from the Egyptians!
Please note that only one verse of Geeta was found in Egypt, not the whole Geeta. Here it is:

vasanvsi jeernani yatha vihaya, navani
ghrunnati naro parani

- Nava Bharat Times, 18-4-1967

 

This verse is from The Bhagavd Gita Chapter 2,verse 22.

 

The text and translation.

 

vasamsi jirnani yatha vihaya
navani grhnati naro ‘parani
tatha sarirani vihaya jirnany
anyani samyati navani dehi

vasamsi–garments; jirnani–old and worn out; yatha–as it is; vihaya–giving up; navani–new garments; grhnati–does accept; narah–a man; aparani–other; tatha–in the same way; sarirani–bodies; vihaya–giving up; jirnani–old and useless; anyani–different; samyati–verily accepts; navani–new sets; dehi–the embodied.

As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, similarly, the soul accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones.

How appropriate for a Burial Tomb!

Citation.

http://www.oocities.org/siliconvalley/screen/3299/history/epi_frame.htm

http://www.asitis.com/2/22.html

* I am trying to locate the Pyramid’s location.

Hinduism Kings Gods In King List Sumeria

In Hinduism on December 8, 2014 at 10:24

I have posted an article that Lord Rama and Bharata’s names are found in the Kings List of Sumerians chronicling their Kings.

 

Not only Rama and Bharata, but the names of other Hindu Puranic figures find a place in the Kings List.

 

The Names found are,

Sumerian Kings, Chronological order,Kings List.jpg

Sumerian Kings, Chronological order,Kings List.

 

Indra,Pururavas,Dasaratha,Parashurama,Satyavrata,Iksvahu,Kakusha,Janaka,Vasishta, Janamejaya,Dushyanta(Father of Bharata,after whom India is named as Bharatavarsha),Rishis Gautama,Dundhu,,Muchukunda,Drupada,Harischandra,Sagara,Bhagiratha, Lava, Kusha(Rama’s sons),Aja and Raghu(Rama’s ancestors),Pundarika,

 

Curious enough ‘ all of them belong to Solar Dynasty mentioned in Puranas.

 

“Waddell’s primary chronology was compiled from various Sumerian king lists, Egyptian list of pharaohs, the Bhagavata Purana, Mahabharata, Rigveda and numerous Indus Valley Civilization seals and other monuments and relics and sources, some of which he had deciphered himself.[2] It was entitled “Dated Chronological List of Sumerian or Early Aryan Kings from the Rise of Civilization to the Kassi Dynasty” and documented an alleged list of world emperors as follows:

 

Citation.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waddell’s_chronology

Image Credit.

http://www.goldenageproject.org.uk/chronological_sumerian_early_aryan_kings.php

 

No. Names in Sumerian King Lists and monuments Date BCE
(approximate)
Indian list names
1 Ukusi of Ukhu City or Udu, Uduin, or Odin, Indar, Induru,
Dur, Pur, Sakh, Sagaga, Zagg, Gaur, or Adar
First Sumerian Dynasty
3378–3349 BCE
Ikshvāku or Indra or Sakko or Pururavas
2 Azag Ama Basam or Bakus, Tasia, Mukhla, Gin, Gan or Kan or Nimmirud 3348–3337 BCE Ayus, Ama-Basu or Bikukshi-Nimi
Azag Bakus or Gan at Unuk, Enoch or Erech City 3336–3273 BCE As Above
3 Naksha, Enuzu, Anenzu, Unnusha, In, Enu Second Sumerian Dynasty
3272–3248 BCE
Nahusha, Anenas or Janak
4 Udu, Uduk 3247–3242 BCE Udā-vasu, Yadu, Yayati, (?) King Puru
5 Zimugun, Dumuzi 3241–3312 BCE Janamejaya or Jina
6 Uziwitar 3211–3206 BCE Vishtara or Wishtara
7 Mutin Ugun 3205–3195 BCE Matinara
8 Imuashshu or Pishmana 3194–3184 BCE Vishamsu or Tamsu
9 Naili (or Nandu) Iaxa Sumaddi or Duag 3183–3181 BCE Anila (?) Ucchaya, Dushyanta or (?) Sunanta
10
11
12
13
14
1516
17
18

19
20
21
22
23
24

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

36

Baratutu, Bardū, Barti Pirtu
Gaudumu or Dūdumunu
Dutu-Gindara
Azag, or Ashita-ab
Ishzax or Gishax Gamesh
Uruash-Khād, Urusag-Khaddu,
Barama’hasha or Arwasag (c. 3100 BCE)
Magdal, A-Magdal, Mukh
Bidashnadi, Bidsar, Biugun or Biguaxu
Enun-nad Enash-nadi
Tarsi (Ene- or “divine”)
or Dixxi (Di- or “divine”)
Medi or Meti
Kiuga, Mūkuda
Tarsi, Dix-saax or (?) Shu-Dix
Tizama or Tizkar, Anda
Rumau or Pashipadda
(“Mesanipadda”),
Uruduki Raman Duruashi-padda or Rutasa Rama
(“Anni-padda”) (c. 2900 BCE)
Eama
Biama
Paunukha (“?Meshkalamdug”)
illegible
illegible
illegible
Gungun, Kingubi-Dudu
Mama-gal
Kalbu or Kalburu
Tuke
Bara-Gina, Puru-gin, Pardu-Bazum
or Urudu-Gina, or Urukka-Gina
The Great Gap of 430 years
with 26 (or 27) KingsUruash’s Dynasty of “Paunch”
3180–2751 BCE
Burata, Brihad, Prithu
Gautama, Dhundhumara
Dwat, Candra-ashva
Aja-midha or Siteshu
Chaxus, Riksha, Rucaka or Ruk-meshu
Haryashva or BarmyashvaMudgala or Mogallo
Badhryashya, L’asenadi or B’ujyu
Yuvanashwa
Dāsa (Divo- or “divine”) or Trasa Dasyu I
Mettiyo or Mitrayu
Cyavana or Muckunda
Su-Dāsa, Dussaha or Trasa Dasyu II
Somaka, Sambhuta
Jantu
Prishada or Suvarna Roman

Drupada I, Hrashva Roman
or Rohidashva
Vyoman, Vasumanas
Jimūta
Bhanu or Ban-kirti
Satya-brata
Harish-candra II
Harita or Rohit-ashwa II
Cuncu or Dhundu
Vijaya
B’aruka or Ruruki
Vri-Taka or Dhri-Taka
Pra-Cinvat, B’arad-Vaja, Bahū or Bahuka or
Puru II

36a Zaggisi or Saggisi 2750–2726 BCE -
37 Guni, Shar-Guni, Kin or Sargon Sargon’s Dynasty
2725–2671 BCE
Kuni Sha-Kuni or Sagara
37a Mush Uru 2670–2656 BCE -
38 Man-ishtishu or Menes First Egyptian Dynasty
2655–2641 BCE
Son of Sargon, Asa-Manja, Manasyu
39 Naram-sin 2640–2585 BCE Grandson of Sargon, Anjana, Ansu-mat or Karamba
40 Shar-kali-sharri 2584–2561 BCE Son of Naram-sin, Kunti-jit, Khatawanga, Dilīppa
- Irgigi, Nigigi, Imi, Nanum, Iama (in inter-regnum) four kings 2560-2558 BCE Bhagi-ratha
41 Dudu 2557-2537 BCE Dhundu
42 Shūdur-kib 2536-2522 BCE Suhotra II, Shruta Shrutāyas
43 Uru-Nigin (? Nikin Uru of seal WSC. 390 2nd Erech Dynasty
2521-2519 BCE
Nabhin, Nābhāga
44 Urish-Ginar 2518-2513 BCE Harish-Candra or Ambarisha
44a Tardu (or Kudda) 2512-2507 BCE (?) RathiTara “great-grandson of Ambarūshu”
45 Ba-Sha-nini (or -ama) 2506-2502 BCE Sindhu-dhipa, Sanjaya
Uru-ash (or -an) -uta 2501-2494 BCE -
46 Guti occupation without kings Guti Dynasty
2493-2452 BCE
Kusha Dynasty
Ayunāyus (or ? Duthaliyas, k. of Khatti)
47 Muruta 2451-2449 BCE Mūrtaya
In Kishu or Gishu 2448-2443 BCE Kusha
Irilla Tax (or Warla Gaba) 2442-2437 BCE -
Dug-me or Ug-me 2436-2431 BCE -
48 Eamamesh (or Kashushamama) 2430-2425 BCE Kushāmba or Sarva-Kāma
Inima Bakies, Baesses, Bakus or Basam 2424-2420 BCE Basu II or Bhaji
Iziaush 2419-2414 BCE -
49 Iārla Tax or Dax 2413-2399 BCE Su Dāsa II
Ibate 2398-2396 BCE
Iārla Gash or Kashushamama (2nd term) 2395-2393 BCE Kushāmba (2nd term)
Basium, Basam or Bakus (2nd term) 2392- BCE Basu II or Bhaji (2nd term)
Nikīm or Nigin 2391-2389 BCE -
Lasi-rubum or La-Sirab 2388-2387 BCE Sarva-bhauma
Irarum 2386-2385 BCE -
Darranūm 2384- BCE -
50 Khāblum or Khab-Kalamu 2383-2382 BCE Kalmāshu-pāda
Suratāsh Sin or Sarati Gubi Sin 2381-2375 BCE Sruta, Upa-Gupta
Guda, Iārla Guashda or Gudia 2374-2368 BCE Gādhi
En-Ridi-Pizir, Pisha Ruddu 2367-2361 BCE Vishva-Ratha (son of Gādhi)
Tiri-gan 2360- BCE Trishanku
51 Ashukhamukh or Utukhe-gal 3rd Erech Dynasty
2360-2353 BCE
Ashmaka
52 Uruash-Zikim Third Dynasty of Ur
2352-2335 BCE
Uru-Ricika Mūlaka
Dungi or Duk-gin (Shamu-) 2334-2277 BCE Dagni or Dagni-Jama
Purash-Sin (“Bur-Sin” 2276-2268 BCE Parashu-Rāma (and his massacre) Dasharatha or (?)
53 Suash-Sin (“Gimil-Sin”) 2267-2259 BCE Shata-ratha or Sushena Shata-ratha
54 Il-Ibil-Sin 2258-2233 BCE Il-Ibila or Ilivila
55 Ishbi-Ashuurra Isin Dynasty
2332-2200 BCE
Vishva-saha
56 Katini-Kat (or Shu-Lilishu 2199-2190 BCE Khatvanga or Dilipa
57 Itiash-Dakhu 2189-2169 BCE Dirga-bahu
58 Ishshibash-Dakhu 2163-2149 BCE Raghu
59 Libiash Ugun 2148-2138 BCE Aja
60 Dashashi-urash, Muru 2137-2110 BCE Dasha-ratha
61 Amar-Sin, (“Bur-Sin II”) 2109-2089 BCE Rama or Rama-Chandra
62 Libi (Insakh) 2088-2084 BCE Lava and Kusha
Ashurra Iwiti or Urra Iwiti 2083-2076 BCE -
63 Insakh-bani 2075-2052 BCE Atithi or Suhotra IV
64 Zāmbi (3) Tenirpisha (4) Urdukuga, Sin Mapish (II) 2051- BCE Nishadha
65 Damiq-ilushu -2007 BCE Nala
66 Anuha-Mubalit (“Sin Muballit” (20, of which four as emperor) First Babylonian Dynasty
as emperors
2023-2004 BCE
Nabha or Nabhas
67 Khammu-Rabi or “Great Lotus” 2003-1961 BCE Pundarika or “Great Lotus”
68 Sāmsui-Uduna 1960-1923 BCE Kshema-Dhanvan
69 Abieshu’a 1922-1895 BCE Devānīka
70 Ammi-Satana or Ammi-Ditana 1894-1858 BCE Ruru or (?) Suto-rusta
71 Ammi-Saraga or Ammi-Suduga 1857-1837 BCE Ahi-nagu
72 Sāmsu-Satana 1836-1806 BCE Sudhanvan ofr Pariyatra
73 Sakhari-Bal Sea-Land Dynasty
1805-1791 BCE
Sahasra-Bala or Bala (with separate line)
74 Xatal (“Gandash”) Kassite Dynasty
1790-1775 BCE
Sthala or Gaya
75 Agu-um 1774-1753 BCE Auka or Uktha
76 Bisuiru (“Kashtiliash”) 1752-1745 BCE Vajra-nābha
77 Ushigu 1744-1737 BCE Shankha
78 Abisuttash 1736- BCE Ab’Yutthit-ashva or Dhyushit-ashva
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