I have posted how the Great African Religion was literally wiped out to the extent that even the natives of Africa still believe that they have been tribal
and mostly uncivilized.
You can get the information from the web that Hinduism entered Bali some time around First Century BC, this too is given out in a condescending
“Hinduism came to Indonesia from India in the fifth century CE. It was gradually replaced by Buddhism, which was the main religion of Sumatra and Javauntil it in turn was displaced by the coming of Islam from the 14th century CE. However, due to “cultural barriers”, Bali became the only part of Indonesia to remain Hindu.“
“Hindu influences reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as first century. There are several theories as to how Hinduism reached Indonesia. The Vaishya idea is that intermarriage occurred between Indian traders/merchants and Indonesian natives. Another theory (Kshatriya) believes that defeated soldiers from India found solace in Indonesia. Third, the Brahmana take a more traditional point of view that missionaries spread Hinduism to the islands. Lastly, the nationalist (Bhumiputra) theory is that Indonesians chose the culture themselves after having traveled to India.’
The position is,
Hinduism in its Vedic form has been the Religion of Indonesian islands.
The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are still being told there with vaiations.
Tamils History state that these areas were conquered by the Tamil Kings of the Sangam Era, about 200o years ago.
Vedas were being chanted and a version of the Vedas , called ‘Catur Veda Sirah, The Head of Four Vedas’
The emphasis seems to be more on Vishnu Worship.
“The Indonesian, particularly Balinese Hindus today didn’t have the complete Samhita of Catur Veda.
But some palm-leaf manuscripts we called Catur Veda Sirah, The Head of Four Vedas, were available under some hereditary Brahmin’s custody and government library.
The Atharva Sirah invokes other divine names such as Siva, Brahma, or even Skanda, Kumara, and Ganapati.
But from careful analysis, we also can conclude them finally as glorifying hymns for Lord Sriman Narayana.
The different names actually do not refer to various deities but The Supreme Lord Narayana. These are the texts of Balinese Caturveda Sirah. …..
Balinese Version of The Veda.
Sang Hyang Rigveda Sirah
atha puruso ha vai narayano kaumayata prajaha srijeyeti| narayanat prano jayate manaha sarvendriyani ca kham vayur jyotir apah pruthvi visvasya dharani| narayanad brahma jayate| narayanad rudra jayate|narayanad indro jayate| narayanat prajapatih prajayate|narayanad dvadasa-aditya rudra vasavah sarvani chandansi| narayanadeva samutpadyante| narayanat pravartante|narayane praliyante| etad rigveda sirodhite||
Then The Supreme Person Narayana fastened the wish: May I create! From Narayana the life force is created. Narayana created mind, all senses, and also the sky, air, light (or fire), water, earth, and Narayana is the sustainer of everything (or the whole universe). From Narayana Brahma is born. Narayana created Rudra, Indra, and Prajapati. From Narayana the twelve Adityas, eleven Rudras, eight Vasus, and all Vedic metres are born. They originate from Narayana, they act by Narayana’s energy, and they finally dissolve in Narayana. Thus the head meaning of Rigveda has been studied.
In this Sirah, we try to comprehend Sriman Narayana by His unlimited opulence. At beginning the Sirah considered many material forces, then their great presiding deities (the abhimani-Devatas). Finally, the supremacy of Lord Narayana was established, by identifying Him as the original cause of everything. Remind us with the aphorismjanmadhyasya yatah of Brahmasutra.
Sang Hyang Yajurveda Sirah
atha nityo narayanah| brahma narayanah| sivas ca narayanah| sakras ca narayanah| kalas ca narayanah| disas ca narayanah| vidisas ca narayanah| urdhvam ca narayanah| adhas ca narayanah| antar bahis ca narayanah| narayana evedam sarvam| yad bhutam yas ca bhavyam| niskalanko niranjano nirvikalpah nirakhyatah| suddho deva eko narayanah| na dvitiyo’sti kascit| ya evam veda visnureva bhavati| ya etad yajurveda sirodhite||
The eternal Sriman Narayana is Brahma (The Primary), Narayana is Siva (The Auspicious), Narayana is Sakra (The Master), Narayana is the immortal time, Narayana is the four points of compass and the points between. Narayana is zenith and nadir, the interior and exterior. Narayana is this all; what has come into existence and all that will come into existence. The inconceivable One, the unstainable One, the unimpaired One, pure One Supreme Godhead, One without second, The Supreme Lord Narayana. He, who has come to realized this, will come to Vishnu. Thus the head meaning of Yajurveda has been studied.
Here we find mentioned many Devatas’ name. But we have to remember, this Sirah acts as a Vedic conclusion. By conclusive word of deva ekah or na dvitiyah, we know these different names only referred to One Personality. In other word the Sirah was saying, “That Brahma, you called as the supreme, is Narayana. That Siva actually Narayana. That Sakra actually Narayana. etc.” The Rigveda Sirah considered different personalities, but one of them, that Sriman Narayana, was the Supreme Origin of all. The Yajurveda Sirah only talked about One Single Personality, by addressing Him with various name. Here we also can use the methods of Sri Madhvacharya to solve something seem like ambiguity or contradictive statements of the Vedas. We can understand the words as Niravakasha (have only one meaning) and Savakasha (may interpreted by some meanings base on context). Brahma, Siva, Sakra, etc. could be interpreted in several meanings. viz. the name of demigods; the descriptions of Narayana’s quality; or as various names of Narayana. The second and third meaning was fit in this context by considering the phrase deva ekah narayana na dvitiyah. We called Narayana Brahma, because He is The First Person. We called Him Siva because He is all auspicious, etc. But it doesn’t mean asvatantra (dependent) gods, named Brahma or Siva, etc. was equal or same as Narayana, the Paramasvatantra (The Supremely Independent). In conclusive word, this Sirah meditates on Lord Narayana’s kalyana-guna.
Sang Hyang Samaveda Sirah
Om ityagre vyavaharet| nama iti pascat| narayanayetyuparistat| om ityekaksaram| nama iti dvi aksare| narayanayeti pancaksarani| etad vai narayanasya-astaksaram padam| yo ha vai narayanasya-astaksaram padam abhyeti| anapabhruvah sarvamayureti| vindate prajapatyam rayasposam gopatyam tato’mrta tvam asnute| etat samaveda sirodhite.
First pronounce Om, then Namo, and finally Narayanaya. Om is the one syllable form, Namo is the two syllables form, and Narayanaya is the five syllables form. This is indeed the eight syllables mantra of Lord Narayana. Whoever goes to this eight syllables mantra of Lord Narayana, will be free from any curse during the whole course of his life. He will reach the status of Prajapati (Lord over beings), accumulating abundant of wealth, ownership over cattle and finally reaches immortality. Thus the head meaning of Samaveda has been studied.
This Sirah presenting Astaksara-mantra or Thirumantram as the conclusion of Samaveda. The mantra was actually the sound representation of the deity. There is no different between Astaksara-mantra and The Supreme Personality of Godhead Narayana Himself. One who attained realization on Astaksara-mantra, directly experience the Divine Being of Sriman Narayana Himself. He totally immersed in The Lord’s nama-rupa-guna-lila, His Holy Name, Divine Form, Qualities, and Pastimes. Indeed, this Sirah is the part of Vedic Narayana-suktam.
Sang Hyang Atharvaveda Sirah
Om suryatidam nirmalam satatam| candramrtvat sakalam| sa sadasiva sa suryam idapyam jagatvam| brahma surya surya prabhavam| mahesvaram mahadevam sambhu sankaras ca sivam sadasivam paramasivam| tava suksmam paramgataya tava sa surya| padmanabha narayana indram suryaprakasam| catur-bhumim asamam asisam krstam sukham sajanam| sthavarajangamam lata vrksa sapraroham mrga prajadhipati| om sivam sarva sakala maranam| nada vindvam bhaskaram omkaram ekaksaram| kalagnika-suryam tryaksara angam panca brahmanam dvyaksaram| narayanaskanda ganapati kumarastri siva surya sa etad atharvaveda sirodhite.
Om this is the eternal illuminating pure sun, the soothing ray emanating moon. The Sun of Sadasiva, the cosmic Brahma sun, the all shining sun, The Great Master (Mahesvara), The Great Lord (Mahadeva), The Self born One (Sambhu), The Attractive One (Sankara), The Auspicious (Siva), The Ever Auspicious (Sadasiva), The Most Auspicious (Paramasiva), The Subtlest One (Suksma), The Sun of highest ultimate goal (Paramgata). The Sun of the Lord with lotus-like navel (Padmanabha), sustainer of the whole universe (Narayana), and the King of all kings (Indra). Without parallel in the fourteen worlds, the blissful Lord of saintly persons, humans, animals, trees, vines, and other creatures. The highest Lord of all beings (Prajadhipati). The most auspicious Om, the end of everything, the lustrousnada and bindu of the Single Sacred Syllable Om. The fire of the Sun of the time. Embodiment of three syllables, five Brahmas, and two syllables. The Supreme Narayana, Skanda, Ganapati, Kumara, Devi, Siva, and Surya. Thus the head meaning of Atharvaveda has been studied.”
The Mahabharata narratives as found in present Wayang consist of folk-narratives developed by Wayang puppet-masters and bards over the ages, as also the narratives of Old Javanese Literature, which perhaps itself owes much to Folk-narratives. Kakawin Bhāratayuddha is an Old Javanese poetical rendering of some Parvas of the Mahabharata by Mpu Sedah and his brother Mpu Panuluh in Indian meters (kāvya or Kakawin). The commencement of this work was exactly November 6, 1157. It is by far the oldest extant Javanese work. Some important Kakawins relevant to our present discussion are – Kakawin Arjunawiwaha, by Mpu Kanwa, – 1030, Kakawin Krsnayana, Kakawin Bharatayuddha, by Mpu Sedah and Mpu Panuluh, 1157, Kakawin Hariwangsa Kakawin Gatotkacaśraya, Kakawin Arjunawijaya, by Mpu Tantular, and Kakawin Parthayajña.
With reference to Old Javanese literature and particularly Wayang puppet show, let us now see what major variations we find in the Indonesian narrative from its Indian origin. Let us also see the similarities of some Indian variations with the Indonesian narrative.
In the wayang kulit/leather-puppet performance Prabu Matsyapati or Durgandana, is the King of Wiroto(Virata). He is the son of Basukiswara, a just and powerful king of Cedhiwiyasa. Virataraja Matsya is Satyabati’s brother. Satyabati or Durgandini makes love to Bambang Palasara (Rishi Parashara) in a boat and produces five children.
The earliest recorded history was about the famous Mulavarman of Kutai in Kalimantan. He donated thousands of cows to agnihotri Brahmins and performed the biggest Yagna throughout the history of Nusantara. The Ramayana and also some Sanskrit works, called the present day Kalimantan as Barhina-dvipa, which later became Borneo. At the time of Mulavarman, the Indian supposed to include Nusantara as a part of Greater Kalinga. So by Mulavarman’s virtuous performance of grand sacrificial ceremony, his kingdom could be designated as Kalingottamam, the word perhaps changed to present day Kalimantan. According to some historian, the word Vaprakeshwara found in Mulavarman inscriptions has some connection with Lord Siva, and then they concluded that Mulavarman and his subjects were Saivas. But the form of his Yagna performance was Vedic. It didn’t seem involve the Agamic or Tantric elements of any sort. The lack of archaeological remains of temple worship from the time of Mulavarman supposed to prove this probability.
Their worship differs from Hindu worship in minor details, essence remains the same.
Festivals in Bali.
Nyepi – 31 March 2014
This holiday is the Balinese New Year, called Icaka New Year – a day of total silence throughout the island. No activity, no traffic is allowed on the roads; no fire may be lit for 24 hours. Great purification and sacrificial rites are held on the day before, so as to banish evil spirits from every place on the Island – Ogoh Ogoh figures are built, then burned.
Saraswati - 8 March and 4 October 2014
This day is devoted to Dewi Saraswati, the Goddess of Science & Knowledge. Books of knowledge, manuscripts and the Wedas are blessed and special offerings are made for them.
As with other religious days in Bali, there are also ritual activities before and after the day of Saraswati itself. The day before the Saraswati is called Pengeradanaan, a day to prepare for Saraswati both spiritually and physically. Books are cleaned and properly arranged.
On Saraswati Day, the Balinese make offerings to their books. Students celebrate at school, usually in the morning. The Saraswati Day is not a day off work, so all offices are open.
The day after Saraswati is called Banyu Pinaruh. “Banyu” means water and “Pinaruh” means wisdom. Taken together, the words mean that man must have wisdom which always flows like water, and is useful for mankind. Early in the morning of Banyu Pinaruh Day, people will go the beaches, rivers and springs to purify themselves and pray for wisdom.
Pagerwesi – 12 March and 8 October 2014
Pagerwesi commemorates the day upon which an ancient battle between good and evil was fought. The word “Pagerwesi” means “iron fence”, and reflects the purpose of this important event: it is the day to strengthen one’s fortifications against evil. The correlation between Pagerwesi and the Saraswati is that knowledge is so powerful that it must be protected from bad influences. Pagerwesi Day reminds people to be wise and more aware of the function and power of knowledge.
The Balinese celebrate the Pagerwesi ceremony every six months according to the Balinese calendar. The celebration is usually three days after the Saraswati day.
During Pagerwesi, people make special offerings for the dead who have not yet been cremated. Observances are usually held at every house compound, and at temples.
The Galungan Ceremony – 21 May and 17 December 2014
One of Bali’s major festivals celebrates the return of Balinese gods and ancestors to Bali. For ten days, Balinese families will entertain and welcome with prayers and offerings, along with ceremonies to cleanse and balance the inner and outer energy of the island. Galungan features, among other things, barong dancing from temple to temple in the village. The festival symbolizes the victory of good over evil. The origin of Galungan is a mystery, but essentially it is believed to be the beginning of the week in which the gods and ancestors descend to earth, and good triumphs over evil.
The holiday is celebrated by the fitting of ‘penjor’, tall bamboo poles beautifully decorated with woven coconut palm leaves, fruit, cakes and flowers, on the right side of every house entrance. People are attired in their finest clothes and jewels on this day.