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Posts Tagged ‘Immanuel Kant’

The Definition Of Brahmin,Duties.

In Hinduism on July 16, 2013 at 18:00

The Motto of Brahmins.

The Motto of Brahmins.

This is in continuation of my earlier posts on Caste.

I had explained how the word caste is not of Indian origin and the fact that these concepts are not be found anywhere in the Religious or philosophical texts of the Indians.

Also how Gandhi muddled the waters by inventing a new term Harijans to segregate them by another name.

Ambedkar tried in vain to prove that Untouchability began with the yard stick of Cow eating and meat-eating.

As indicated earlier, the Society was organised on the basis of dispositions and tendencies, both genetic and shaped by the environment.

Basically , on the basis of the three Gunas and their interplay,Sathva, Raja and Tamas, three tendencies and dispositions were noted.

The calm, knowledgeable and ascetic and selfless-Sathva

Active’ Go-getters, protectors, emotional and Compassionate at the same time-Rajas.

Dull, Mentally not sharp,lacking in initiative, can do a job assigned,Indifferent, bordering on Amoral,Tamas.

All the three qualities are present in every man and these keep on changing in the individual every minute and one has to strive to keep the right balance.

Based on the predominant disposition observed for a reasonable period of Time the Society was grouped as under.

The Brahmanas.

The real word denotes’ one who has realized Brahman, The Reality”

Later this was used to denote a group that practiced Compassion, selfless service and was knowledgeable.

They were entrusted with the responsibility of teaching the Community of Value systems and pray for All.

They were not paid.

The Society took care of them in kind, grains. cloth,shelter, land by the Kings.

Those who have these characteristics are Brahmanas , not every one who calls him self a Brahmana..

Brahmins were not expected to save, nor hod properties of their own,.

This sloka tells us who a Brahmin is.

“Adhyaapanam Adhyayanam
Yajanam Yaajanam Tathaa
Daanam Pratigraham Chaiva
Brahmanaanaamakalpayaat”

Adyayanam-Pracctice of reciting the Vedas, with meaning.

Adhyaapnan-Teaching of the Vedas along with the Astras(scientific Arms) and Satras(Ordinary weapons of war)

Yajanam-performance of the Yagnas and Yagas.

Here there is a small difference between a Yagna and Yaaga.

While a Yaaga is performed with a specific wish to be fulfilled, as a Puthra Kameshti for begetting a Good offspring, Yajna is performed expecting no results, performed because it has to be performed as sanctioned by the Vedas.

This one can take as the modern equivalent of the Categorical Imperative of Immanuel Kant.

Yaajanam-Performing these for others.

Dhaanam-Donating to others, Philanthropy without expectations.

Pratigraham-acceptance of Dhaana from others, here one is not expected to anticipate of ask for Dhaana.

Acceptance of Dakshina is mandatory so is non demand of Dakshina.

A Teacher is expected to accept what the parents of the children offer, they are forbidden to ask.

In certain case, like Santhipani asked of Lord Krishna , it is to demonstrate the valor his ward.

Those who ask a specific Dakshina are treated with contempt, like Drona who was  called a Kshatriya for having demanded Dakshina from Ekalaiva( This is one of the reasons)

On top of this, a Brahmin is expected to have realized Brahman, The Reality.

This is how the Brahmins are defined in the Sastras,

Nowhere a Brahmin is called a Brahmin because he is born of Brahmin parents.

‘Universe A Master Computer Controlled’. Confirms Indian Thought.

In Astrophysics, Hinduism, India, Indian Philosophy on December 19, 2012 at 11:10

Recent Studies on the Universe speculate that there may be 10,500 Universes with different laws of Physics.

Based on String Theory this Study suggests that we might be a controlled by a Master Computer Programme with set patterns.

There could be a Super Computer controlling the Universes.

This Theory may be new to the West.

Indian philosophy ,asserts this Principle at different levels and systems.

1. Advaita.Or Non-Dualism postulates that the Universal basic Principle is One and That is called  Brahman.

This Principle is the essence of Being,Knowledge and Bliss.

The world as we see it is an Illusion(Maya).

(This Illusion is called as ‘Avidya or Nescience’ at the individual level and ‘Maya’or Illusion at the Macro level)

It is not to say that it does not Exist.

It has a Relative existence with in the laid down parameters.

The other Existence is called Absolute ‘where the words do not reach, nor thoughts operate’.

At this Absolute level, there are no Attributes or Qualities ,to use a common word.

This is Called the Nirguna Brahman.

Then what about the World we see and Live?

As said earlier it also Exists,though in a limited sense, with the qualities that can be perceived by the organs provided to us and also the make up of the External universe.

These Perceptions we have of our Daily Universe is limited in Space and Time, that is Finite,for we have the Mind is limited by its inability  to perceive without reference to Space and Time.

Immanuel Kant put it simple ‘Time and Space are the Goggles through which we perceive’

So the Universe is Finite for we conditioned to perceive the limited or the limited Nature of the Universe.

The different Universes that exist are regulated by other Laws and the Perceptive organs and the Laws are totally different.

There are 14 levels of Existence, each being controlled thus.

2.Theory of Karma. Karma means action.

Every action performed produces equal and opposite reaction.

When we complete an action, we have excluded the other choices presented to us.

Any choice presented has a set pattern.

So when only one option is taken the balance remain.

Action is a form of energy and once available can not be destroyed but can be changed.

Hence the opposite reactions for our actions and the remaining actions remain even after completion of action.

This remnant  Energy , since it originates from the Doer, the reactions are limited to the Doer alone.

This in short is the abstract of Karma Theory.

Karma is of three kinds.

Sanchita Karma-Total accumulation of the reactions of the actions of the  individual.

What ever we under go is due to a portion of the Karma that is taken out of the totality, Sanchita Karrma.

This Karma is called Prarabda Karma

The balance of the Sanchita Karma will take its course.

Then what about the actions we perform?

This is called Kriyamaana Karma which will yield results and to use banking term, will be credited or debited to your account.

An extension of this thought proves the existence of Life after Death and Rebirth.

As the quality of actions and consequently the reactions differ , one is assigned to different levels of Existence.

Buddhism,Jainism.The Theory of Karma is applied more stringently.Things differ from each other because of the rate at which they vibrate,

Higher the vibration subtler it becomes.

Lower it becomes Gross.

Actions create vasanas and vibrations and these results assign one to different levels of existence and worlds.

For more details please read my blogs filed under Indian Philosophy,Religion,Hinduism and for a detailed explanation of Time Theory refer my blog Time a Non Linear Theory.

Universe

universesandbox

“Imagine the situation where we get a big enough computer to simulate our universe, and we start such a simulation on our computers,” said professor Martin Savage, a physicists working on the project. “If that simulation runs long enough, and have same laws as our universe, then something like our universe will emerge within that simulations, and the situation will repeat itself within each simulation,” he said.

The current understanding of string theory indicates that there are 10,500 universes with different laws that determine the behaviour of particles within them, he said.

“So it is certainly true, that with enough computer resources, theorists would like to explore these universes ,” he added.

Explaining how the experiment works, physicists claim that finite computer resources mean that space time is not continuous but set on a grid with a finite volume, designed to create maximum energy subatomic particles. The direction these particles flow in will depend on how they are ordered on the grid. They will be looking at the distribution of the highest energy cosmic rays in order to detect patterns that could suggest that universe is the creation of some futuristic computer technology.

And if it does turns out that we are mere players in some sort of computer programme, they suggested that there may be a way to mess with the program, and play with the minds of our creators. “One could imagine trying to figure out how to manipulate the code, communicate with the code and questions that appear weird to consider today,” he said…

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-12-17/science/35868462_1_computer-resources-universe-simulation

The point that we can manipulate the master code is fallacious as the Finite can not manipulate the Infinite .

Some things never change. Physicists call them the constants of nature. Such quantities as the velocity of light, c, Newton’s constant of gravitation, G, and the mass of the electron, me, are assumed to be the same at all places and times in the universe. They form the scaffolding around which the theories of physics are erected, and they define the fabric of our universe. …

In recent years, however, the status of the constants has grown more muddled, not less. Researchers have found that the best candidate for a theory of everything, the variant of string theory called M-theory, is self-consistent only if the universe has more than four dimensions of space and time – as many as seven more. One implication is that the constants we observe may not, in fact, be the truly fundamental ones. Those live in the full higher-dimensional space, and we see only their three-dimensional “shadows.” …

In fact, string theory allows for a vast number – 10,500 – of possible “worlds” with different self-consistent sets of laws and constants. …

The constants are a tantalizing mystery. Every equation of physics is filled with them, and they seem so prosaic that people tend to forget how unaccountable their values are. Their origin is bound up with some of the grandest questions of modern science, from the unification of physics to the expansion of the universe.

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/26/weekinreview/26read.html?_r=0

After measuring alpha in around 300 distant galaxies, a consistency emerged: this magic number, which tells us the strength of electromagnetism, is not the same everywhere as it is here on Earth, and seems to vary continuously along a preferred axis through the universe,” Professor John Webb from the University of New South Wales said.

“The implications for our current understanding of science are profound. If the laws of physics turn out to be merely ‘local by-laws’, it might be that whilst our observable part of the universe favours the existence of life and human beings, other far more distant regions may exist where different laws preclude the formation of life, at least as we know it.”(science Daily.com)

 

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Time ,Non-Linear Theory. Indian Thoughts 1

In Astrophysics, Time on October 16, 2012 at 19:07

Time is a very difficult topic ,so is Space.

No clear definition of Time has been set as of Date.

The interchange of the Terms Space and Time is a challenge to the known laws of Physics.

When you observe the Black Holes  where time stops and runs backwards ;

when you notice the movement of extra particles in the sub atomic ranges as in Bosun experiment;

when you have Time Warp proved by Quantum Theory and Mechanics;

when you find the that the receiving by the earth the light from the Star does not prove its existence, rather that it did exist depending on the time taken by the light to reach the earth,

you are astounded and you are forced to reexamine your known Theories of Physics.

Well Indian Philosophy was aware of this fact and it has observed that the .OBSERVER HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE AS THE OBSERVED, FOR TO OBSERVE SOMETHING THAT TRAVELS AT A VELOCITY THAN THAT OF LiGHT, THE OBSERVER NEEDS TO MOVE INTO THAT PLANE OR the results will not be correct.

Instead of looking at the Universe from  the outside Indian Philosophy looks at the instrument that perceives these phenomena;one such instrument is the Mind, which also has the elements that make up the Universe..

Mind is treated as on sense organ(for details please read my blogs on Hinduism).

Now let us look into the concept of Time.

Different perspective of Time.

Changing views of Space and Time along the world line  of a rapidly changing Observer.

In this animation, the vertical direction indicates time and the horizontal direction indicates distance, the dashed line is the spacetime trajectory (“world line”) of an accelerating observer. The small dots are arbitrary events in spacetime that are stationary relative to each other. The events passing the two diagonal lines in the lower half of the picture (the past light cone of the observer) are those that are visible to the observer.

 

Galilean transformation

Galilean transformation (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

World Line Change.

The slope of the world line (deviation from being vertical) gives the relative velocity to the observer. Note how the view of spacetime changes when the observer accelerates. In particular, absolute time is a concept not applicable in Lorentz’s spacetime: events move up-and-down in the figure depending on the acceleration of the observer.

Indian Philosophy recognizes the limitations of human mind and abilities. It knows that one is restricted by space and time, which does not afford him the luxury of understanding things as they are. Any perception or understanding is conditioned by the twin spectacles of Space and Time (Immanuel Kant in Critique of Pure Reason.)

To understand things as they are is beyond human ability. Let us say that we want to know whether there are any particles that travel at a higher velocity than light. (It has been proved theoretically that they exist).If we want to prove them by direct experience rather than inference, we need to be in motion in tune with the particle traveling faster than the velocity of light (Einstein circumvented this problem by theorizing that if an object were to travel at a higher velocity than that of light, it would no longer remain matter. (Theory of Relativity.)

Imagine, we travel at a higher velocity than the velocity of light, not withstanding the fact that we may no longer remain as matter, what happens?
We may be able to observe the particle traveling at a higher velocity than light. But, in the process of observing this phenomenon, we no longer remain in our normal original state. That is to say we have changed our plane of existence to that of the object traveling at a higher velocity.
This means to understand, in the realms of Higher Physics, if one needs to observe things of a different coordinates, one needs to move to the same level of existence.
That is to say our existence coordinates or parameters vary. This leads to different level of Time as this involves motion at a higher velocity than the one we are in. This admits the differentiation of time, determined by two factors-the point from which one observes and the point at which the observable exists. In short to understand higher velocities one needs to be at the same velocity to observe in real-time.

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We Rationalize, Not Reason

In Behavior, Hinduism, Indian Philosophy, lifestyle on July 21, 2012 at 09:03

'Brain'

The Brain

I came across an interesting Article which states that we Rationalize and not Reason.

To me it seems correct.

When we choose anything, we, if we reflect, rationalize.

We are driven by instincts, Feelings and Emotions.Any choice depends on and is driven by these.

As we have mores and Social respectability to consider, we rationalize, not Reason while making a choice.

We rationalize our decisions, consciously later, more to ourselves .

The Organism chooses what is Right for its survival.

We are driven to decisions, that’s all.

All of us have Dispositions and these are not determined by us.

The Dispositions determine our Attitude, Attitudes our Desires and Desire actions.

This has ben brought forth in the Bhagavad Gita.

All of us are born with Three Gunas(loosely translated,Dispositions)

These interact with each other constantly and we behave.

There is no such thing as inactivity for all of us ar driven by thees Gunas.

So any decision that we take is purely instinctive and we justify it later(an euphemism for Rationalising)

This we call as Reason,

Theer is interesting sequel for this in The Bhagavad Gita.

Lord Krishna advises Arjuna to fight for Honour, Wealth and Name.

He later says that is always better to do one’s Duty;yet the results his actions are not in his hands alone;even if he does not do it, things will happen;attachment breeds anger when thwarted; anger breeds indecision, indecision leads to the Destruction of the Intellect and destruction of the Intellect ensures the Destruction of Man;then adds it is ideal that one Realises Reality forgoing every action , nay, the resolve to get the results;the best way is through Knowledge,then Surrender to God.

Confusing, isn’t it?

Arjuna tells Krishna that since all actions be-get results because of which one is born and has to go through the pain in Life, he will not perform any action;hence no results and no birth and no pain.

Krishna tells him that no such activity is possible as we are driven by Gunas and He, the Supreme Lord that He is, after having been born. is not beyond action.

And adds a punch line ‘Is there anything in the world that is not Mine and is there any thing I need?

Still I perform action, because I can not help it’ Bhagavad Gita -Chapter 2)

Story;

Jonathan Haidt’s new book makes a well-reasoned case against reason. It persuades that the power of persuasion is overrated. It opens minds to the near universality of closed minds. Does Haidt’s convincing theory affirm or rebut his argument? My brain hurts.

Western philosophy has been worshipping reason and distrusting the passions for thousands of years,” the University of Virginia psychology professor writes. “There’s a direct line running from Plato through Immanuel Kant to Lawrence Kohlberg. I’ll refer to this worshipful attitude throughout this book as the rationalist delusion. I call it a delusion because when a group of people make something sacred, the members of the cult lose the ability to think clearly about it.”

Intellectuals confuse a more ideal state of affairs for the way things actually are—reason is more often than not rationalization, a justification for ideas developed not in the brain but in the gut. Haidt’s antecedent here is David Hume. Reason plays servant to man’s whims. Man forces the facts to fit his beliefs rather than the reverse. It’s no wonder that ideas that work marvelously in our minds fail miserably when applied to the world outside our heads. How a theory makes us feel, not whether it works, is the most important prerequisite for our acceptance of it.

Were athletes to seek rule by the strong or models rule by the beautiful, intellectuals would clearly see naked self-interest masked as reason. But Haidt finds other smart people to be no more reasonable in their use of reason. Intellectuals seek rule by the intelligent. The Righteous Mind explains that the rationalist delusion is

the idea that reasoning is our most noble attribute, one that makes us like the gods (for Plato) or that brings us beyond the ‘delusion’ of believing in gods (for the New Atheists). The rationalist delusion is not just a claim about human nature. It’s also a claim that the rational caste (philosophers or scientists) should have more power, and it usually comes along with a utopian program for raising more rational children.

Intelligence is a virtue. So are prudence, integrity, humility, and courage. People who possess the first trait, but lack the latter ones, tend to downplay the importance of their weaknesses and inflate the importance of their strength. The limitations of intelligence are never as glaring as when highbrains advocate intelligence as the panacea for everything. But it is not the intelligence of Haidt’s fellow liberals that he indicts. It’s their morals.

Haidt helped devise a questionnaire that gauged moral views by eliciting test-taker responses to statements in five categories: care/harm, fairness/cheating, loyalty/betrayal, authority/subversion, and sanctity/degradation. Haidt likens these moral groupings to the five taste receptors of the tongue (sweet, sour, bitter, savory, salty). It turns out that liberal receptors failed to engage on questions of loyalty, authority, and sanctity. Conservatives, on the other hand, reacted to all five moral categories more or less equally. Haidt’s conclusion is that his fellow liberals are morally tone deaf. “Republicans understand moral psychology,” Haidt concedes. “Democrats don’t.”

It gets worse for liberals. Haidt and colleagues asked their subjects to answer their questionnaire as if they were liberals, as if they were conservatives, and as themselves. Liberals don’t know their political adversaries nearly as well as the right knows them. “The results were clear and consistent. Moderates and conservatives were most accurate in their predictions, whether they were pretending to be liberals or conservatives. Liberals were the least accurate, especially those who described themselves as ‘very liberal.’ The biggest errors in the whole study came when liberals answered the Care and Fairness questions while pretending to be conservatives.” Liberals see caricatures when they see conservatives.

http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/the-psychology-of-partisanship/

 

‘No Heaven..Some thing Out of Nothing’-Hawking Non-sense.

In Astrophysics, Hinduism, Indian Philosophy on May 17, 2011 at 10:19

True.

But there are people who made the Computer.

Reality is the Ultimate Cause.

A Scientist should know that there has to be cause for Every thing.

( Indian Philosophy has a different approach on this point)

Inability to distinguish between Religion and Metaphysics is a failing of Hawking,

What the Ultimate Cause is, in the Realms of Philosophy.

The very fact he is harping on Fear of death is an indication of his fear.

By denying the unknown he is trying o overcome his fear.

Let him have the luxury.

For more details on the subject read the blog at the end of this story.

Story:

“I regard the brain as a computer which will stop working when its components fail. There is no heaven or afterlife for broken down computers; that is a fairy story for people afraid of the dark.”

“I have lived with the prospect of an early death for the last 49 years. I’m not afraid of death, but I’m in no hurry to die. I have so much I want to do first,” he told the newspaper.

http://current.com/1bocmkc

Stephen hawking , in his forthcoming book the Grand Design makes interesting observations.While he , in his earlier book,Brief history of Time seemed to take  a philosophical position, which is unwarranted, as scientists normally  concern themselves to their discipline instead of trying to explain things from their discipline,in his latest book he has taken the position that God is not necessary for the creation of Universe.

http://www.usatoday.com/news/religion/2010-09-03-hawking02_ST_N.htm?csp=34news&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+usatoday-NewsTopStories+%28News+-+Top+Stories%29

The absurdity of this argument lies in the fact that he has taken or rather seems to take the concept of God according to Christianity.

Creation , according to  The Bible, is to have begun at a fixed point of Time.

This is not logically tenable.

Can he define ‘Some thing’ and ‘Nothing’?

Every effect has a cause, every Effect has more than one Cause ;a Cause may be a result of another Cause and an Effect may be a  Cause for another Effect.

In the first case, we credit an Event/Effect with a specific Cause relatively for this case for this cause  may be a result of another cause.

In the second case the reverse is true.Causes are classified into Immediate Cause, Concomitant Cause.Material Cause,Efficient Cause etc.No single entity is responsible for any Effect .Similar is the case with Effects.

Law of causality in nothing but a tool of mind to find a pattern for our convenience of understanding and classification.Things happenirrrespective of the fact whether we recognise them , classify them or not.

Things/Events happen-Period.

Unified Theory is as good as Chaos Theory.Both are equally true , depending on our perception.

As Immanuel Kant has observed Space and Time are the two spectacles through which we perceive.Take away the these twin concepts(in fact they are one), you can perceive or conceptualize nothing.

Therefore the causality is a myth.

Again Law of causality depends on two factors,Law of uniformity of nature and Law of Causation.

We know, or rather we think we know that the the law of of Uniformity of Nature will be there tomorrow as in Sun appearing to morrow.At best we may say it has happened till date and MAY be so to morrow.That is all.

We have already seen that law of Causality is a myth and only a convenient tool as science is .

Therefore the argument for First cause is not tenable(God).

Then how do we explain the Universe and Mind?

As said earlier things happen, happened ,and shall happen.

We are in the flow ,as Henri Bergson called it,elan vital-Stream of Consciousness.

We can not pin point a point of Time when this originated

Please refer my Blog on Time-a non linear theory for details.

Hence Hawking is right in so far as the concept of God as Christianity sees it.

Not philosophically correct.

Spinoza explains the Reality( God) thus.

“Substance is that which exists independently of any thing else and which does not need the conception  of any thing in order to be conceived”

Hinduism states that reality is without Cause,it is the First cause.It has no attribute.It is immanent.beyond human intellect.It is indescribable,It can not be known.it can only be experienced.It can not be defined but can be described by negating-not this, not this.

Hinduism states that things were, are and shall be.(The Bhagavad Gita).

Universe evolved both matter and Mind by the Sparsa( loosely trnslated means touching,grazing) of inanimate matter Prakriti or nature( not Nature) or qualities and dynamic or Flowing Energy Purusha.

They graze due to lila or playfully(loose translation) with out any specific purpose or purposeless may be a purpose.

Out these are formed the seeming first cause, mahat and 24 principles are evolved for the Creation.It does not Time reference.

“Because there is a law such as gravity, the Universe can and will create itself from nothing,” the excerpt says. “Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the Universe exists, why we exist. It is not necessary to invoke God to … set the Universe going.”-Hawking in his latest Book.

Exactly.This what Hinduism is about.

The dichotomy between western and oriental thought is due to the basic difference in the basic concept of Knowledge.

In the west knowledge is to be gained.A positive concept.-philosophically speaking.

In the east it is the removal of ignorance.

West follows the dictum Nihilo nihil Fit'( out of nothing comes).

East”This is full,That is Full; having taken Full out of Full, Full remains Full”

Hawking is right on the denial of God as conceptualized by Christianity ;wrong from the Indian and philosophical standpoint.

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