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Posts Tagged ‘European Southern Observatory’

Planet With No Star Video

In Astrophysics, videos on November 25, 2012 at 16:39

We have been taught that a Planet rotates around a Star and that is what makes the Planet stable by maintaining it to stay in equilibrium; it is the reason for Seasons , Day and Night.

Now Astronomers have found a Rogue Planet with No Star to orbit.

Planet With No Star_jpg.

Planet With No Star

“Astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope have identified a body that is very probably a planet wandering through space without a parent star. This is the most exciting free-floating planet candidate so far and the closest such object to the Solar System at a distance of about 100 light-years. Its comparative proximity, and the absence of a bright star very close to it, has allowed the team to study its atmosphere in great detail. This object also gives astronomers a preview of the exoplanets that future instruments aim to image around stars other than the Sun.

Free-floating planets are planetary-mass objects that roam through space without any ties to a star. Possible examples of such objects have been found before [1], but without knowing their ages, it was not possible for astronomers to know whether they were really planets or brown dwarfs — “failed” stars that lack the bulk to trigger the reactions that make stars shine.

But astronomers have now discovered an object, labelled CFBDSIR2149 [2], that seems to be part of a nearby stream of young stars known as the AB Doradus Moving Group. The researchers found the object in observations from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and harnessed the power of ESO’s Very Large Telescope to examine its properties [3].

The AB Doradus Moving Group is the closest such group to the Solar System. Its stars drift through space together and are thought to have formed at the same time. If the object is associated with this moving group — and hence it is a young object — it is possible to deduce much more about it, including its temperature, mass, and what its atmosphere is made of [4]. There remains a small probability that the association with the moving group is by chance.

The link between the new object and the moving group is the vital clue that allows astronomers to find the age of the newly discovered object [5]. This is the first isolated planetary mass object ever identified in a moving group, and the association with this group makes it the most interesting free-floating planet candidate identified so far. “

http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1245/

While scientists have found objects they believe might be sunless planets in the past, they couldn’t say for certain whether such celestial objects were planets or brown dwarves (which are effectively failed stars). CFBDSIR2149 is the most conclusive such object yet, since it isn’t located anywhere near a bright star as far as the researchers can tell.

According to the researchers, this object is quite massive—it has 4 to 7 times the mass of Jupiter—and at 430 degrees Celsius (about 806 degrees Fahrenheit), it’s very warm (the ESO didn’t explain why CFBDSIR2149 may be so toasty, though). Also, they say, this maybe-planet is young in astronomical terms, at between 50 and 120 million years of age.’(techhive.com)

Rogue Alien Planet Found With No Star! Nibiru, Planet X? 2012 HD

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Galaxy with ‘Split Personality Found’

In Astrophysics on April 25, 2012 at 16:00

Now it is the turn of the galaxy to have Split Personality!

“RELEASE : 12-130

NASA’s Spitzer Finds Galaxy with Split Personality
 WASHINGTON — While some galaxies are rotund and others are slender disks like our spiral Milky Way, new observations from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope show that the Sombrero galaxy is both. The galaxy, which is a round, elliptical with a thin disk embedded inside, is one of the first known to exhibit characteristics of the two different types. The findings will lead to a better understanding of galaxy evolution, a topic still poorly understood.

“The Sombrero is more complex than previously thought,” said Dimitri Gadotti of the European Southern Observatory in Chile and lead author of a new paper on the findings appearing in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. “The only way to understand all we know about this galaxy is to think of it as two galaxies, one inside the other.”

The Sombrero galaxy, also known as NGC 4594, is located 28 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. From our viewpoint on Earth, we can see the thin edge of its flat disk and a central bulge of stars, making it resemble a wide-brimmed hat. Astronomers do not know whether the Sombrero’s disk is shaped like a ring or a spiral, but agree it belongs to the disk class.

“Spitzer is helping to unravel secrets behind an object that has been imaged thousands of times,” said Sean Carey of NASA’s Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif.. “It is intriguing Spitzer can read the fossil record of events that occurred billions of years ago within this beautiful and archetypal galaxy.”

Spitzer captures a different view of the galaxy than visible-light telescopes. In visible views, the galaxy appears to be immersed in a glowing halo, which scientists had thought was relatively light and small. With Spitzer’s infrared vision, a different view emerges. Spitzer sees old stars through the dust and reveals the halo has the right size and mass to be a giant elliptical galaxy.

While it is tempting to think the giant elliptical swallowed a spiral disk, astronomers say this is highly unlikely because that process would have destroyed the disk structure. Instead, one scenario they propose is that a giant elliptical galaxy was inundated with gas more than nine billion years ago. Early in our universe, networks of gas clouds were common, and they sometimes fed growing galaxies, causing them to bulk up. The gas would have been pulled into the galaxy by gravity, falling into orbit around the center and spinning out into a flat disk. Stars would have formed from the gas in the disk.

“This poses all sorts of questions,” said Rubén Sánchez-Janssen from the European Southern Observatory, co-author of the study. “How did such a large disk take shape and survive inside such a massive elliptical? How unusual is such a formation process?”

Researchers say the answers could help them piece together how other galaxies evolve. Another galaxy, called Centaurus A, appears also to be an elliptical galaxy with a disk inside it. But its disk does not contain many stars. Astronomers speculate that Centaurus A could be at an earlier stage of evolution than the Sombrero and might eventually look similar.

The findings also answer a mystery about the number of globular clusters in the Sombrero galaxy. Globular clusters are spherical nuggets of old stars. Ellipticals typically have a few thousand, while spirals contain a few hundred. The Sombrero has almost 2,000, a number that makes sense now but had puzzled astronomers when they thought it was only a disk galaxy. ‘

http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2012/apr/HQ12-130_Spitzer_Sombrero.html

Related articles

infrared image of Sombrero galaxy

infrared image of Sombrero galaxy (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The most distant galaxy ever measured Video.

In Astrophysics, videos on October 21, 2010 at 12:33

Astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) have measured the distance to the most remote galaxy so far, UDFy-38135539, existing when the Universe was only about 600 million years old (a redshift of 8.6). Image: M. Alvarez, R. Kaehler, and T. Abel

 

(PhysOrg.com) — A European team of astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) has measured the distance to the most remote galaxy so far. By carefully analysing the very faint glow of the galaxy they have found that they are seeing it when the Universe was only about 600 million years old (a redshift of 8.6). These are the first confirmed observations of a galaxy whose light is clearing the opaque hydrogen fog that filled the cosmos at this early time. It has taken 13.1 billion years, travelling at 300,000 kilometres (186,000 miles) per second, for this smudge of infant light to arrive

http://www.physorg.com/news/2010-10-cosmic-fog-distant-galaxy-video.html

Related:

Running away

The distance to faraway galaxies is measured by noting how rapidly they are moving away from our own. Because the universe is expanding at an ever-increasing pace, all widely dispersed galaxies retreat from each other at greater speeds the farther apart they are.

Scientists measure all this by noting a galaxy’s redshift, the extent to which the wavelengths of its light have been stretched toward the red end of the spectrum during its long travels across the cosmos.

The previous record holder, a Sloan galaxy, is at redshift 6.4.

The newfound galaxy has a redshift of at least 6.6, based on the Hubble imaging, and may be near 7.0 according to a less firm analysis of the Keck observations.

The universe is now about 13.7 billion years old.

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/distant_galaxy_040216.html

* Please read other blogs under AstroPhysics,TIME

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