There are twelve Avatars of Vishnu which is in vogue.
There is also a list of the 28 Avatars of Vishnu, about which I have blogged.
The Vishnu Purana states that the Jainism and Buddhism were a created deliberately by Lord Vishnu as a curse to ensure that the Asuras do not follow the Vedas, as the strict adherence to the Vedas by the Asuras were making them stronger and more powerful than the Devas.
The narration is like this.
During one of the innumerable wars between the Devas ans the Asuras, the Asuras were gaining the upper hand and the Devas entreated Lord Vishnu to save them.
Lord Vishnu created Maya Mohan,One who appears to be Real but illusory, that is the Preaching would be deceptively similar to the Vedas but against the Authority of the Vedas.
Maya Mohan taught the new system to the Asuras and as they were listening attentively, he ,Lord Vishnu, kept repeating ‘Arhatha, Arhata’,'Be Deserved for this’
This body of Teaching later came to be known as ‘Arhatha’ which term became corrupted later and was known as Jainism.
So the Asuras started following the new Religion.
The word Jainism is derived from a Sanskrit verb Jin which means to conquer. It refers to a battle with the passions and bodily pleasures that the jainaascetics undertake. Those who win this battle are termed as Jina (conqueror). The term Jaina is thus used to refer to laymen and ascetics of this tradition alike.
It could also indicate thet Lord Vishnu conquered the Asuras or the Devas conquered them.
The Jaina meta Physics closely resembles, in fact most of them are from, Hinduism.
- Jīva: The essence of living entities is called jiva, a substance which is different from the body that houses it. Consciousness, knowledge and perception are its fundamental attributes.
- Ajīva: Non-living entities that consist of matter, space and time fall into the category of ajiva.
- Asrava: The interaction between jīva and ajīva causes the influx of a karma (a particular form of ajiva) into the soul, to which it then adheres.
- Bandha: The karma masks the jiva and restricts it from having its true potential of perfect knowledge and perception.
- Saṃvara: Through right conduct, it is possible to stop the influx of additional karma.
- Nirjarā: By performing asceticism, it is possible to shred or burn up the existing karma.
- Mokṣa: The jiva which has removed its karma is said to be liberated and to have its pure, intrinsic quality of perfect knowledge in its true form.
Some authors add two additional categories: the meritorious and demeritorious acts related to karma. These are called puṇya and pāpa respectively. These fundamentals acts as the basis for the Jain metaphysics..
Jainism Karma Theory is the strict interpretation of Hindu Karma Theory.
As some of the Asuras did not follow these teachings, Lord Vishnu taught another body of thought saying ‘Buddhyatvam, Buddhyatha’.
The One who propounded this Theory was called the Buddha.
This body of thoughts became known as Buddhism.
Buddhism also closely follows Hinduism excepting the denial of God.
It may be appreciated that Adi Sankaracharya was called a ‘Pseudo Buddhist for his interpretations of the Mahavaayas, while arriving at Advaita.
Buddhism is Nihilist while Advaita defines Reality as Not Two.
This may be the reason for the fact that Jainism contains most of the Teachings of the Vedas, especially the Rules to follow in Life.