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Posts Tagged ‘Brain’

Racism Embedded In Brain Science. Krishna Says?

In Science on May 10, 2014 at 11:25

In the Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna informs Krishna,

 

‘Finally one  suffers because hePunya orPaapa.

Racist area of the Brain .jpg

The amygdala CLIPAREA/Shutterstock

 

Punya or Paapa is acquired because of performance of Actions, both Good and Bad.

 

So I have decided not to act, perform any act’

 

So no Punya,Paapa,no rebirth ‘Suffering or Death’

 

Krishna smiles and tells him,

 

‘May be you are right.

 

But facts seem to be otherwise.

 

No one can remain doing Nothing.

 

If you mean by sitting quiet means you do not perform an action, you are mistakes.

 

Your very Perception affects the Perceived , both Animate and Inanimate(This point has been proved by Quantum, please read my Post )

 

You have to eat.

 

What you eat has Life.

 

While breathing  you inhale and many Organisms die.

 

One can not avoid performing actions.

 

Because it is the Swabhava, Nature.

 

Look at Me.

 

There is Nothing in the World that I need for the World is in Me and me in the World.

 

Yet I perform actions.

 

Why?

 

Because once born one is controlled by the three Gunas, Satva, Rajas and Tamas.

 

So none can help doing what he does’

 

However Krishna later explains how to overcome this, by Abhyasa (Practice) and Vairagya (Right Determination)

 

On this Nature of Man, scientists have determined that racist tendencies are embedded in the Brain.

 

Read the story.

In a number of classic studies, research subjects are asked to complete a seemingly simple task, such as watching words pop up on a screen and quickly categorizing those words as either positive, like “happy,” or negative, like “fear.”

 

But right before the word appears, a face, either black or white, flashes on the screen. “What we find over and over again in the literature,” explains Amodio, “is that if a black person’s face was shown really quickly, then people are quicker at categorizing negative words than positive words that follow it. Versus if a white face was shown really quickly, people are usually quicker to categorize the positive words, compared with the negative words.”

 

These types of biases are quite prevalent.According to a research summary by Stanford University’s Recruitment to Expand Diversity and Excellence program, “about 75% of whites and Asians demonstrated an implicit bias in favor of whites compared to blacks.”

In other words, despite your best intentions, you might be a little bit racist. (Similar unconscious biases have been documented in people’s views of those of different genders, the elderly, and other groups.)

And why do these split-second negative responses exist?

The underlying problem is that our brains have evolved to see patterns in things that are complex, and to categorize the world in order to simplify it.

Thus, when we encounter another person, our brains rapidly and subconsciously try to figure out if he or she is friend or foe: in-group or out-group.

Source.

http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/05/inquiring-minds-david-amodio-your-brain-on-racism

 

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New Brain Area Found Assumption So Far ?

In Health on February 5, 2014 at 18:27

I have a good friend of mine, who is one of the top most Neuro Physicians of the world.

Unlike the great scientists and rationalists of Tamil Nadu, Kaunanidhi, Veeramani and Co, he believes in God.

We were talking at my Home over lunch on medical condition.

No body knows why it is so, nor how the medicine prescribed in controlling it or whether it will have side effects.

When I asked my friend who is treating me,

‘Look, Ramanan,I honestly do not know.

If it work,s continue.

Do not think it is only with your case.

Most of the cases are this way.

Doctors won’t admit it for it will lower their Image.

As to me I am prescribing praying.”Vaidyo Narayno Hari”(I Pray the Greatest Doctor, Lord Vishnu)

That’s all.

Neuro science is still evolving.

We do not know much of Brain functions.

We are exploring.

Sometimes I wonder how these medicines work!”

This from a famous specialist in one of the most complicated fields of medicines.

As if to prove him news has emerged that scientists have found a new area of Brain.

Read On.

esearchers have discovered that an area of the brain that was previously assumed to dampen response to stress, in fact does the opposite and directly promotes anxiety. In reporting their findings in the journal Cell, the investigators add a new dimension to the science of anxiety.

They describe how they found a brain circuit that connects an area called the lateral septum (LS) with other brain structures in a way that directly affects anxiety.

Corresponding author David Anderson, the Seymour Benzer Professor of Biology at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, says:

“Our study has identified a new neural circuit that plays a causal role in promoting anxiety states. Part of the reason we lack more effective and specific drugs for anxiety is that we don’t know enough about how the brain processes anxiety. This study opens up a new line of investigation into the brain circuitry that controls anxiety.”

Figures from the National Institutes of Mental Health show over 18% of adults in the US are affected by anxiety disorders, where people experience excessive worry or tension, often leading to physical symptoms.

Although previous research has focused primarily on the amygdala as being the region in the brain that processes anxiety, Prof. Anderson and colleagues had a hunch that the LS might also be involved, so they decided to study it using mice.

Does the lateral septum promote or inhibit anxiety?

The team set out to investigate a circuit called the septohippocampal axis because previous studies had already mentioned it in connection with anxiety. These had shown that in mice, stress-induced anxious behavior is accompanied by activation of brain cells in the LS, which sits inside this circuit.

But if the LS is active during stress, is it promoting anxiety, or is it limiting it?

Until this study, the belief was the LS dampened the response to stressors. But the team showed in fact the opposite was the case.

They used a technique called optogenetics, where light controls neurons or brain cells, to activate a set of neurons in the LS of mice. The particular neurons had a gene that made them active in response to light.

During this activation, the mice became more anxious. When they tested the effect further, the team found that even a brief burst of activation induced a state of anxiety that persisted for at least half an hour.

This showed that not only were these particular brain cells involved at the start of the anxiety state, but also that this state persists when they are no longer active.

But the reason that – until now – it was thought these brain cells inhibited anxiety was because they are of a type that inhibits other brain cells, says Prof. Anderson. So what was going on?

The lateral septum promotes anxiety via a double-inhibitory circuit

Prof. Anderson and his colleagues decided to test the idea that a double-negative system was involved. Neurons inhibiting inhibitory neurons. And that is indeed what they found.

When they looked at the types of connections the LS made in the brain, they found it was inhibiting neurons in the neighboring hypothalamus, most of which were themselves inhibitors.

Plus, the hypothalamic inhibitory neurons were connected to a third brain structure, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which controls the release of hormones like cortisol in response to stress and is known to be involved in anxiety.

The team found a circuit that appeared to act as a double-inhibitor where activating the LS neurons could result in increased stress and anxiety. When they activated the LS neurons, the levels of circulating stress hormones increased, suggesting the PVN was being activated.

And they also tested the converse: inhibiting the LS connections to the hypothalamus reduced the rise in stress hormones when the mice were under stress.

They concluded that this set of results confirms the double-negative idea.”

Source:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/272114.php

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Right Brain Left Brain Theory Wrong

In Science on August 18, 2013 at 18:07

Science has been touting a Theory that “Right-brained” people are supposedly more creative with strong concentration powers. People who are “left-brained” are more analytical, logical, and better with language..

Now this is proved wrong by a recent Study.involving MRI Scan of 1011 people.

 

The Brain.

Right Brain, Left Brain.

Science ,I maintain , is as good as the last Study.

Yet Science and Scientists assume they are the Masters while heaping abuse on Religion and Philosophy.

Story:

Results from a recent study from researchers at the University of Utah indicate that there is no evidence to support the theory that some people are “right-brained,” while others are “left-brained,” giving you one less easy way to dismiss someone’s peculiar personality.

There has never been strong evidence to uphold this distinction, but the theory stemmed from the notion that there were two distinct personality types, based on which hemisphere of the brain was dominant. The more active side would have noticeable effects on personality and cognition. “Right-brained” people are supposedly more creative with strong concentration powers. People who are “left-brained” are more analytical, logical, and better with language.

Researchers for the study monitored the fMRI brain scans of 1011 participants, all between the ages of 7 to 29, and did not detect support of brain hemisphere dominance. The participants were asked to think about nothing for five to ten minutes (resting brain state/pre-nap state). The researchers then looked at “each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter” (complicated brain stuff, but this sounds like a lot of the brain). According to the study’s lead author, Jared Nielsen:

“We just don’t see patterns where the whole left-brain network is more connected or the whole right-brain network is more connected in some people. It may be that personality types have nothing to do with one hemisphere being more active, stronger, or more connected…”

http://gawker.com/the-left-brain-right-brain-distinction-is-as-fake-as-it-1153790191?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+gawker/full+(Gawker)

Brain’s Electrical Signature After Death, Pancha Kosas

In Hinduism, Science on August 17, 2013 at 19:14

University of Michigan researchers George Mashour, M.D., Ph.D., and Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D.

University of Michigan researchers George Mashour, M.D., Ph.D., and Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., provide the first scientific framework for near-death experiences.

Human body has five sheaths or layers.

Annamaya Kosa, Of Food,

Pranamaya Kosa,of Vital Breath,

Vijnanamaya Kosa, of Knowledge,

Manomaya Kosa , of Mind and

Ananadamaya Kosa.

These five layers surround the Atman,the individual self.

Annamaya Kosa is made up of the essence of Food, not food itself.

The food we eat gets digested and its essence. called the Rasa and it sustains the body.

Food determines our thoughts and dispositions-read my post on this under Hinduism.

We become what we eat for we think because of what we eat and we become what we think.( Bhagavad Gita)

Prana is the subtle breath, not actual air.

It is the subtle quality of air.

Breath regulation is taught is Yoga;people mistake control of air.

Breath has three aspects,

It is Puraka when inhaled(through the left nostril)

It is also called the Ida Nadi.

Rechaka is drawn through the right nostril, Pingala Nadi.

When retained in the lungs it is Kumbhaka.

The ratio of Pranayama, of breath control is 1:4:3-Puraka:Kumbhaka:Rechakam.

Mind is the other layer.

Thought waves determine what we think and what we think decide what we are and what we become.

Through right food and right breath control, right mental disposition can be attained.

Vijnana or Knowledge is another layer, made of two types of knowledge.

They are,

Para Vidya, Knowledge of the Reality, which is eternal, correct .

The other one is Apara Knowledge, of the mundane kind, Science and other empirical knowledge.

The term Vijnana is used to distinguish from the correct knowledge, Vidya.

All these constitute the attributes of the soul to enable perception and understanding.

By careful and correct practice soul can evolve higher.

When a human being is about to die,of natural causes, ears give out first-loses the power of hearing .

Then eyesight goes.

Speech then fails.

Body becomes getting cold from feet upwards.

When life breath leaves from the left nostril,enters the lungs for last time, it comes out in a long sigh and is life is gone.

This is a description of the process of death in Hindu scriptures.

Even after life has gone out -the Annamaya, Pranamaya are gone-vijnana maya remains for twelve days after death.

It also leaves after the twelfth day ceremony called Sabindekaranam is performed.

Annamaya Kosa is Eternal, remains even after death.

The remnants of the Vijnana is now  detected and scientifically proved in the form of electrical signature in the Brain.

Read On.

The “near-death experience” reported by cardiac arrest survivors worldwide may be grounded in science, according to research at the University of Michigan Health System.

Whether and how the dying brain is capable of generating conscious activity has been vigorously debated.

But in this week’s PNAS Early Edition, a U-M study shows shortly after clinical death, in which the heart stops beating and blood stops flowing to the brain, rats display brain activity patterns characteristic of conscious perception.

“This study, performed in animals, is the first dealing with what happens to the neuropsychological state of the dying brain,” says lead study author Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., associate professor of molecular and integrative physiologyand associate professor of neurology at the University of Michigan Medical School.

“It will form the foundation for future human studies investigating mental experiences occurring in the dying brain, including seeing light during cardiac arrest,” she says.

Approximately 20 percent of cardiac arrest survivors report having had a near-death experience. These visions and perceptions have been called “realer than real,” according to previous research, but it remains unclear whether the brain is capable of such activity after cardiac arrest.

“We reasoned that if near-death experience stems from brain activity, neural correlates of consciousness should be identifiable in humans or animals even after the cessation of cerebral blood flow,” she says.

Researchers analyzed the recordings of brain activity called electroencephalograms (EEGs) from nine anesthetized rats undergoing experimentally induced cardiac arrest.

http://www.reddit.com/tb/1k8y6u

Stomach Report By a Camera In The Stomach

In Health on June 1, 2013 at 18:56

Inside the Stomach

The pill cam broadcasts pictures from inside the prof’s stomach Photo: ITV Anglia

We have ‘gut feeling

Have a ‘knot of Fear in Stomach”

These phrases  seem to be true and are scientifically  explained now.

Michael Mosley swallowed a tiny camera which streamed the Stomach.

Report:

Not many of us get the chance to watch our own stomach’s digestion in action.

But along with an audience at London’s Science Museum, I recently watched live pictures from my own stomach as the porridge I had eaten for breakfast was churned, broken up, exposed to acid and then pushed out into my small intestine as a creamy mush called chyme.

I had swallowed a miniature camera in the form of a pill that would spend the day travelling through my digestive system, projecting images onto a giant screen.

Its first stop was my stomach, whose complex work is under the control of what’s sometimes called “the little brain“, a network of neurons that line your stomach and your gut.

Surprisingly, there are over 100 million of these cells in your gut, as many as there are in the head of a cat.

The little brain does not do a lot of complex thinking but it does get on with the essential daily grind involved in digesting food – lots of mixing, contracting and absorbing, to help break down our food and begin extracting the nutrients and vitamins we need.

And all those neurons lining our digestive system allow it to keep in close contact with the brain in your skull, via the vagus nerves, which often influence our emotional state.

For instance when we experience “butterflies in the stomach”, this really is the brain in the stomach talking to the brain in your head. As we get nervous or fearful, blood gets diverted from our gut to our muscles and this is the stomach’s way of protesting.

Hunger hormones

To accommodate a big meal your stomach has to expand from the size of a fist to around 2 litres. That’s a 40-fold increase.

We used to think that stretch receptors in the stomach told the brain when the stomach was full, time to stop eating. But it turns out that the hunger signals produced by your stomach are far more sophisticated than that.

Understanding that has helped doctors treat father of 4, Bob Lakhanpal, who had hardly ever felt full, no matter how much he ate. As a result he had grown to 20 stone….

Related:

A Norwich scientist has swallowed a tiny camera to make a film about the journey of food.

Professor Simon Carding, head of gut health and food safety at the Institute of Food Research swallowed the “pillcam” yesterday morning before tucking into an unusual breakfast of brightly coloured peppers.

The tiny camera, which costs £500, is a wireless capsule endoscope. It has taken 60,000 images of Professor Carding’s small bowel and the results are astonishingly clear – although there isn’t a pepper to be seen!

Despite having a surface area equivalent to two tennis courts, the small bowel, cannot be explored by a normal endoscope.

Professor Carding’s film will be shown at the IFR’s open day on Saturday September 29th. It’s to give members of the public the chance to see what goes on inside the leading research centre.

http://www.itv.com/news/anglia/2012-09-13/live-from-norwich-the-broadcast-with-a-difference/

Source:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-18779997

 

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