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Posts Tagged ‘astronomy’

Large Numbers Modern Maths Tamil Classics

In Astrophysics, Tamils on December 5, 2014 at 18:14

In the highly complex world of Astronomy, where very huge distances are to be measured special numbers are needed to count.

 

The presence of Large numbers indicate that knowledge of such huge numbers were necessitated .

 

That is possible only when Knowledge of such numerals are needed.

World's Largest Number.png

World’s Largest Number.

 

And such a field is Astronomy.

 

Unless one has a very deep insight into the working of the Universe , one would not have devised the numbers and more importantly  would not have systematized them.

 

The largest Number used now ,

 

When a number represents a quantity rather than a count, SI prefixes can be used—thus “femtosecond”, not “one quadrillionth of a second”—although often powers of ten are used instead of some of the very high and very low prefixes. In some cases, specialized units are used, such as the astronomer’s parsec and light year or the particle physicist’s barn.

Nevertheless, large numbers have an intellectual fascination and are of mathematical interest, and giving them names is one of the ways in which people try to conceptualize and understand them.

One of the first examples of this is The Sand Reckoner, in which Archimedes gave a system for naming large numbers. To do this, he called the numbers up to a myriad myriad (108) “first numbers” and called 108 itself the “unit of the second numbers”. Multiples of this unit then became the second numbers, up to this unit taken a myriad myriad times, 108·108=1016. This became the “unit of the third numbers”, whose multiples were the third numbers, and so on. Archimedes continued naming numbers in this way up to a myriad myriad times the unit of the 108-th numbers, i.e., (10^8)^{(10^8)}=10^{8\cdot 10^8}, and embedded this construction within another copy of itself to produce names for numbers up to \left((10^8)^{(10^8)}\right)^{(10^8)}=10^{8\cdot 10^{16}}. Archimedes then estimated the number of grains of sand that would be required to fill the known Universe, and found that it was no more than “one thousand myriad of the eighth numbers” (1063)….

 

The Largest Standard Dictionary Number, on date, is, Centillion ,10303.

 

Tamil Classics name, 1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 = MAHAYUGAM = Ten Undecillion = 10 37.

 

This is 10 steps later to Decillion.

 

That is adding the power.

 

The basic computation in a Language that is over 5000 Year old….?

 

Shall be posting on minute measurements in Tamil and on Large and smallest numbers in Vedic System.

 

Citation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_units_of_measurement

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_large_numbers

 

First Nakshatra Ashvini,Moola or Krittika?

In Astrophysics, Hinduism on December 4, 2014 at 11:00

There seems to be some debate on which is the Nakshatra in Hindu system.

 

Normally we take Aswini Nakshatra as the first Nakshatra and this is being followed every where among Hindu Households.

 

But there are views that it might be Krittika, Moola , based  on Vedic Astronomical calculations in the Atharva Veda.

 

1.Moola as the First Nakshatra.

 

If one star is to be identified as Moola, then the best candidate for Moola or Vichruta Nakshatra is 42 q OPH from Ophichius zodiac of the European system. It falls in the star band and is 50 minutes or 13 degrees (E-W) away from Jyeshta. Its brightness is +3.28. Arab Sabik is another strong candidate for Moola with +2.43 brightness and is also 13 degrees from Jyeshta.

Sagittarius,Dhanus Constellation.jgif

shows 30 degrees square area around Dhanu Raashi. The Nakshatras in this figure are Vichruta/Moola, and Poorvaashada. Both the stars are in the moon traverse band. For the imaginative, a stretched bow can be seen in the Dhanu Raashi. Vichruta or Moola Nakshatras considered to be a star mansion with eleven stars

Moola or Vichruta has been extensively referred to in Atharveda Kaanda 2,Kaanda 3 and kaanda 6 (Ref 2). Vichruta, stands for darkness and Moola carries an adjective Arishta. This word has two meanings, one standing for sweet and second associated with bad associated with death. Astronomically, Moola is in line with Milkiway galactic center. Did some astronomical event appear 5000 years ago near the center of Milkiway galaxy, which could explain why Moola is considered as bad? In modern astronomy, there have been conjectures of a black hole at the center of our Milkiway. This area of sky is visually dark because large amount of matter is presumed to exist around the center of the Galaxy. Did vedic period astronomers know of the center of the galaxy or did they see some astronomical event justifying the bad omen associated with Moola?.

Poorvaashaada Nakshatra is considered to be a star mansion of two stars. The following table presents candidate stars, which qualify as Poorvashaada based on brightness, location with reference to moon traverse band, and distance from previous Nakshatra.

http://www.vedicastronomy.net/stars_dhanu.htm

2″Krittika as the First Nakshatra.

1. Rishi Gargya starts the list of twenty seven nakshatra‘s starting with Krittika. Choice of Krittika as the first of twenty-seven is very significant. In contrast Jyotishya Shaastra uses Ashwini as the first star. The choice of first Nakshatra must correspond to a logically first day of a solar year, which dictates the weather cycles. Which is the year’s first day? Astronomically speaking, the spring Equinox day in Northern Hemisphere temperate zone is a logical one. It heralds the arrival of the spring, in temperate zone of northern hemisphere of the earth. Vasantha ritu, the spring has always been considered as beginning of a year from Rig-vedic times. Hence, the first observation implicit in Rishi Gargya’s sooktha is that on spring Equinox day, Sun was at Krittika Nakshatra. Figure 13 shows Sun location on March 21, 2400 BC from Load Star Pro. The Sun is on equator and is pointing to Krittika nakshatra.

Gargya Rishi! Nakshatrani Devata! Trishtup-Bhurik Chandaha!

Chitrani sakam divi rochanani sarisrupani bhuvanejavani

turmisham sumatimichaamaano ahaani geerbhi saparyami nakam!1!

suhavamagne krittika rohini chaastu bhadram mrigashirah Sham aardhrah !

punarvasu soonruta chaaru pushyo Bhaanur aslesha ayanam magha mey !2!

punyam poorva Phalguni chottra hasta schittra shiva swaati sukho mey astu!

raadhe vishaakhe suhav anooradha jyeshta sunakshatramarishta moolam !3!

annam poorva raasataam aashadha oorja devy uttaraa aavahantu!

abhijinma raasataam punyameva shravanah shravishtaah kurvatam supushtim!4!

Aa mey maha chatabhishagam vareeya Aa mey dvaya proshtapadaa susharma!

Aa reyvato chashvayujow bhagam ma Aa mey rayim Bharanya aavahantu!5!

This Sookta dedicated to Nakshatra‘s was recorded (Drashtaara) by Gargya Rishi. The Sookta describes both astronomical and astrological elements. Twenty eight Nakshatras are identified starting with Krittika and reference is made to Ayanam occurring in Maghaa. A nakshatra Abhijit is shown between Uttarashadha and Shravana. Its use has been discontinued in the Jyotishya with only twenty seven identified currently. The authenticity of the Athrarvana texts is well accepted, by the very reverence shown towards precise learning. Hundreds of generations of Shrotreeya’s have carried veda‘s down to us in its original language using oral traditions of Krama, Pada, Jatha, and Ghana Paatha so that distortions are nonexistent. Two major astronomical time markers are evident and implicit in the Sooktha.

http://www.vedicastronomy.net/stars_appendix.htm

Higher Astronomy Instruments Designs Surya Siddhanta

In Astrophysics, Hinduism on December 1, 2014 at 18:00

Many are under the impression that Hinduism, especially the Vedas are theoretical and do not address to the problems of daily Life or Science.

 

Nothing can be farther from the Truth.

 

Surya Siddhanta.jpg

Surya Siddhanta.

 

I had posted articles on practical application of Science,Dealing with daily life, Botany,Zoology, Food and other vital subjects that deal with our daily needs, developed by Hinduism.

 

Here I am furnishing details from the Surya Siddhanta that deals with Astronomy in detail.

 

I had earlier posted an article on Vishnu’s Navel Galaxy and how it has been validated by modern Astronomy.

 

The Surya Siddhanta is one of the oldest treatises (siddhanta) in Hindu astronomy. The extant text as edited by Burgess (1860) is medieval (c. 12th century), but it is clearly based on older versions, which may go back to before the Common Era[citation needed].

It has rules laid down to determine the true motions of the luminaries, which conform to their actual positions in the sky. It gives the locations of several stars other than the lunar nakshatras and treats the calculation of solar eclipses. as well as solstices eg.summer solstice 21/06 Significant coverage is on kinds of time, length of the year of gods and demons, day and night of god Brahma, the elapsed period since creation, how planets move eastwards and sidereal revolution. The lengths of the Earth’s diameter, circumference are also given. Eclipses and color of the eclipsed portion of the moon is mentioned.”

 

Table of contents in Surya Siddhanta.

 

  1. The Mean Motions of the Planets
  2. True Places of the Planets
  3. Direction, Place and Time
  4. The Moon and Eclipses
  5. The Sun and Eclipses
  6. The Projection of Eclipses
  7. Planetary Conjunctions
  8. Of the Stars
  9. Risings and Settings
  10. The Moon’s Risings and Settings
  11. Certain Malignant Aspects of the Sun and Moon
  12. Cosmogony, Geography, and Dimensions of the Creation
  13. The Gnomon
  14. The Movement of the Heavens and Human Activity.

Design of Astronomical Instruments are also provided.

Astronomical Instruments by Surya Siddhantham.jpg

Astronomical Instruments
by Surya Siddhanhtam.Click to enlarge

 

Link to Surya Siddhanta Text by Arya Bhatta.

 

https://archive.org/details/SuryaSiddhanta

http://www.wilbourhall.org/pdfs/suryaenglish.pdf

Laws Of Motion Rig Veda Full Moon Image Verses

In Astrophysics, Hinduism on April 25, 2014 at 11:57

I am providing Newton’s Laws of Motion and the Rig Vedic Verses,Hinduism, of over Five Thousand Years.

 

Full Moon During Vedic Period

Below are a number of sky-maps, all with the same legend and in the same format – the red arc is the ecliptic; the constellation boundaries are marked in green; the names of the constellations and the bright stars visible very easily with naked eyes are marked in yellow and red. The first sky map show how the night sky looked like on 10th April, 2000 BC in Arkaim. It was just a day before the full moon nearest to Vernal Equinox. Some of the lunar mansions with very bright stars like Spica, Arcturus, Antares and Shaula are marked on the ecliptic. In 2000 BC Thuban of the Draco constellation was very close to being the Polestar (it was the Polestar around 2800 BC). Due to the precession of equinoxes, discussed in details earlier, different stars, all arranged in a circle, become Polestars at various points of time. Thuban (2800 BC), Polaris (now) and Vega (12000 BC & 14000 AD) are marked in the sky-map. On this particular day, 10th April, the moon is in the nakshatra Anuradha. Source: http://indigyan.blogspot.in/2011/04/rig-veda-chariot-constellations-pole.html

 

 

Newton’s Laws of Motion.

 

  1. First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force.[2][3]
  2. Second lawF = ma. The vector sum of the forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the accelerationvector a of the object.
  3. Third law: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.

Still simpler.

 

I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.

 

II. The relationship between an object’s mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.

III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

 

 

Rig Vedic Verses on Laws of Motion.

The sun has tied Earth and other planets through attraction and moves them around itself as if a trainer moves newly trained horses around itself holding their reins.”
The first one is Rigveda 10.149.1.This is one of the several Mantras in Vedas that assert that planets move around sun. It says:
In this mantra,
Savita = Sun
Yantraih = through reins
Prithiveem = Earth
Aramnaat = Ties
Dyaam Andahat = Other planets in sky as well
Atoorte = Unbreakable
Baddham = Holds
Ashwam Iv Adhukshat = Like horses.

 

The second one Rigveda 8.12.28 details this motion of planet

“All planets remain stable because as they come closer to sun due to attraction, their speed of coming closer increases proportionately.”

In this Mantra,
Yada Te = When they
Haryataa = Come closer through attraction
Hari = Closeness
Vaavridhate = Increases proportionately
Divedive = continuously
Vishwa Bhuvani = planets of the world
Aditte = eventually
Yemire = remain stable

(The reference to sun comes from rest of the Mantras in this Sukta before and after this mantra)

The mantra clearly states that:

1. Motion of planets around the sun is not circular, even though sun is the central force causing planets to move (Refer previous mantra 10.149.1)

2. The motion of planets is such that Velocity of planets is in inverse relation with the distance between planet and sun.

It can be easily shown with the help of Newton’s Second Law that, for a planet revolving around sun in an elliptical orbit, having distance ‘r’ with sun and angle ‘θ’ made between length ‘r’ and any fixed axis, at any instant, following holds true

From the above, it can be easily shown that derivative of the product of square of distance between sun and planet and rate of change of angle θ, with respect to time, is zero. And thus following relation is obtained (with h as a constant)

Interestingly, the above relation is nothing but the conservation of angular momentum, observed in cases involving Central Forces! If you replace angular velocity with linear velocity, it leads exactly to the same principle that the Vedic mantra 8.12.28 asserts – that velocity of planets is inversely related to distance from sun!

Citations.

Vedas and Motion of planets

Refer the following link for more verses.

Rig Veda and Motion

 

 

 

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Laws Of Motion Gravity Trigonometry Hindu Texts

In Hinduism, Science on April 22, 2014 at 13:02

I have posted some articles on the advanced concepts of Hinduism, some of them are over 5000 years old.

 

I had recently delivered a lecture on Quantum, Hinduism and the unlocking of natures secrets through Gayatri.

 

As I was lecturing a senior scientist from a reputed Institution was so upset that when I was proving the inadequacy of Science especially Newton, in explaining many physical events both atomic and in Astrophysics,he interrupted me that None should speak ill of Newton.

 

My reply from the podium was that when I am talking Vedas and about Shankaracharya, Newton does not come anywhere near and asked the gentleman to wait till I complete the lecture.

 

I continued with the arguments in the lecture.

 

I shall deal with the details of the lecture in a separate post.

 

It is a different matter that the gentlemen met my friend and informed he shall read Sanskrit and Shankara before talking about these issues.

 

Now let us see in this post what our Vedas and ancient texts say on Laws of Motion,Gravity?

 

Designing of Spaceships Hindus Sundara Vimana,

Sundara Vimana,Holo-gravitic buoyancy drive image credit. http://projectavalon.net/forum4/showthread.php?66925-Holo-gravitic-buoyancy-drive

 

Quote:

 

The words gravity and gravitational pull are generally translated into Indian
languages as “GURUTVA AKARSHANA SHAKTI”. The word ‘Gurutva’ means ‘mass’
and ‘Aakarshana’ means ‘attractive pull’. The very name indicates that the ancient
Indians observed some relation between the mass of a body and the gravitational pull.

The Taittiriya branch of Krishna Yajurveda says -


    
   
This means, the sun is holding the earth and the heaven in the space. The sun has
the power of attraction (kristheeh) and shines without interruption.
The word “Kristhee” in the above sentence is derived from the root “krish” which
has no other meaning, but attraction. Saying that the sun is holding the earth in the space
through his power of attraction, implies that the earth also is a body with a different type
of force of attraction. Otherwise, if the sun is like a magnetic ball and the earth is like an
iron ball, they would have collided with each other long back. The same idea is reflected
very clearly in the following famous Sloka of Varahamihira (6th century AD)

….

The ball of the earth which is made up of the five fundamental elements, is placed
in the center of a cage, which is made up of the stars of the galaxy and hence it is hanging
in the sky, like an iron ball in the center of a cage of magnetic balls.

The word “Panchabhoota Maya” in the above Sloka is important.

In the context of the solar system, our ancestors did not see the earth as a simple
mass of mud. The globe of earth, the oceans, the air and the clouds around it put together,
is treated as “Bhugola”.

Bhaskaraacharya (12th century AD) made this very clear in his “Goladhyaya” of
Siddhanta Siromani. ….

The Surya Siddhanta is one of the earliest doctrines or traditions (siddhanta) in archaeo-astronomy of the Hindus. Its original version is by an unknown author. It describes the archeo-astronomy theories, principles and methods of the ancient Hindus. This siddhanta is supposed to be the knowledge that the Sun god gave to an Asura called Maya. Asuras were enemies of the Deva, the Gods of Hindus. Asuras were believed to be residents of the nether worlds.

Significant coverage is on kinds of time, length of the year of gods and demons, day and night of god Brahma, the elapsed period since creation, how planets move eastwards and sidereal revolution. The lengths of the Earth’s diameter, circumference are also given. Eclipses and color of the eclipsed portion of the moon is mentioned. This explains the archeo-astronomical basis for the sequence of days of the week named after the Sun, Moon, etc. Musings that there is no above and below and that movement of the starry sphere is left to right for Asuras makes interesting reading.

Varahamihira in his Panchasiddhantika contrasts it with four other treatises, besides the Paitamaha Siddhantas (which is more similar to the “classical” Vedanga Jyotisha), thePaulisha and Romaka Siddhantas (directly based on Hellenistic astronomy) and the Vasishta Siddhanta. Citation of the Surya Siddhanta is also found in the works of Aryabhata

The table of contents in this text are:

  1. The Mean Motions of the Planets[notes 1]
  2. True Places of the Planets
  3. Direction, Place and Time
  4. The Moon and Eclipses
  5. The Sun and Eclipses
  6. The Projection of Eclipses
  7. Planetary Conjunctions
  8. Of the Stars
  9. Risings and Settings
  10. The Moon’s Risings and Settings
  11. Certain Malignant Aspects of the Sun and Moon
  12. Cosmogony, Geography, and Dimensions of the Creation
  13. The Gnomon
  14. The Movement of the Heavens and Human Activity.

 

Trignometry.

The Surya Siddhanta contains the roots of modern trigonometry. It uses sine (jya), cosine (kojya or “perpendicular sine”) and inverse sine (otkram jya) for the first time, and also contains the earliest use of the tangent and secant when discussing the shadow cast by a gnomon in verses 21–22 of Chapter 3:

Of [the sun’s meridian zenith distance] find the jya (“base sine”) and kojya (cosine or “perpendicular sine”). If then the jya and radius be multiplied respectively by the measure of the gnomon in digits, and divided by the kojya, the results are the shadow and hypotenuse at mid-day.

In modern notation, this gives the shadow of the gnomon at midday as

s = \frac{g \sin \theta}{\cos \theta} = g \tan \theta

and the hypotenuse of the gnomon at midday as

h = \frac{g r}{\cos \theta} = g r \frac{1}{\cos \theta} = g r \sec \theta

where \ g is the measure of the gnomon, \ r is the radius of the gnomon, \ s is the shadow of the gnomon, and \ h is the hypotenuse of the gnomon.

 

Citations.

 

Laws of Motion Gravity Hinduism

 

Surya Siddhanta wiki

 

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