Contradicting information on the usefulness of Coffee to Health.
As a habit it is difficult to shake off.
Let us enjoy Coffee in moderation,two cups a day.
Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption. Variations in findings, however, can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol and cafestol, both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood. Metal filters, on the other hand, do not remove the oily components of coffee.
In addition to differences in methods of preparation, conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption.
Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact, positive or negative, on cancer development; however, researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by theHarvard School of Public Health state that “the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits.” Other studies suggest coffee consumption reduces the risk of being affected by Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver, and gout. A longitudinal study in 2009 showed that those who consumed a moderate amount of coffee or tea (3–5 cups per day) at midlife were less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in late-life compared with those who drank little coffee or avoided it altogether. It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases. Most of coffee’s beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes are not due to its caffeine content, as the positive effects of consumption are greater in those who drink decaffeinated coffee. The presence ofantioxidants in coffee has been shown to prevent free radicals from causing cell damage. A recent study showed that roast coffee, high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones, protected primary neuronal cell cultures against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death.
In a healthy liver, caffeine is mostly broken down by the hepatic microsomal enzymatic system. The resulting metabolites are mostlyparaxanthines—theobromine and theophylline—and a small amount of unchanged caffeine is excreted by urine. Therefore, the metabolism of caffeine depends on the state of this enzymatic system of the liver. Elderly individuals with a depleted enzymatic system do not tolerate coffee with caffeine. They are recommended to take decaffeinated coffee, and this only if their stomach is healthy, because both decaffeinated coffee and coffee with caffeine cause heartburn. Moderate amounts of coffee (50–100 mg of caffeine or 5–10 g of coffee powder a day) are well tolerated by most elderly people. Excessive amounts of coffee, however, can, in many individuals, cause very unpleasant, exceptionally even life-threatening adverse effects.. The benefits of coffee on abnormal liver biochemistry, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported, but there is a lack of satisfactory explanation. The benefits of coffee on abnormal liver biochemistry, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported, but there is a lack of satisfactory explanation. A possible opposite, if not antagonistic, role of coffee and Mediterranean Diet with regard to overweightness and insulin resistance is envisaged in the natural history of NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic-Fatty-Liver-Disease) . Coffee consumption can lead to iron deficiency anemia in mothers and infants. Coffee also interferes with the absorption of supplemental iron. Interference with iron absorption is due to the polyphenols present in coffee. Four major classes were identified: flavan-3-ols (monomers and procyanidins), hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanidins. Although the inhibition of iron absorption can cause an iron deficiency, iron is considered a carcinogen in relation to the liver. Polyphenols contained in coffee are therefore associated with decreasing the risk of liver cancer development.
American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans, and that this method can also be used for research animals.
Over 1,000 chemicals have been reported in roasted coffee; more than half of those tested (19/28) are rodent carcinogens. Coffee’s negative health effects are often blamed on its caffeine content. Instant coffee has a much greater amount of acrylamide than brewed coffee. Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.Caffeinated coffee is not recommended for everybody. It may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, migraines, arrhythmias, and cause sleep disturbances.
Coffee is no longer thought to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. One study suggests that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information. Caffeine has been associated with its ability to act as an antidepressant. A review by de Paulis and Martin indicated a link between a decrease in suicide rates and coffee consumption, and suggested that the action of caffeine in blocking the inhibitory effects of adenosine on dopamine nerves in the brain reduced feelings of depression. A 1992 study concluded that about 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) experienced increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn, but a 2002 review of the literature criticised its methodology and concluded that “[t]he effects of caffeine withdrawal are still controversial.”About 15% of the U.S. general population report having stopped drinking coffee altogether, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects of caffeine.
Caffeine and headaches
There is some controversy over whether the caffeine in coffee causes headaches or helps relieve headaches. In a 2000 controlled study by the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago, Illinois, revealed that adults who took ibuprofen, an over the counter pain killer, combined with caffeine or one cup of coffee had increased effectiveness against tension headaches. The study did not recommend that the caffeine and ibuprofen combination was effective against migraine headaches. A Johns Hopkins controlled study has linked drinking coffee with addictive withdrawal headaches, even with those who drink coffee in moderation. A 2009 Norwegian University of Science and Technology controlled study claims that heavy coffee drinkers, four cups a day, are more likely to suffer occasional headaches than persons who have low coffee or caffeine consumption.
Heart Disease and Stroke
Coffee may counter several risk factors for heart attack and stroke.
First, there’s the potential effect on type 2 diabetes risk. Type 2 diabetes makes heart disease and stroke more likely.
Besides that, coffee has been linked to lower risks for heart rhythm disturbances (another heart attack and stroke risk factor) in men and women, and lower risk for strokes in women.
In a study of about 130,000 Kaiser Permanente health plan members, people who reported drinking 1-3 cups of coffee per day were 20% less likely to be hospitalized for abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) than nondrinkers, regardless of other risk factors.
And, for women, coffee may mean a lower risk of stroke.
In 2009, a study of 83,700 nurses enrolled in the long-term Nurses’ Health Study showed a 20% lower risk of stroke in those who reported drinking two or more cups of coffee daily, compared to women who drank less coffee or none at all. That pattern held regardless of whether the women had high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and type 2 diabetes.
Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Diseases
“For Parkinson’s disease, the data have always been very consistent: higher consumption of coffee is associated with decreased risk of Parkinson’s,” Hu tells WebMD. That seems to be due to caffeine, though exactly how that works isn’t clear, Hu notes.
Coffee has also been linked to lower risk of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. A 2009 study from Finland and Sweden showed that, out of 1,400 people followed for about 20 years, those who reported drinking 3-5 cups of coffee daily were 65% less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, compared with nondrinkers or occasional coffee drinkers.
The evidence of a cancer protection effect of coffee is weaker than that for type 2 diabetes. But “for liver cancer, I think that the data are very consistent,” Hu says.
“All of the studies have shown that high coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer,” he says. That’s a “very interesting finding,” Hu says, but again, it’s not clear how it might work.
Again, this research shows a possible association, but like most studies on coffee and health, does not show cause and effect.
In August 2010, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) stated that moderate caffeine drinking – less than 200 mg per day, or about the amount in 12 ounces of coffee – doesn’t appear to have any major effects on causing miscarriage, premature delivery, or fetal growth.
But the effects of larger caffeine doses are unknown, and other research shows that pregnant women who drink many cups of coffee daily may be at greater risk for miscarriage than non-drinkers or moderate drinkers. Again, it’s not clear whether the coffee was responsible for that.
Calories, Heartburn, and Urine
You won’t break your calorie budget on coffee — until you start adding the trimmings.
According to the web site myfoodapedia.gov — part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion — a 6-ounce cup of black coffee contains just 7 calories. Add some half & half and you’ll get 46 calories. If you favor a liquid nondairy creamer, that will set you back 48 calories. A teaspoon of sugar will add about 23 calories.
Drink a lot of coffee and you may head to the bathroom more often. Caffeine is a mild diuretic – that is, it makes you urinate more than you would without it. Decaffeinated coffee has about the same effect on urine production as water.
Both regular and decaffeinated coffee contain acids that can make heartburn worse.
A study by psychologists at Bristol University found drinking caffeinated coffee boosts a woman’s performance in stressful situations but has the opposite effect on men.
They become less confident and take longer to complete tasks once they have downed several cups of coffee.
The findings, published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, suggest the beverage may have radically different effects on the sexes in high-pressure situations.
Some of the potential health benefits include protection against diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, liver damage and even gout.